button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 160:-
nailed on the tree, and the dog's name being Hercules, they made this rhyme on them inscribed on a brass plate:

Hercules kill'd Hartagreese
And Hartagreese kill'd Hercules.
But this seems all vulgar tradition, and for Red kirk we should rather suppose Nine kirks at Brougham a neighbouring parish; and before this there was a place in the park called Harthorn sike, perhaps from some large horns [c].
  Three Brother Tree
In the middle of this park is the Three brother tree, so called from there having been three of them, whereof this the least was 42 feet circumference a good way from the top, still remaining 270 years old, the trunk hollow, and capable of admitting a man on horseback to turn in it [d]. From hence the road goes due west to the Countess pillar, erected by Anne countess of Pembroke, and adorned with arms, dials, &c. and a black obelisk on the top, and this inscription in brass:
  Countess Pillar

This pillar was erected anno 1656, by the right honourable Anne, countess dowager of Pembroke, and sole heir to the right honourable George earl of Cumberland, &c. for a memorial of her last parting in this place with her good and pious mother the right honourable Margaret Countess Dowager of Cumberland, the second April, 1616, in memory whereof, she also left an annuity of four pounds to be distributed to the poor within this parish of Brougham every second day of April for ever upon the stone table hereby. Laus Deo.
From hence the road carries us to Brougham castle, to Lowther bridge, and so over Emot into Cumberland [20].
The inscriptions at Crawdendale were copied by Mr. Bainbridge on another stone as one single inscription, whereas in fact they are cut with a common pick on two pieces of rock that have fallen off from the grand one. Some liberties have been taken in the copy, and the words underneath are now almost effaced in the rock, where Mr. Camden places them distinct. Mr. Bainbridge added Q.S.S.S. AP. CRAWDUNDALE; quae suprascripta sunt apud Crawdundale. The C in the first line is now scarce legible: the word in the second is plainly ESSUS, perhaps Lessus; a name in Gruter 661. 10. The fourth line begins with TR for tribunus [e]. Castrametati sunt, or castrametatus est, as Horsley, are not probable. Mr. Machel discovered another inscription here on a rock, not noticed before [f],

and as the evanescent words CO are on this, it may probably be that on which Mr. Camden mentions CN. OCT. COSS. The stones dug up in the foundations at Kirby Thor seem to have come from these quarries; and similar inscriptions occur in others at Helbeck Scar, on the river Gelt, and at Lenge crag near Naworth castle in Gillesland, whence the stones for the Picts wall were taken [21], and at Shawk.
  Brougham Castle

"Ther is an old castle on the ... side of Eden water called Burgh. About a dim from the castle is a village called Burgham, and there is a great pilgrimage to our lady. At Burgham is an old castle that the common people there say doth sink. About this Burgham ploughmen find in the fields many square stones tokens of old buildings. The castle is set in a strong place by reason of rivers enclosing the country thereabouts [g]."
  roman fort, Brougham
  roman inscription

It is agreed the BROUGHAM is the BROCAVUM of Antoninus' 5th Iter, not Brovoniacum, for there is no such name, but not the BRABONIACUM of the Notitia, which Gruter confounds with Brocavicum its Borcovicum. Antoninus's BROVONACAE, which Gale [h] places at Kendal, and makes the same with Brocavum [i], is by Ward [k] removed to Kirby Thor, or Whelp castle. Stukeley makes it Galava [l]. Brougham castle stands within the station, and there is a fragment of an altar inscribed, PRO SE ET SVIS. L. L. M. remarkable only for the form of the stops [m]. He says the Roman city lies on the east side of the Louther just by the castle, and is very easily traced. He saw many fragments of altars and inscriptions at the hall; and in the wall by the Roman road beyond the castle and near the countess of Pembroke's pillar a pretty busto part of a funeral monument, and further on another bas relievo much defaced. He imagined the high ground by this pillar, where most of the inscriptions were found, was the site of the city, rather perhaps of the pomaerium, or cemetery.
Horsley [n] gives Mr. Camden's inscription here thus:

and refers it to Constantine the Great, but of a later date than that in his honor found in the wall. He doubts if it be the same which Mr. Camden saw. It is now at Appleby. Under it had been another inserted in the wall, whence the inscriptions at Appleby were taken, though now they are lying loose on the ground. The inscription on this other stone is modern, and perhaps by Mr. Bainbrigg:

i.e. Hic lapsis inventus est Brovonaci.
To this same station must be referred another inscription whose original Mr. Horsley would gladly have recovered, but was told two or three inscribed stones had lately been destroyed by masons at Appleby, and this might be one. Burton and Gale give it

which is to be read:

Deabus Matribus
tramarinis vexillato Germa-
[c] Burn, I. 399.
[d] Ib. 398.
[20] G.
[e] Horsl. p.299. Westmorl. IV.
[f] Horsl. Westm. V.
[21] G.
[g] Lel. VII. 63.
[h] P. 40.
[i] P. 97.
[k] P. 410.
[l] II. 45.
[m] Horsl. Westm. I. 297.
[n] Horsl. Westm. II. 297.
gazetteer links
button -- "Brougham Castle" -- Brougham Castle
button -- "Burgham" -- Brougham
button -- Countess Pillar
button -- "Brocavum" -- Brocavum
button -- "Maiden Way" -- (roman road 82c, Cumbria)
button -- (roman site, Crowdundle)
button -- "Three Brother Tree" -- Three Brother Tree
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