button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 157:-
Winton in Kirkby Stephen parish gave birth to Dr. John Langhorn, well known by his various essays in verse and prose, and to Dr. Richard Burn before mentioned [o].
  Harcla castle.
  Hartley Castle
Harcla castle was granted first to sir Thomas Musgrave on the attainder of Andrew de Harcla earl of Carlisle. It was enlarged.
Verterae is no doubt rightly fixed at Brough. The course of the military way is absolutely certain; the remains are generally so grand, and it is so rarely interrupted, and then only for so short a space, that we have never the least difficulty about it [p].
Wart hill, a beacon hill [q].
The town is divided into two, upper or church Brough (or Western), where stands the church, which had very rich painted windows [r], and of which Robert Eglesfield founder of Queen's college, Oxford, was rector, and procured the appropriation thereof from king Edward III. to the said college. Here also stands the castle (a high square tower and not unlike Richmond castle), and the fort mentioned by Camden called Caesar's tower. The castle having been burnt to the ground 1521, was rebuilt 1661 by the countess of Pembroke before-mentioned, and was again reduced to a ruin by Thomas earl of Thanet 1695 [s]. Near the bridge is a medicinal water. The other part is called Lower or Market Brough, from the inconsiderable market held there every Thursday [15]. The chapel here is now a freeschool.

"Appleby is the shire town, but it is now but a poor village having a ruinous castle wherein the prisoners are kept [t]."
Mr. Horsley removes Aballaba to Water-cross on the Wall; the station being placed per lineam valli [u]. It occurs also on lord Hertford's Roman cup, under the name of Avallava, as it is also spelt in Ravennas [x]. Appleby being thus out of the wall, yet from the antiquities found there, and the Roman road a station, he [y] determines it to be GALACUM of the Itinerary, which ever since Mr. Camden's time has been placed at Kirby Thor or Whellop castle.
It is now the best corn market in the county [16]. and has three fairs, makes a neat compact appearance at a distance; the principal street broad, with a good inn fronting the market-cross, which stands aukwardly in the middle of the street. The church is but small, but has a most delicate monumental figure of Margaret countess of Cumberland, mother to Anne Clifford before-mentioned, with these comprehensive lines under the epitaph:

"Who, Faith, Love, Mercy, noble Constancy,
To God, to Virtue, to Distress, to Right,
Observ'd, express'd, shew'd, held religiously,
Hath here this monument thou seest in sight,
The cover of her earthly part: but, passenger,
Know Heaven and Fame contain the best of her."
  Clifford, Lady Anne
Also an altar-tomb for her daughter: over which is a tablet with the succession and arms of the lords and earls of Westmorland from Robert Vipont to herself. The entrance to the yard is by a handsome colonade built by Dr. Thomas Smith, bishop of Carlisle. This church and that of Bongate adjoining were repaired by the liberality of the aforesaid countess of Pembroke. On the north side of the street is an hospital founded for 12 poor women, and another by Anne countess of Pembroke 1653 [z]. The castle, now the seat of the earl of Thanet, is a square tower, surrounded by modern apartments, built by Thomas lord Clifford t. Henry IV. and repaired by the countess; in which are curious portraits, armour, and tapestry. The assizes are now held in the town-hall, and the gaol is at the end of the bridge [17].
At the school here established by queen Elizabeth were bred bishops Barlow, Bedel, and Smith, which last was a great benefactor. It has flourished to the present time, and furnished near half the foundation of Queen's college, Oxford, for the last 50 years [a]. The curious collection of inscriptions made here by Mr. Camden's friend Bainbridge were dispersed or stolen at the rebuilding of the school in this century, except those to be specified. So little consolation have collectors who labour for incurious or ungrateful posterity!
  roman inscription
"Upon a front of a little building made of stone by Mr. Reginald Bainbrigg in 1602, he being then schoolmaster of the freeschool of Appleby, are placed divers stones having Roman inscriptions upon them; which he (being much affected to those antiquities) had got together from several parts of this county, and also out of Northumberland and Cumberland. They are placed in two ranks, twelve in one and eight in the other. There is one also above towards the roof; and another on a coyne-stone looking towards the south. There are two more also on the front of the school-house, viz. on each side of the doore one.
"The letters upon some of these seeme to have been cut deeper, by direction of the sayd Mr. Bainbrigg, in respect they were all most worne out by time.
"Of some of these Mr. Cambden hath printed copyes in his Britannia, which were communicated to him by this school-master, as he acknowledgeth.
"There are three other stones, viz. one standing just ouer the doore of the sayd building, and the other adjoyning to it towards the south, whereon are these following inscriptions, cut by direction of the sayd Mr. Bainbrigg, viz.

GVIL. R. SCOT 1176

D. O. M.
HIC. ANN. XXII. AET. S. 57. 1602.
[o] Burn, I. 549, 550.
[p] Hors. 410. Burn, I. 577.
[q] Gale, MS. n.
[r] Burn, I. 572, 573.
[s] Ib. 579.
[15] G.
[t] Lel. VII. 62.
[u] P. 108. 154.
[x] Ib. 330.
[y] P. 454.
[16] G.
[z] Burn, 319.
[17] G.
[a] Burn, [ ]
gazetteer links
button -- Appleby Castle
button -- Appleby Gaol
button -- "Appleby" -- Appleby-in-Westmorland
button -- Bainbridge Inscriptions
button -- Brough Castle
button -- "Lower Brough" -- Brough
button -- "Upper Brough" -- Church Brough
button -- Cloisters, The
button -- "Harcla Castle" -- Hartley Castle
button -- Hospital of St Anne
button -- Moot Hall
button -- "Verterae" -- (roman fort, Brough)
button -- (school, Appleby-in-Westmorland)
button -- (school, Brough)
button -- St Lawrence's Church
button -- St Michael's Church
button -- "Winton" -- Winton
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