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placename:- Ambleside to Keswick
other name:- Keswick to Ambleside
other name:- A591
parish Lakes parish, once in Westmorland
parish St John's Castlerigg and Wythburn parish, once in Cumberland
parish Keswick parish, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
road; route
10Km square:- NY30
10Km square:- NY31
10Km square:- NY32
10Km square:- NY22
road code:- Ambl=Kswc
suffix:- AtoK

old map:- Burrow 1920s

Road strip maps with parts in Westmorland, Cumberland etc, now Cumbria, irregular scale about 1.5 miles to 1 inch, by E J Burrow and Co, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, 1920s.
thumbnail EJB3AtoK, button to large image
date:- 1920=1929
period:- 1920s

source:- Burrow 1920s

Road strip maps with parts in Westmorland, Cumberland etc, now Cumbria, irregular scale about 1.5 miles to 1 inch, by E J Burrow and Co, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, 1920s.
[from Ambleside] Now the road goes almost due north to the long-shaped lake of Thirlmere, at the approach to which is Wythburn village. Close at hand on the right mighty Helvellyn lifts its proud peak 3,118 feet above sea level, the chief of a long backbone of mountains. Thirlmere now serves as a reservoir for Manchester's water supply. Our road runs close beside the lake for its entire length, and then goes across country to Keswick, where lovely Derwentwater is close at hand on the left. ...

date:- 1920=1929
period:- 1920s

text:- Mason 1907 (edn 1930)

Page 17:-
...
The road to Keswick leads between fells fringed with larch trees, and is bordered by the Rotha river, until we reach Rydal Water,- a fairy mere, with little, green, tree-shaded islands dotted over it, and with mountain shadows, and cloud shadows, and gleaming lights upon its waters. That rock, looking over the little lake, is "Wordsworth"s Seat," and on the slope of the fell is Rydal Mount, which was the home of this "Lake Poet."
...
Page 20:-
...
The road leads us on by Grasmere, which lies at the foot of Silver How. It is another lovely mere, larger than Rydal, set in a soft green vale, hemmed in by rugged mountains. The grave of Wordsworth is in the village churchyard. Under Helm Crag we go; the vale narrows; the mountains become steep and rugged, with streams of boulders down their slopes; and. presently, we are under "the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn."
...
Page 21:-
...
Coming down from Helvellyn, we are again in a "smiling valley," with its beautiful lake - Thirlmere this time, water from which is brought all the way to Manchester.
At the head of Thirlmere the road turns, and we get a peep down the sweet Vale of St. John's, watered by the Greta river. We round the fells on our left, and Derwent Water and Keswick town lie below; and, farther on, towering Skiddaw and Bassenthwaite Water.
date:- 1907
period:- 1900s

old map:- Prior 1874 map 1

Map, Winander Mere, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, 1874.
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To Grasmere
double line; road
date:- 1874
period:- 19th century, late; 1870s

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 49:-
... The white road that winds like a ribbon up and up the gap between Helvellyn and the opposite fells is the mail road to Keswick, and the gap is Dunmail Raise. ...
...
Page 53:-
Just after entering the mail road [from Grasmere], the driver will point out the cottage [Rydal Mount] in which the poet and his sister lived, many long years ago, when Scott was their guest. ... The promontory which here causes the lake to contract to the little river (which is called the Rothay in all the intervals of the chain of lakes,) may be passed in three ways. The mail road runs round its point, and therefore keeps beside the water;- the Roman road, where the Wishing Gate used to be, crosses it by a rather steep ascent and descent;- and a shorter road still, steeper and boggy, cuts across its narrowest part, and comes out at the Rydal Quarries. Our traveller will take the mail road, probably. It will soon bring him to Rydal Lake; and he cannot but think the valley very lovely in the summer afternoon. ...
...
Page 68:-
From the Swan, the road to Keswick ascends Dunmail Raise;- a steep pitch of road, though its highest point is only 720 feet above the sea. On the right there is a stream which divides the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland; and on either hand rise the mountains of Steel Fell and Seat Sandal.
Page 69:-
[choice of routes by Thirlmere] ... the rude western one is unquestionably the finest. The woods, which were once so thick that the squirrel is said to have gone from Wythburn to Keswick without touching the ground, are cleared away now; and the only gloom in the scene is from the mass of Helvellyn. The stranger leaves the mail road within a mile of the Nag's Head, passes the cottages called by the boastful name of the City of Wythburn, and a few farm-houses, and soon emerging from the fences, finds himself on a grassy level under the Armboth Fells, within an amphitheatre of rocks, with the lake before him, and Helvellyn beyond, overshadowing it. The rocks behind are feathered with wood, except where a bold crag here, and a free cataract there introduces a variety. There is a clear pool in the midst of the grass, where, if the approaching tread be light, the heron may be seen fishing, or faithfully reflected in the mirror. The track leads by the margin of the lake, and through a shady lane, and a farm yard, to the bridge by which the lake is to be crossed. The water is shallow there, between two promontories; so that piers are easily built, with little wooden bridges at intervals: and thus is solved what is to novices a great mystery;- how there can be a bridge over a lake. ...
Page 70:-
... The bridge being crossed, another bit of lane leads out upon the high road near the clean little inn, the King's Head, and within view of the vale of St. John.
Page 71:-
... the traveller ... must not miss that view from Castlerigg, which made the poet Gray long to go back again to Keswick; ... the view opens, which presently comprehends the whole extent from Bassenthwaite Lake to the entrance of Borrowdale, ...
Page 72:-
... A steep winding road descends into the valley; and at the foot of the hill lies Keswick.
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

old print:- Pyne 1853

Set of prints, The English Lake District, or Lake Scenery of England, scenes painted by James Barker Pyne, lithographed by W Gauci, published by Thomas Agnew and Sons, Manchester, 1853; published 1853-70.
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Grasmere from Loughrigg Fell
Drawn by James Barker Pyne, 1848-1853, lithographed by T Picken, 1859.
date:- 1848=1853
period:- 19th century, early; 19th century, late; 1840s; 1850s

old map:- Garnett 1850s-60s H

Map of the English Lakes, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, 1850s-60s.
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double line, bold light, major road
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thumbnail GAR2NY30, button to large image
date:- 1850=1869
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s; 1860s

old print:- Harwood 1842

Set of prints, uncoloured engravings bound in a booklet, Harwood's Views of the Lakes, drawn by John and Frederick Harwood, 26 Fenchurch Street, London, about 1842.
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Print, uncoloured engraving, Ambleside, Westmorland, engraved and published by John and Frederick Harwood, 26 Fenchurch Street, London, 1842.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
London, J & F. Harwood, 26, Fenchurch Street. / No.433 Augt. 27, 1842. / Ambleside, Westmorland.
date:- 1842
period:- 19th century, early

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02NY30, button to large image
thumbnail FD02NY31, button to large image
K to A 17 Ms.
thumbnail FD02NY22, button to large image
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 40:-
...
The road from Ambleside is adorned with beautiful trees, amongst which the Lord's Oak is conspicuous. On the right is Rydal Hall, ... behind it, rise the steep and lofty Fairfield, and the ravine of Rydal Head. ... The houses at Rydal are prettily covered with ivy and other creepers, and the old-fashioned picturesque chimneys are retained. It is now also ornamented by a tasteful little chapel, ...
Page 41:-
Above the hall is Rydal Mount, ...
[Rydal Water] Is a small lake, two miles from Ambleside, ...
At the White Moss Slate Quarry, the new and old roads to Grasmere separate. Pursuing the new road, which winds through a narrow defile, having the Rothay on the left hid amidst a profusion of underwood, a sudden bend introduces the traveller to the Dale and Lake of Grasmere, on whose shores the road lies for a small distance.
[Grasmere] ... This water is oval, and lies at the south end of an oval valley. ...
Page 42:-
... There are two inns in the dale [at Grasmere], so that the tourist may stay here for a while, and examine the component features in detail.
...
Page 43:-
The approach from the old Ambleside road extends the prospect into Easedale. The views on the descent from the Raise Gap, which are in the opposite direction, were much admired and most charmingly described by the poet Gray. ...
Page 44:-
...
The Swan inn stands on the high road, beyond the lake and house in which Mr. De Quincy took up his residence. From hence the road is a long and gradual ascent, mounting in mazy serpentines to the Raise Gap; the steepest part of the road is from Highbroad Rain, through the turnpike, to a long dreary pass, through which the wind sweeps in piercing blasts. On the left brawls along the Rothay or Raise Beck, over which towers the naked Helm Crag. On the right of the Raise Gap, is a stream that divides the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, and in wet weather presents a number of fine falls.
Page 45:-
[Dunmail Raise cairn] ... the road is partly cut through it. This gap is seven hundred and twenty feet above the sea.
On the left are Steel Fell, the green cove of Wythburn Head, and Nab Scar, and on the right are the bulwarks and buttresses of Helvellyn. Immediately before the spectators, are the chapel of Wythburn and inn, then the Lake, and Skiddaw closing the end of the valley, which, from the almost utter absence of wood, wears a cold and desolate aspect. The Horse Head inn is an excellent resting-place, ...
Page 47:-
...
The inn is a mile from the head of the lake, which is known by the several names of Leathes Water, Thirlmere, Wythburn Water, and Brackmere. ... Tourists are generally content with
Page 48:-
a sight of this lake from the high road, but the western side ought not on any account to be passed by without a perambulation. ...
Page 49:-
...
From the Horse Head inn, the carriage-road winds under Helvellyn by the margin of the lake, which it leaves by a very steep ascent. This side of the dale presents the sternest features, seen, too, most impressively -
From the top of this hill, is that admired and magnificent view of Legberthwaite, or, as it is frequently called, the Vale of St. John; here is neither
Page 50:-
lake nor stream, the carriage-road is the only foreground - sweet enclosures repose in their freshness between Helvellyn and the Castle Rock, the How and Naddle, whilst the crags of Wanthwaite frown on a scene, which is closed by the southern front of Blencathra, torn into frightful ravines, and gullies, and precipices. There is an inn here, the King's Head, whence Legberthwaite and the grounds of Dalehead Hall can be more readily visited. A little beyond, cross St. John's Beck, the water of which flows out of Thirlmere, by Smalthwaite Bridge of one arch, which is a fine study for the artist, along with its accompaniments. Thence the road leads through Shoolthwaite Moss, a peat-bog lying between Naddle Fell and the Iron and Gait Crags. Rougha Bridge is another sketch with its neighbouring crags, that should grace the portfolio. A little in advance from this, is a station which displays to the traveller the three mountains of Skiddaw, Saddleback, and Helvellyn, visible to their summits. Blencathra perhaps appears most favourable to the eye, the middle-ground harmonising best with it. The stranger now arrives at Castle Rigg Brow, from whence a prospect, which the last few miles of dreary desolation had not led him to count upon, bursts upon his gladdened sight. The gleaming waters of Bassenthwaite shine amid the well-wooded and highly-cultivated valley, which extends from that lake to the town of Keswick. Crosthwaite church, with innumerable seats, villages, and cottages, lie interspersed
Page 51:-
throughout the rich and glowing plain. On the south and west, Bassenthwaite is bounded by the craggy tops stretching from Grizedale Pike to the cultivated lands beyond Wythop Woods, and the widely-extended vale is sheltered by Skiddaw on the north. The view expands as you descend to Brow Top, whence the eye takes in Derwent Water and the Borrowdale mountains at its head.
Page 163:-
...
IX. AMBLESIDE TO KESWICK.- 16¼ M.
Page 172:-
...
XIV. KESWICK TO THIRLMERE, AND ST. JOHN'S ROCK. - 18 M.
...
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old print:- Rose 1832-35 (vol.3 no.61)

Engravings - Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Illustrated; from drawings by Thomas Allom, George Pickering, and H Gastineau, described by Thomas Rose, published by H Fisher, R Fisher, and P Jackson, Newgate Street, London, 1832-35.
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Print, uncoloured engraving, Keswick, Derwent, etc, from the Road to Kendal, Cumberland, drawn by Thomas Allom, engraved by J Phelps, published by Fisher, Son and Co, London, 1835.
vol.3 pl.61 in the set of prints, Westmorland, Cumberland, Durham and Northumberland Illustrated.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
T. Allom. / J. Phelps. / KESWICK, DERWENT, &c., FROM THE ROAD TO KENDAL. / FISHER, SON & CO. LONDON, 1835.
date:- 1832=1835
period:- 19th century, early

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
image OT01P109, button   goto source.
Page 109:-
AMBLESIDE TO KESWICK.
The route from Ambleside to Keswick lies through the midst of lake and mountain scenery. At one mile from Ambleside a road crossing Pelter Bridge on the left, leads to Langdale, or round Loughrigg Fell. To the right, among ancient oaks, stands Rydal Hall, the patrimonial residence of Lady le Fleming, who has built and endowed a neat Chapel in the village. Above the chapel is Rydal Mount, the residence of the poet Wordsworth; and beyond the hall, the Rydal Waterfalls. The next object is Rydal Water, with the heronry upon one of its islands; and a little further, the extensive slate quarry of Whitemoss. The road is then conducted to the margin of Grasmere water, and gives a good view of that admired vale. At the further end of which, between the branches of Easdale and Greenburn, stands Helm Crag, distinguished, not so much by its height, as by its summit of broken rocks, which Mr. Gray likens to 'some gigantic building demolished;' Mr. West to 'a mass of antediluvian ruins;' Mr. Green to the figures of a 'lion and a lamb;' and Mr. Wordsworth to an 'astrologer and old woman;' and the traveller who views it from Dunmail Raise, may think that a
image OT01P110, button   goto source.
Page 110:-
mortar elevated for throwing shells into the valley, would be no unapt comparison. A road turns off on the left, to the Church and the Red Lion Inn; the Swan is on the turnpike road, at the distance of four miles and a half from Ambleside.
The long hill of Dunmail Raise is next to be ascended. It rises to the height of 750 feet above the level of the sea; and yet it is the lowest pass through a chain of mountains which extends from Black Combe on the southern verge of Cumberland, into the county of Durham. Having overcome the steepest part of the road, Skiddaw begins to shew his venerable head in the distance; and here is a retrospect over Grasmere vale, and through a vista of mountains, extending as far as Hampsfield Fell, near the sands of Lancaster. At the highest part of the road, a wall separates the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland; and a large heap of stones is said to be the cairn, or sepulchre, of Dunmail last king of Cumberland; who was defeated here by the Saxon monarch Edmund, about the year 945. The lake Thirlmere, or Leathes' Water, now comes in view, and the road passes between the Inn and the Chapel of Wythburn; about eight miles and a half from Ambleside, and the same distance from Keswick. The mountain Helvellyn is now upon the right; but the road lies so near its base, that the full height of the mountain cannot be seen. After passing a little way upon the margin of the lake, we come to another steep ascent, where Arm-
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Page 111:-
[Arm]both-house, the residence of Mr. Jackson, on the other side of the water, is a good object; but Dalehead Hall, the manorial seat of Mr. Leathes, on this side, is hid by a hill. Having passed the summit, there is a delightful view through the vale of Legberthwaite, with its prolongation of Fornside, and Wanthwaite - together constituting what is commonly called St. John's vale - beyond which the lofty Saddleback, with its furrowed front, closes the scene.
There is a public-house at the King's Head, six miles from Keswick, and a road turns off on the right towards Threlkeld, passing under the massive rock of Green Crag, sometimes called the Castle Rock of St. John's. Near this, a tremendous thunderstorm in 1749, swept away a mill, and buried one of the millstones amongst the ruins, so that it has never yet been discovered.
The Keswick road inclines to the left, and surmounting the cultivated ridge called Castlerigg, there is a full view of Derwent Lake, with part of that of Bassenthwaite, the town and vale of Keswick, with its surrounding mountains. It was here, that Mr. Gray on leaving Keswick, found the scene so enchanting, that he 'had almost a mind to have gone back again.'
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Cooke 1802

Maps, Westmoreland, Cumberland, etc, now Cumbria, by George Alexander Cooke, London, 1802-10; published 1802-24.
thumbnail GRA1Wd, button to large image
from Keswick &c - the Whitehaven Road
double line, light dark solid; road
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:- Cooke 1802

Maps, Westmoreland, Cumberland, etc, now Cumbria, by George Alexander Cooke, London, 1802-10; published 1802-24.
thumbnail GRA1Cd, button to large image
to Ambleside & Kendal the London Road
double line, light dark solid; road
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

road book:- Cary 1798 (2nd edn 1802)

Road book, Cary's New Itinerary, by John Cary, published by G and J Cary, 86 St James's Street, London, 1798-1828.
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page 317-318
LONDON to Cockermouth and Workington
part of
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

road map:- Cary 1790 (Wmd/edn 1792)

Map, Westmoreland, now Cumbria, scale about 11.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Cary, 181 Strand, London, 1790; published 1790-1828.
thumbnail CY16, button to large image
from Keswick &c. / the Whitehaven Road
double line, with road distances from Kendal
date:- 1790
period:- 18th century, late; 1790s

road map:- Cary 1790 (Cmd/edn 1789)

Map, Westmoreland, now Cumbria, scale about 11.5 miles to 1 inch, by John Cary, 181 Strand, London, 1790; published 1790-1828.
thumbnail CY47, button to large image
to Ambleside & Kendal / the London Road
double line, with road distances from Keswick
date:- 1790
period:- 18th century, late; 1790s

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 118:-
...
I cannot say there is any thing very entertaining to a traveller in this valley [by Thirlmere]: the road lyes under more tremendous mountains here than in any other place; they are loaden with large loose stones, which seem ready to drop from their sides on the smallest occasion; a sight of sufficient terror to hasten the traveller from a scene of such seemingly impending danger: an undaunted mind, indeed, would be entertained after a flood with the numerous and noble cascades that then may be seen. I was once stopped near the chapel by a thunder shower; and the sun afterwards shewing his face, I saw as grand a sight as eye ever beheld: as they say in this country, after a flood, "Every road's a sike, every sike's a beck, and every beck a river;" and so it was now; this was joined with the awful sounds of water, groaning for passage among the rocks, and obstructing stones, so that all nature seemed to be convulsed, and from the hidden cavities of the rocks shot forth sometimes a clear stream of water, which in an instant was changed to almost perfect red. This was caused by the removal of some large stone or other, when the earth, moved thereby, mingling with the water, gave it a blood colour. Those scenes were on every side of me, the noise was astonishing, and the water, which came down threatned to take away the houses both of God and the devil, (viz.) the church and the alehouse close by [at Wythburn].
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 127 (numbered 126):-
...
... From hence [Rydal] a causeway was begun to be made towards Ambleside by a Mr Bell, who was curate and schoolmaster in Ambleside: He brought his scholars every Thursday and Saturday afternoons to gather stones, and he himself paved it; but this was dug up when the turnpike road was made. We will now leave Rydale, and proceed on a delightful road through copses of wood and smooth verdant meadows to Ambleside, ...
person:- clergyman; teacher : Bell, Mr
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Clarke 1787 map (Der)

Map series, lakes and roads to the Lakes, by James Clarke, engraved by S J Neele, 352 Strand, London, included in A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, published by James Clarke, Penrith, and in London etc, from 1787 to 1793.
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to Ambleside
road, and a pointing hand
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
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Page 77:-
From Ambleside to Keswick, sixteen miles of excellent mountain road, furnishes much amusement to the traveller. If the season be rainy, or immediately after rain, all the possible variety of cascades, water-falls, and cataracts, are seen in this ride; some precipitating themselves from immense heights, others leaping and bounding from rock to
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Page 78:-
rock, in foaming torrent, hurling huge fragments of them to the vale, that make the mountains tremble to their fall. The hollow noise swells and dies upon the ear by turns. The scenes are astonishing, and the succession of them matchless. ...
...
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Page 83:-
... this road ascends Dunmail-raise, where lie the historical stones, that perpetuate the name and fall of the last king of Cumberland,
From Dunmail-raise the road is an easy descent of nine miles to Keswick, except on Castle-rig, which is somewhat quick.
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Page 85:-
...
The road, ... leads through the narrow green vale of Legberthwaite, divided into small inclosures, peopled with a few cots, and nobly terminated by the castle-like rock of St. John. Below this, the vale contracts into a deep craggy dell, through which Leathes-water rolls, till it joins the Greta, at New-bridge, under the foot of Threlkeld-fell, a gloomy mountain of dark dun rocks, that shuts up the view of the wide spreading vale of St. John.
The road now winds to the left, by Smalthwaite-bridge, and ascends Naddle-fell, by Causeway-foot to Castle-rigg. At the turn of the hill, and within about a mile of Keswick, you come at once in sight of its glorious vale, with all its noble environs, and enchanting scenes, which, when Mr. Gray beheld, it almost determined him to return to Keswick again, and repeat his tour.
image WS21P210, button   goto source.
Addendum; Mr Gray's Journal, 1769
Page 210:-
...
Oct. 8. I left Keswick, and took the Ambleside road, in a gloomy morning: about two miles (rather a mile) from the town, mounted an eminence called Castle-rigg, and the sun breaking out discovered the most enchanting view I have yet seen of the whole valley behind me, the two lakes, the river, the mountains, all in their glory; so that I had almost a mind to have gone back again. The road in some few parts is not completed, yet good country road, through sound but narrow and stony ones, very safe in broad day light. This is the case about Causeway foot and among Naddle-fells, to Langthwaite. The vale you go in has little breadth; the mountains are vast and rocky, ... Came to the foot of Helvellyn, along which runs an excellent road, looking down from a little height on Leathes-water, (called also Thirlmere, or Wythburn-water) and soon descending on its margin. ... all is rock and loose stones up to the very brow, which lies so near your way that not above half the height of Helvellyn can be seen.
Next I passed by the little chapel of Wythburn, ... soon after a beck near Dunmail-raise, where I entered Westmorland a second time: and now began to see Helm-crag, distinguished from its rugged neighbours, not so much by its height as by
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Page 211:-
the strange broken outline of its top, ... Just beyond it, opens one of the sweetest landscapes that art ever attempted to imitate. The bosom of the mountains spreading here into a broad bason discovers in the midst Grasmere-water: ...
The road here winds over Grasmere-hill, whose rocks soon conceal the water from your sight; yet it is continued along behind them, and contracting itself to a river, communicates with Rydal-water, ... Into this vale the road descends. On the opposite banks large and ancient woods mount up to the hill; and just to the left of our way, stands Rydal-hall, ... Near the house rises a huge crag, called Rydal-head, which is said to command a full view of Windermere, and I doubt it not;
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Page 212:-
for within a mile, that lake is visible even from the road; as to going up the crag, one might as well go up Skiddaw.
I now reached Ambleside, sixteen miles from Keswick, ...
date:- 1769; 1778
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s; 1770s

old map:- Jefferys 1770 (Wmd)

Map, The County of Westmoreland, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, surveyed by J Ainslie and perhaps T Donald, engraved and published by Thomas Jefferys, London, 1770.
thumbnail J5NY31SW, button to large image
From White Haven and Cockermouth
thumbnail J5NY30NW, button to large image
thumbnail J5NY30NE, button to large image
double line; road, bold, main road, with mile numbers
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1770
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

old map:- Kitchin 1767 (plate 84)

Road book with strip road map maps, Kitchin's Post Chaise Companion, by Thomas Kitchin, published by Robert Sayer, 53 Fleet Street, John Bowles, Cornhill, and Carington Bowles, St Paul's Church Yard, London, 1767.
thumbnail K084AtoK, button to large image
date:- 1767
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

old map:- Bowen and Kitchin 1760

New Map of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, Emanuel Bowen and Thomas Kitchin, published by T Bowles, John Bowles and Son, Robert Sayer, and John Tinney, 1760; published 1760-87.
thumbnail BO18NY21, button to large image
Ambleside to Keswick 10 2
double line, solid and dotted, road distance
thumbnail BO18NY20, button to large image
double line, solid
thumbnail BO18SD29, button to large image
double line, solid
date:- 1760
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

old map:- Simpson 1746 map (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland? in The Agreeable Historian by Samuel Simpson, printed by R Walker, Fleet Lane, London, 1746.
image SMP2NYF, button   goto source.
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Double line; distance number 12.
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Bowen 1720 (plate 260)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
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The Road from Kendal to Cockermouth - from Kendal on past Keswick, Cumberland. Places labelled are:-
... 13 / Ambleside, The Hall / 14 / Ridal Park both sides of the road, Ridal Hall on right / Ridal, Smiths Shop, 15 ... 19 / Grasmere Hill, enter Cumberland, Dunmail Raise Stones drawn by 6 upstanding stones on left / 20 / Wibourn Chappel / 21 / 22, Wibourn Water, 23 / Thurlspot / 24 ... Smathods Bridge over Thurlmire Flubius ... 28 / Cust / 29, Cartherit / Keswick, a Wood Br. over Thurlemire Flu / ...
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Bowen 1720 (plate 259)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
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Plate 259 has the title cartouche for:-
The Roads from KENDAL to COCKERMOUTH, &c. Containing 32 Comp. and 43'7 measd. Miles &c.
and a table of distances, computed and measured miles in miles'furlongs, which includes, from Kendal:-
...
Ambleside 10 / 13'3
Keswick 22 / 29'5
...
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD10NY31, button   goto source.
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The way from Cokermouth & Kenswick to Kendall
image MD10NY30, button   goto source.
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Double line.
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Ogilby 1675

Road book, Britannia, strip road maps, with sections in Westmorland and Cumberland etc, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, by John Ogilby, London, 1675; and a general map of England and Wales.
image OG96AtoK, button   goto source.
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date:- 1675
period:- 17th century, early; 1670s

old map:- Cooper 1808

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, scale about 9 miles to 1 inch, by H Cooper, 1808, published by G and W B Whittaker, 13 Ave Maria Lane, London, 1824.
thumbnail COP3, button to large image
double line; road
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1808
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:- Cooper 1808

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, scale about 9 miles to 1 inch, by H Cooper, 1808, published by G and W B Whittaker, 13 Ave Maria Lane, London, 1824.
thumbnail COP4, button to large image
double line; road
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1808
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:- Hall 1820 (Wmd)

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 14.5 miles to 1 inch, by Sidney Hall, London, 1820, published by Samuel Leigh, 18 Strand, London, 1820-31.
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single line, solid; minor road; Ambleside, Rydal, Braning, Townhead, ...
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1820
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Hall 1820 (Cmd)

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 14.5 miles to 1 inch, by Sidney Hall, London, 1820, published by Samuel Leigh, 18 Strand, London, 1820-31.
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To Ambleside
single line, solid; minor road; ... [by Thirlmere], Keswick

placename:- To Ambleside
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1820
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
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double line

county:- Cumberland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
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double line

county:- Westmorland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early

old map:- Clarke 1787 map (Ambleside to Keswick)

Map series, lakes and roads to the Lakes, by James Clarke, engraved by S J Neele, 352 Strand, London, included in A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, published by James Clarke, Penrith, and in London etc, from 1787 to 1793.
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To KESWICK
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road
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old road map:- Rumney 1899

Guide book, The Cyclist's Guide to the English Lake District, by A W Rumney, published by George Philip and Son, 32 Fleet Street, London, and Liverpool, 1899.
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Road map, strip map, gradient diagram, and itinerary for Route X, The Thirlmere Round, Cumberland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, by A W Rumney, published by George Philip and Son, 32 Fleet Street, London, and Liverpool, 1899.
On p.38 of the Cyclist's Guide to the English Lake District, by A W Rumney.
printed at top:-
Route X.
date:- 1899
period:- 19th century, late

old road map:- Rumney 1899

Guide book, The Cyclist's Guide to the English Lake District, by A W Rumney, published by George Philip and Son, 32 Fleet Street, London, and Liverpool, 1899.
thumbnail RUM103, button to large image
Road map, strip map, gradient diagram, and itinerary for Route I, Kendal to Keswick, Westmorland and Cumberland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, by A W Rumney, published by George Philip and Son, 32 Fleet Street, London, and Liverpool, 1899.
On p.14 of the Cyclist's Guide to the English Lake District, by A W Rumney.
printed at top:-
Route I.
date:- 1899
period:- 19th century, late

old print:- Sylvan 1847

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Print, engraving, Dunmaile Raise, Cumberland, published by John Johnstone, Paternoster Row, London, et al, 1847.
On p.151 of Sylvan's Pictorial Guide to the English Lakes.
printed at bottom:-
DUNMAILE RAISE.
date:- 1847
period:- 19th century, early

hearsay Nathaniel Hawthorne, the american novelist, visited The Lakes, 1855:-
I had rather travel from Miane to Georgia by rail, than from Grasmere to Windermere by stage coach. ...

hearsay The three roads between Ambleside and Grasmere were called 'Old Corruption', 'Bit by Bit Reform' or 'Moderate Reform', and 'Radical Reform' by Dr Arnold who stayed at Fox How.

places
mapping:- Ambleside
Grasmere
Dunmail Raise, St John's Castlerigg etc
Wythburn, St John's Castlerigg etc
Keswick

route segments
mapping:- Kndl=Cckr:m010Kndl=Cckr:m015Kndl=Cckr:m020Kndl=Cckr:m025

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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