button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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to the windows, and of doors. The wall that forms the gallery founded on a ledge of rocks eight feet below the floor of the cells is ruined a little above their top, and was once joined to them by a roof. They are called Constantine's cells, the priory being dedicated to him, but more commonly the Safeguard, being probably intended as such for the neighbouring monks against the Scots, the door being approachable only by a ladder, and the whole only by a perpendicular ascent of seven feet from a long narrow path. On the same rock a little higher up the river and about 10 or 12 feet from the level of the water is this inscription:

and a rude figure of a deer. The two lines are a yard assunder: the 2d may mean the Leg. XX. Valens Victrix condidit (or Condate) Cassius or Centurio Cassius, the centurial mark misplaced [z].
  VIROSIDUM. Warwick.

Horsley places VIROSIDUM at Elenboro' or Old Carlisle [a]. The church of Warwick is remarkable for its round east end with round narrow niches on the outside 10 feet 8 inches high and 17 inches wide, reaching almost to the ground, and in two or three a small window. The whole church is built of hewn stone 70 feet long, but formerly reached further west, there being at that end a good round arch filled up. In the grant to St. Mary's abbey it is called a chapel [b]. The manor was held by a farm of the name from the time of Richard I. to the present time, as was that of Aglionby in the same parish by that family from the Conquest to the present time [c].
  Great and Little Blencowe.
  Little Blencow
  Great Blencow

Below Greystock on the Peterel lies Geat Blencowe, belonging to an antient family of that name, whose ruined tower is still to be seen at Little Blencowe. Here is a very good grammar-school, founded and endowed 19 Elizabeth by Thomas Burbank, who was born in the town, and had been a schoolmaster [d].
  High Head Castle
"Hyghhed castel six or seven miles from Cairluel by south on the beck on Ivebek [e]." The inquisitions of the reign of Edward III. call it Pela de Highhead, and on the attainder of Andrew de Harcla it was granted to the Dacres. It was bought by the Richmonds t. Henry VIII. and still belongs to them [f].
  Hutton hall.
From Highyate the river runs to Hutton hall the seat of a family of the same name, of whom it was purchased in the reign of James I. by the Fletchers, who, particularly sir George Fletcher, bart. who lived at it, and with whom the baronetage ended, so much improved it by buildings and plantations, that it is now one of the pleasantest seats in the county. The estate is within the Haia de Plumpton, and held of the king by the service of holding the king's stirrup when he mounts his horse in his castle of Carlisle [g].
  CONGAVATA. Stanwicks.

Mr. Horsley fixes CONGAVATA at Stanwicks, on such proofs as cannot be controverted [h]. Here is a plain area of a station and a gentle descent to the south, and the rising for the outbuildings, which the abundance of stones dug up prove to have stood here. Some of the stones answered to the description of an aqueduct. The ruins of the wall are very visible to the brink of the precipice [i].
  Rose castle.
  Rose Castle
"Rose, a castle of the bishops of Cairluel. Bishop Kight made it very fresh [k]."
Edward I. lodged in Rose castle during his Scotch expedition; and several of his writs for calling a parliament are dated apud la Rose. From its being embattled by leave of Edward III. it had the name of a castle, and has been the principal mansion-house of the bishops of Carlisle from the first grant of the manor to their see. Bishop Smith added a new tower (as Bishop Bell had done between 1478 and 1496), and by great expence in altering and beautifying made it a very convenient house [l]. It suffered much from the Scots, and was as often repaired, and continued a comfortable habitation till its total demolition in the reign of Charles I. It was burnt in the civil wars by order of col. Heveringham; before which time it consisted of a compleat quadrangle with a fountain in the middle with five, towers besides lesser turrets, and encompassed with a mantle wall with little turrets. The north side contained the constable's tower, the chapel, Bell's tower built by bishop Bell, the bishop's and council-chamber, and a chamber under the latter called Great Paradise, and Strickland's tower, built by bishop Strickland. The east side contained the great dining room, hall and buttery and kitchen: the south side a long gallery leading to the hall and the offices, and the west side Pettinger's tower and offices. Here was another built by bishop Kite. Its ruins were repaired at the Restoration by bishop Sterne, and his successor bishop Rainbow put the house into better condition, and built the chapel. When bishop Rainbow came to the see, no part was habitable except from the chapel south to the end of the old kitchen; all which was supposed to have been built by bishop Kite. Rainbow built the two parlours, chapel, and great staircase. Bishop Sterne had rebuilt the chapel, but bishop Rainbow was obliged to rebuild it. Bishop Fleming wainscoted and floored these and other rooms. Bishop Osbaldiston bullied his executors out of 200£. which he had allowed his lessee of Buley castle c. Westmorland for his interest in the wood sold there, and for damages and springing it again; and cut down wood and timber on the demesne to the amount of many hundred pounds, and made reprisals to the amount of about 350£.; and after this benefit was glad to compound with his successor bishop Lyttelton for 250£. delapidations, which his said successor chose to accept to avoid a long suit. Bishop Lyttelton built a very fine new kitchen, laundry, and brew-house, repaired Strickland tower, and greatly improved the whole house; and besides leaving a minute account in his register, compiled a particular history of it. Notwithstanding the poverty of the see, the bishops lived here antiently in great splendour. In bishop White's rental 1627 the constant houshold was 35 or 36 besides workfolk and strangers [m].
Rhôs signifies in British a moist dale or valley [n].
  Dalston stone circle

In Dalston parish in a field about a mile from the church called Chapel Flat, foundations are dug up as of the hermitage and chapel of St. Wynemius the bishop, mentioned here 1343. A circle of rude stones three feet diameter, and 30 yards in circumference, was here many years ago, and within it to the east four stones as of a kistvaen. Not far from it is a tumulus eight yards diameter at bottom, and two at top, and about three yards high. On opening it were found near the top two freestones, about three
[z] G. Archaeol. I. 86. Pennant, 1772, p.61, and plate V. Hutchinson, p.256. Burn, II. 335.
[a] P. 109. 478. 481.
[b] Pennant, 60.
[c] Burn, II. 327-328.
[d] G. Burn, II. 373. 384.
[e] Lel. VII. 72.
[f] Burn, II. 319,320.
[g] Esc. 5 Hen. VII. G. Burn, II. 388.
[h] P. 105.
[i] P. 155.
[k] Lel. VII. 72.
[l] Buck. G.
[m] Burn, II. 313-316.
[n] Ib.
gazetteer links
button -- Blencow Hall
button -- Burbank House
button -- (chapel, Dalston)
button -- "Great Blencowe" -- Great Blencow
button -- High Head Castle
button -- "Hutton Hall" -- Hutton-in-the-Forest
button -- (inscribed rock, Wetheral)
button -- Uxelodunum
button -- "Rose Castle" -- Rose Castle
button -- "Constantine's Cells" -- St Constantine's Cells
button -- St Leonard's Church
button -- Warwick
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