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place:- Bravoniacum
locality:- Burwens
locality:- Kirkby Thore
parish Kirkby Thore parish, once in Westmorland
county:- Cumbria
roman fort
coordinates:- NY63802560
10Km square:- NY62

1Km square NY6325

photograph

roman fort, Burwens -- Burwens -- Kirkby Thore -- Kirkby Thore -- Cumbria / -- Not a lot to see. -- 31.8.2012
photograph

roman fort, Burwens -- Burwens -- Kirkby Thore -- Kirkby Thore -- Cumbria / -- Inscribed stone in the porch of St Cuthbert's Church, Cliburn, believed to be from this roman fort:- -- 'BALNEVM / [ ]VET[R]O / ND LABSVM / [V]SERC[ ] / [ ]B[ ]' -- about the building of a new bath house?

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02NY62, button to large image
Gallatum

placename:- Gallatum
county:- Westmoreland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 158:-
...
Mr. Ward places BROVONACAE at Kirby Thor, Brugh being ten miles from thence as Verterae is from Brovonacae. The altar mentioned by Mr. Camden is now worked up in the end of the old school house at Appleby, and under a modern inscription H. M. EST GALLAGI, Hoc monumentum est Gallagi, probably by Mr. Bainbridge before-mentioned. Mr. Machel in Phil. Trans. No.158, describes a patera found here inscribed... TIAN IMP.... Coins, urns, and other antiquities have also been found here. In 1753 was found in a stone wall of a field near the parsonage house the upper half of an altar, inscribed:
Another beginning ANTONIA. There are like wise other Roman letters and sculptures, upon several of the door lintels, in the same town, which Mr. Horsley has omitted.
The manor house, as well as most of the town of Kirkby Thor, have been built out of the remains of Whelp castle, of which there are now scarce any remains. The main body of it stood in a place called the Burwens, on a rising ground at the bank of the rivulet called Troutbeck, not far from the river Eden.
Page 159:-
The square inclosure, called the High Burwens, seems to have been the area of it, containing eight score yards in diameter, now ploughed and cultivated, and the outer buildings to have run along the said rivulet, at least as far as to the fulling mill, or further beyond the Roman way, and so up the west side of the high street, about 160 yards, and thence again in a strait line to the west angle of the said area. In all these places have been found conduits under ground, vaults, pavements, tiles, and slates with iron nails in them, foundations of walls both of brick and stone, coins, altars, urns, and other earthen vessels, Mr. Machel found 1687 among the foundations a wall made up of four others of hewn stone, each two foot four inches thick: in another part an altar inscribed FORTVNAE SERVATRICI: also some leaden pipes, and a drain through the wall above-mentioned, and divers arched vaults underground flagged with stone or paved with bricks about 10 inches square and two thick, and some a foot square, and two inches and an half thick. At the lower end of the town he found an antient well by the side of the Roman road from Appleby to Carlisle: in it were several urns and fine earthen vessels, the head of a spear, sandals of leather stuck full of nails. A few years ago the horn of a moose deer was found about four feet under ground by the washing away of the bank near the conflux of the Troutbeck and Eden.
It is not worth mentioning that Dr. Gale in his notes on Nennius, p.133, fancied he found Whallop castle in the Catguoloph of an old fragment of that writer in the Cottonian library near Marchontiby, which Mr. Camden heard of, but which seems now equally unknown.

placename:- Brovonacae
person:- : Machel, Thomas
person:- : Bainbridge, Reginald
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 148:-
...
... Kirkby Thore, below which are to be seen considerable ruins of an antient town, and Roman coins are frequently dug up, and not long ago this inscription:
Age has almost obliterated its name, it being now called Whellep castle. If the prince of antiquity would allow me I should say it was the GALLAGUM of Ptolemy, and GALLATUM of Antoninus, agreeable to the distance of miles, and not contradicted by the name. The British term gall at the beginning of a word was changed by the Saxons into Wall, as GALENA into Wallingford, and Gall-Sever, Severus' Wall, &c. It was certainly considerable when the pitched road called Maidenway ran strait from hence to Caer Vorran by the Picts' wall, where moorish mountains rear their heads for nearly 20 miles. On this way I should conclude the stations and mansions recited by Antoninus in his IXth British iter lay if nobody had pointed out the places. Nor is this to be wondered at when they have been for so many ages the food of time.

placename:- Whellep Castle
other name:- Gallatum
other name:- Gallagum
person:- : Ptolemy
person:- : Antoninus
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP3P7, button   goto source.
Page 1025:-
...
Gallatum is supposed to be Whelp Castle, near Kirkby Thore, where are the Ruins of an old Town, and very considerable Remains of Antiquity.

placename:- Whelp Castle
other name:- Gallatum
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD10NY62, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD10NY62, button to large image
Kirby Thure & Whelp Cast / Galla[tum]
Circle, building and tower; the roman name is engraved over a poorly erased label for Whelp Castle.

placename:- Gallatum
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Wmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SP14NY62, button to large image
CALLAGUM / Wellop Cas
circle

placename:- Callagum
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Horsley 1732

NB: Horsley's ideas are not all accepted today.
Map, Britannia Antiqua, by Johanne Horsley, 1732. (nb this is tentative data)
thumbnail HOR1Cm, button to large image
Brovonacae / Kirkby Thorn

placename:- Brovonacae
other name:- Kirkby Thorn
date:- 1732
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

text:- Rivet and Smith 1979


placename:- Bravoniacum
other name:- Brovonacis
other name:- Braboniaco
other name:- Barboniaco
other name:- Ravonia

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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