button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 159:-
The square inclosure, called the High Burwens, seems to have been the area of it, containing eight score yards in diameter, now ploughed and cultivated, and the outer buildings to have run along the said rivulet, at least as far as to the fulling mill, or further beyond the Roman way, and so up the west side of the high street, about 160 yards, and thence again in a strait line to the west angle of the said area. In all these places have been found conduits under ground, vaults, pavements, tiles, and slates with iron nails in them, foundations of walls both of brick and stone, coins, altars, urns, and other earthen vessels, Mr. Machel found 1687 among the foundations a wall made up of four others of hewn stone, each two foot four inches thick: in another part an altar inscribed FORTVNAE SERVATRICI: also some leaden pipes, and a drain through the wall above-mentioned, and divers arched vaults underground flagged with stone or paved with bricks about 10 inches square and two thick, and some a foot square, and two inches and an half thick. At the lower end of the town he found an antient well by the side of the Roman road from Appleby to Carlisle: in it were several urns and fine earthen vessels, the head of a spear, sandals of leather stuck full of nails [n]. A few years ago the horn of a moose deer was found about four feet under ground by the washing away of the bank near the conflux of the Troutbeck and Eden [o].
It is not worth mentioning that Dr. Gale in his notes on Nennius, p.133, fancied he found Whallop castle in the Catguoloph of an old fragment of that writer in the Cottonian library near Marchontiby, which Mr. Camden heard of, but which seems now equally unknown.
Kirkby Thor has been supposed to retain the name of the God Thor, whose figure was thought to be found on a singular coin late in Mr. Thoresby's Museum. The characters on the reverse are Runic and were read by Dr. Hickes [p], Thor gut luntis, and explained by bishop Nicolson the face of the God Thor, but by Dr. Hickes Thor the national God, to whom also the moon and stars concurred to accompany them. But it was much more probably illustrated by the learned Keder, member of the college of antiquities at Stockholm, who published a critical essay on it at Leipsic, 1703, 4to. See also his "Runae in nummis vetustis [q]," shewing the head to be the figure of our Saviour, and the inscription, the place, and mint-master's names Thorgut Luntis, i.e. Thorgut London, whether of London in England or Lunden in Sweden uncertain. The cross at the head of the inscription and in the centre of the reverse are evidently Christian, and Keder produces other similar coins to this, which so much puzzled all preceding antiquaries, who, when they had once set up the idea of the god Thor, tortured every thing to their system as much as Leibnitz to his, that it was struck by or for Thurgot, a Danish admiral, who Dithmar says blocked up London 1016.
  Temple Sowerby.
  Temple Sowerby
In the parish of Kirkby Thor is Temple Sowerby, so called from having belonged to the Knights Templars, lately to the Dalstons [r].
  Howgill castle.
  Howgill Castle
Howgill castle is the mansion of Milburne manor. Some of its walls are ten feet and an half thick, and under it are great arched vaults. In this manor near to a place called Green castle, a round fort with deep trenches about it on the south end of Dunfell, was found an altar inscribed DEO SILVANO [s].
Near Sandford field corner on the right hand of the road from Warcop towards Appleby, not far from the Roman road are three or four tumuli: the largest 91 paces in circumference, the second 86, the next about 40, the last a small one almost defaced. The largest was cut through 1766, and half a yard below the summit was found a small urn in a larger, containing a few white ashes: by it, a little deeper, lay a sword with a curious carved hilt two feet long and two inches and an half broad, the haft three inches and a quarter, and the heads of two spears; fragments of a helmet, and umbo of a shield three inches and three-quarters diameter. Below these a great heap of stones piled up pyramidally, in diameter six or seven yards, concealed a square place about four feet by two, containing rich black mould two inches deep, in which were many human bones which evidently appeared to have been burnt [t]. Near these tumuli is a small camp with a single trench, and at a small distance on another hill another of about the same dimensions [u].
At Burton in Warcop parish was born Christopher Bainbridge, dean of York, bishop of Durham, and archbishop of York, who was sent ambassador by Henry VIII. to the Pope who created him a cardinal: but happening to strike his steward, the revengeful Italian poisoned him, and he died and was buried at Rome 1511 [x].
  Maiden way. Market Brough. Warcop. Ormside hall. Hornby hall.
  Maiden Way
  Hart Horn Tree

The Roman road called the Maiden way passes through a large camp, where the stone of king Marius formerly stood, now succeeded by the Rere cross. Thence through Maiden castle, a small square fort, in which have been found Roman mortars, quite through Market Brough, over Brough fair hill, on which are some tumuli, and on which were found three celts in making the turnpike road. Leaving on the left Warcop, a pretty village (which gave name to a family so early as the reign of John, and was afterwards possessed by the Braithwaits [y]), it passes along Sandford moor, and down a horse course to Cowpland beck bridge, where on the right are the ruined foundations of a noble round tower 40 paces diameter, opposite to it the site of an hospital [z], and near it on the left Ormside hall, the seat of the antient family of its own name, and afterwards that of Hilton [a]. About 100 yards from the village was a castle, whose site is still called Castle hill [b]. Then by Appleby to the camp on Crackenthorp moor, through the end of Kirkby Thore downs, and through Temple Sowerby, a village of the Dalstons of Acorn bank. Then by the side of Whinfield forest to Hart-horn tree, which may seem to give name to Hornby hall, and to have borrowed its own from a stag which was coursed by a single greyhound to the Red Kirk in Scotland, and back again to this place, where both being spent, the stag leapt the pales, and died on the other side, and the hound, attempting to leap, fell and died on this side. Both their heads were
[n] Machel's letter to Dugdale, Phil. Trans. 1684. Horsl. p.289. Burn, I. 379, 380.
[o] Burn, I. 380.
[p] Diff, ad num. Sax. A. Fountaine, p.165.
[q] Lips. 1709.
[r] Burn, I. 381, 385.
[s] Ib. 388.
[t] Rev. Mr. Preston's letter to bishop Lyttelton in Ant. Soc. min. and Burn, I. 609, 610.
[u] Burn, I. 610.
[x] Ib. 614.
[y] Ib. 600-605.
[z] Ib. 610.
[a] Ib. 513. 517.
[b] Ib. 600.
gazetteer links
button -- "Burton" -- Burton
button -- "Cowpland Beck Bridge" -- Coupland Bridge
button -- "Green Castle" -- Green Castle
button -- "Howgill Castle" -- Howgill Castle
button -- "Kirkby Thor" -- Kirkby Thore
button -- "Brovonacae" -- (roman fort, Burwens)
button -- "Maiden Way" -- (roman road 82c, Cumbria)
button -- "Temple Sowerby" -- Temple Sowerby
button -- (tumulus, Warcop)
button -- "Warcop" -- Warcop
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