button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 148:-
  VERTERAE. Burgh. Burgh under Stanemore. ABALLABA. Apelby.

[VER]TERAE, an antient town mentioned by Antoninus and the Notitia, which last adds that in the decline of the Roman empire here was a Roman praefect stationed with a Numerus Directorum. The town at present reduced to a mean village, fortified with a small rampart, has changed its name to Burgh, by our people called Burgh under Stanemore. Under the later emperors, to remark once for all, small castles proper for war and well supplied, began to be called Burghs [A;] by a new name, which, after the removal of the empire into the east, the Germans and other nations seemed to have borrowed from the Greek πυ�ς [†], whence the Burgundiones has their name from inhabiting Burg, the common term at that time for dwellings thick scattered on borders. I find no further mention of this place except that in the beginning of the Norman government the English [n] here formed a conspiracy against William the Norman. I would venture to affirm this Burgh to be VERTERAE for this single reason, that the distance between it and Lavatrae one way, and Brovonacum the other, reduced to Italian miles, exactly corresponds with numbers in Antoninus, and the Roman military way with a visible ridge runs this way to BROVONACUM through ABALLABA, mentioned in the Notitia, which still retains its name with so little variation as to discover itself most clearly, and remove every doubt. For we call it by shortness from Aballaba Apelby. This place is considered only for antiquity and situation, as in the Roman times it was a station of Aurelian Moors, situate in a very pleasant country, and almost surrounded by the river Eden, but so thin of inhabitants, and meanly built, that were it not that for its antiquity it deserves to be accounted the principal town in the county, and to have the assizes held in its castle, which is the county gaol, it would be little better than a village. For all its beauty consists in one broad street running up a gentle hill from south to north. On the top of the hill is the castle, almost entirely surrounded by the river. At the bottom the church, and a school founded by Robert Langton and Milo Spencer, Doctors of Law, the head master whereof is the very learned Reginald Bainbrigge, who kindly copied for me several antient inscriptions in these parts, and removed several into his garden here. William of Newburgh [o], not without reason, calls this place and Burgh royal fortresses, when he relates the surprize of them by William king of Scots, a little before he was taken prisoner at Alnwick. King John generously gave them to John de Vipont for his services in re-taking them.
  Buley castle. Kirkby Thore.
  Kirkby Thore
The river hence pursues its course by Buley, a castle of the bishop of Carlisle, and Kirkby Thore, below which are to be seen considerable ruins of an antient town, and Roman coins are frequently dug up, and not long ago this inscription:

  Wheallop c. GALLATUM. Maidenway.
  Maiden Way

Age has almost obliterated its name, it being now called Whellep castle. If the prince of antiquity [p] would allow me I should say it was the GALLAGUM of Ptolemy, and GALLATUM of Antoninus, agreeable to the distance of miles, and not contradicted by the name. The British term gall at the beginning of a word was changed by the Saxons into Wall, as GALENA into Wallingford, and Gall-Sever, Severus' Wall, &c. It was certainly considerable when the pitched road called Maidenway ran strait from hence to Caer Vorran by the Picts' wall, where moorish mountains rear their heads for nearly 20 miles. On this way I should conclude the stations and mansions recited by Antoninus in his IXth British iter lay if nobody had pointed out the places. Nor is this to be wondered at when they have been for so many ages the food of time.
Near this place, at Crawdun dale-warth, are to be seen ditches, ramparts, and hills thrown up, and among them this Roman inscription copied for me by the aforementioed Reginald Bainbrig, schoolmaster of Appleby, and cut on a rough rock, the beginning effaced by time [q]:

.. P. LEG. II. [A]VG. C
  [A] to A.
which I read ... Varronius praefectus legionis vicesimae Valentis Victricis ... Elius Lucanus praefectus legionis secundae Augustae castra metati sunt, or to some such effect. For the Legion Vicesima Valens Victrix, which was stationed at DEVA, or West Chester, and the Legio secunda Augusta stationed at ISCA, or Caerleon in Wales, being called to service here against the enemy, seem to have been quartered and have had their castra stativa here for some time, in memory of which their officers cut this inscription on to the rock. I cannot easily fix the date: but for this purpose these larger letters seem to have been cut on a neighbouring rock CN. OCT. COT. COSS. though we find no such names together among the consuls in the Fasti Cunsulares. I have observed, however, from the time of Severus to Gordian, and afterwards, the letter A in all the inscriptions of that age wants the transverse stroke, and is formed thus [A]
  Howgil. BROVOMIACUM. Brougham.

  Eden, River
  Lowther, River
  Eamont, River

Hence the Eden proceeds not far from Howgill, a castle of the Sandfords, but the military way runs strait on W. by Whinfield [e], a large shady park to BROVONIACUM, 20 Italian and 17 English miles from VERTERAE, as placed by Antoninus, who called it likewise Brocovum, as does the Notitia Broconiacum, adding that the Numerus Defensorum was stationed here. Though time has destroyed its buildings and glory, the name remains almost unaltered. For we still call it Brougham. Here the river Eymot rising out of a large lake, and for some time dividing this county from Cumberland, receives the river Loder, near whose source at Shape, antiently Heye, a small monastery, built by Thomas son of Gospatric, son of Orme, is a fountain, which, like the Euripus ebbs and flows several times a day, and several huge stones of a pyramidal form, some of them nine feet high, and four thick, standing in a row for near a mile at an equal distance, which seem to have been erected in memory of some transaction there, which by length of time is lost. On the
148.*   Veg. IV. c.10.
148.†   Orosius.
[n] The Northern English. Holland.
[o] II. 32. munitiones regales.
[p] Antiquitatis Praetor.
[q] Or thrust out by the root of a tree there growing. H.
[r] Whin signifies in the north of England he (sic) same as Burr in the south. Furze. G.
gazetteer links
button -- Appleby Castle
button -- "Apelby" -- Appleby-in-Westmorland
button -- "Verterae" -- Brough
button -- "Eymot, River" -- Eamont, River
button -- "Eden, River" -- Eden, River
button -- Karl Lofts
button -- "Loder, River" -- Lowther, River
button -- "Maiden Way" -- Maiden Way
button -- "Verterae" -- (roman fort, Brough)
button -- Brocavum
button -- "Whellep Castle" -- (roman fort, Burwens)
button -- (roman site, Crowdundle)
button -- (school, Appleby-in-Westmorland)
button -- "Shape monastery" -- Shap Abbey
button -- Tiding Well
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