button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 155:-
[Roger] Holme, which is of Lumley fee; whereof William de Thweng died seised in 14 Edward III. It was granted by Henry VIII. with the rest of the Lumley fee to Allan Bellingham, esq., and now belongs (with the other Bellingham estates in Westmorland) to the present Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire.
  Ferry, Windermere

About the year 1634, there were 47 persons drowned in this lake in passing the ferry, coming homewards from Hawkshead market on a storm arising [k].
  roman fort, Waterhead
At the upper corner of Windermere water, not far from the present town of Ambleside, lies the carcase of an antient city with large ruins of walls, and without the walls the rubbish of old buildings in many places: adjoining to which and opening to the water has been a fort of an oblong figure 165 by 100 yards, fortified with a ditch and rampart. Pieces of bricks, little urns, glass phials, Roman coins, round stones like mill-stones, of which soldered together they were wont to make pillars (for hypocausts, and the paved ways leading to it, are undeniable testimonies of its being a work of the Romans. And to this place Mr. Horsley supposes the military ways to have gone which pass by Pap castle and through Graystock park [l]. This fort is guarded on the west by the conflux of the rivers Rowthey and Brathey, on the south by Windermere, a high rock at a small distance intercepted the north wind, and being fortified with a ditch and rampart it was only accessible from the south-east [m].
Mr. Ward supposed the name of this station DICTIS, and removed AMBOGLANA to Burdoswald [n], it being placed by the Notitia ad lineam valli. Among other pieces of antiquity discovered in this fort, were several Roman coins in all metals, which make part of the cabinet given by deed 1674 by Mr. Thomas Brathwate to the university of Oxford [5], many of them found in Barran's ring, a square fort in this lordship.
The choir of the parish church of Windermere is adorned with a beautiful window, said to have been purchased by the parishioners from Furness abbey at the dissolution, representing in seven compartments the Crucifixion, St. George and St. Catharine, and two mitred abbots, with the arms of England t. Edward III. and of various benefactors [o].
At a place called Spying How in Troutbeck constabulary, was a heap of stones called the Raise, which, being removed to make fences, discovered a chest of four stones, one on each side, and one at each end, full of human bones. There is another very large heap called Woundale Raise [p].
Ambleside is a small town, whose inhabitants knit and spin for Kendal market [q]. It is in Windermere and Gresmere parish, and has a chapel augmented by queen Anne's bounty [r], and a school founded by Mr. John Kelwich 1723.
A mile north of Ambleside, in Gresmere parish, is Ridal hall, a large antient seat of the Flemings, to whom this manor descended from the Lancasters t. Henry IV. The late sir Daniel Fleming communicated many particulars relating to this and the preceding county to bishop Gibson.
The Flemings were originally of Furness in Lancashire, from a younger branch of whom the present family here descended. Sir Daniel was created a baronet about 4 Anne. His 5th son George was bishop of Carlisle, to whom the title descended, but is now enjoyed by his next brother's grandson sir Michael, whose father restored the original orthography of the name le Fleming. Rydal hall is a large old building, erected at different times, and intended to be rebuilt by the present owner. Here two beautiful cascades, Ridall water and Gresmere lake, to which the river Rothey serves as one common outlet, are objects of a traveller's curiosity. The country abounds in wood which is much used in the iron works [s].
Ridall head in this lordship is a very high mountain, from whence in a clear day may be seen Lancaster castle and much further [6].
  Dunmail Raise.
  Dunmail Raise
On a high pass between the hills near Rydal is a large Carnedd called Dunmail Wray's stones, collected in memory of a defeat given 946 to a petty king of Cumberland by Edmund I. who gave his territory to Malcolm king of Scotland, on consideration he preserved the peace of the North of England [t]. The map makes it nine single stones.
Dunmail Raise is a large mountain, great part whereof is in Gresmere parish, and is so called from a heap or raise of stones by the road side, which divides Cumberland from this county, thrown together either by Dunmail king of Cumberland as a mark of the utmost border of his kingdom, or by some other in memory of him [u].
In making a turnpike road from Ambleside to Keswic, about five or six years ago, they found an urn with bones and ashes in it, now in the possession of Humphrey Senhouse of Netherhall, esq.
Lonsdale gave title of viscount to sir John Lowther baron Lowther, who was succeeded by his sons Richard and Henry [7].
  Lune, River

"About the borders of Westmorland and Lancastreshire be many dales, and in one of them a broke giving name to the dale [x]." Q. Lonesdale.
  Lang gill. Brandreth stone.
The river Lune rising a little above Ravenstondale, or Rissendale, runs by Lang gill, where was born the learned Dr. Barlow bishop of Lincoln, distinguished by his great reading and his zeal against popery [8]. After receiving the Birckbeck it runs down by a field called Gallaber, where stands Brandreth stone, a red stone about an ell high with two crosses cut deep on one side. The tradition of the inhabitants makes it the mere stone between the English and the Scots, and it is worthy observation, that it is about the same distance from Scotland as Rere cross on Stanemore, of which see before in Richmondshire [9]. It may be the stone of which Leland VII. 63. says, "There is in Westmorland as it is said a famous stone as a limes of old time, inscribed."
Orton, or Overton, is a vicarage belonging formerly to Conishead priory, Lancashire, after the dissolution to the crown, and by purchase from the latter settled in feoffees, who present, and the bishop of Carlisle institutes. The late Dr. Richard Burn, chancellor of the diocese of Carlisle, author of the Justice of Peace, and a system of ecclesiastical law, and joint editor of the History and Antiquities of this county and Cumberland in 2 vols. 4to. 1777, held it
[k] Burn, I. 184. A map of this lake by P. Crosthwaite 1783, is sold on the spot.
[l] Ib. 188.
[m] West's Furness, p.xlii.
[n] Horsl. 483.
[5] G. Burn, I. 193, 194.
[o] West Ib. 95. Burn, I. 178.
[p] Burn, I. 188.
[q] Penn. 1769. 36.
[r] Burn, I. 189.
[s] Ib. 150-174. West's Guide to the Lakes, 79, 82. Mr. Gray's letters.
[6] G.
[t] Penn. 37. West's Guide, 84.
[u] Burn, Ib. 149.
[7] G.
[z] Lel. VII. 63.
[8] G.
[9] G.
gazetteer links
button -- "Ambleside" -- Ambleside
button -- "Brandreth Stone" -- Brandrith Stone
button -- "Dunmail Wray's Stones" -- Dunmail Raise Stones
button -- "Lang Gill" -- Longdale
button -- "Lune, River" -- Lune, River
button -- "Orton" -- Orton
button -- "Roger Holme" -- Ramp Holme
button -- "Ravenstondale" -- Ravenstonedale
button -- "Dictis" -- Galava
button -- "Ridal Hall" -- Rydal Hall
button -- "Ridall Head" -- Rydal Head
button -- (school, Ambleside)
button -- "Spying Howe" -- Spying How
button -- St Martin's Church
button -- Windermere Ferry (?)
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