button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 190:-
[Den]mark some of the same fashion, and 24 stones set in circles: and very near my house is a large one called Harnesly hill, but in writings Harold's hill.
"I have this account of Dr. Todd's history of Cumberland from one that perused it, that there are several good remarks and observations in it on Roman remains in Cumberland and Westmorland, but he has intermixed the affairs of the country families and antiquities of churches with the Scotch incursions, in order to engage the gentry and clergy here to come into subscription [e]."
  VOREDA. Old Penrith.
  Old Penrith
  Plumpton Wall
  roman inscription

Horsley places VOREDA, Ant. Bremetenracum Not. Berida of Ravennas, at Old Penrith, and removes PETRIANA to Cambeck fort or Castle steeds [f]. The remains of the outbuildings and station are very considerable; the fort above six chains (132 yards) long, and five broad, containing about three acres. Plumton wall is the village near it, and the house nearest the station the Lough. The station, now called Castle steeds, lies about 200 yards east from the Peterel, the ramparts high, and the ditch pretty perfect; the entrances all visible in the middle of the sides, the praetorium appears near the north rampart, and great ruins of a town are on the west side next the river. The east and west ramparts of the station measure 140 yards, and the north and south 120. A military way goes hence towards Keswic, and part of another between this place and Carlisle is found above foundations of the houses [g]. All the inscriptions which Mr. Camden saw here are lost [h]. Gadenius on the first has been reckoned among our northern tutelar deities by Mr. Burton, but Mr. Horsley thinks it the name of a deceased person, for whom Ulpius Trajanus Martius erected this monument. If the Gadeni were here, might he not be a Gadenian? The 3d may be read, Dis manibus, Flavio Martio senatori (or seniori) in colonia or civitate (or cohorti) Carvetiorum quaestori taking the o after this word for a stop) vixit annos 45, &c. TIT. in the 4th is titulus, a word that occurs in Gruter frequently for a monumental stone. In the 2d AICCETUOS and LATTIE are nominative cases of the names of a mother and daughter. Gruter [i] has L. Atilio incorrectly [k]. Woodford's MS. gives one like the conclusion of this

  Pl.X. f.5. Pl.X. f.6. fig.7.
Since Mr. Camden's time the inscription in Pl.X. fig.4 has been found at Lough, and placed in the garden of Dr. Fleming, dean of Carlisle, at Great Salkeld, broken in three pieces and part lost [m]. It is the second among us in honour of Alexander Severus and his mother Mammaea here called Mater Castrorum, as other empresses on other inscriptions and the whole imperial family. An altar to Jupiter [n]. Another [o] to Mogon, the local deity of the Gadeni, and a similar altar, but plain, and two other carved stones [p]. An inscription to Jupiter and the emperors of the name of Philips [q].
At Plumpton, the antient Voreda or Petriana, near Penrith, was found an altar, inscribed, Deo Sancto Belatuca aram in the possession of capt. Dalston [r].
Browne Willis communicated to the Society of Antiquaries 1747, a stone with a bust and this inscription:

D. M.
FL. HLARO. S. H. F. C.
found at Castle Steeds near the great fort Petriana. Mr. Ward, reads it D. M. Gemelli Caius Aurelius Flavius Hilario sepulcrum hoc fieri curavit. Gemellus occurs at Binchester, Horsl. Durh. xxix. and Hilario in Gruter, and the head he supposes Pluto. Libert being before Hilario in Gruter, he thinks this may be Flavius libertus.
Plumpton park is held by the Lowthers under the crown [s].
  Long Meg. Addingham.
  Long Meg and Her Daughters

Long Meg and her daughters , in Addingham parish, q.d. Ald Hengham, a town at the old hanging stones, is a druidical circle, 300 feet diameter [t], of 100 stones [u], of which 67 are now standing. At the south side 15 paces south-west at the distance of 70 feet or 40 yards is an upright squarish stone near 15 feet in girth, and 12 high, and near two yards square at bottom and hollow at top like a Roman altar, one of its angles turned to the circle, and each angle answering to a cardinal point, and near it next the circle four large stones, or as Stukeley three, forming an altar or sacellum, and two towards the east, west, and north [x]. In the middle of the circle are two round plots of ground, of a different colour from the rest, and more stony and barren. Towards Glasenby is a fine spring, and another surrounded by a large but shallow foss and vallum. South-west from this work in the next inclosure is a smaller circle of 20 stones, 50 feet diameter, and at some distance above it another single stone, regarding it as Meg does her circle [y].
  Kirk Oswald.
  Kirkoswald Castle
"Kirk Oswald castle south south-east 12 miles from Cairluel, and south from Naward, standeth almost on Eden [z]." It was much improved by sir Hugh Morbill, who got the town a market t. John [a], and finished, and moated by Thomas Dacre, who married the heiress of Greystock; but it is now ruined [b].
"Northward from Ousby on the river Eden standeth the capital grand castle Kirk Oswald, and a very fine church there and quondam college: now the noble mansion-house of the late sir Timothy Fetherstonhaugh, colonel of the king's side, taken at Wigan when the late lord Witherington was slain. Sir Timothy was taken prisoner and excuted by beheading at Chester, by the command of the unworthy col. Mitton, after the said knight had quarter given him. This great castle of Kirk Oswald was once the fairest fabrick that ever eyes looked upon. The hall I have seen 100 yards long, and the great pourtraiture of king Brute, lying in the end of the roof of this hall, and of all his succeeding successors, kings of England, portraieted to the waist, their visages, hats, feathers, garbs, and habits, in the roof of this hall; now translated to Naward
[e] MS. mong Mr. Gale's correspondence in Mr. Allan's hands.
[f] P. 107.
[g] P. 111, 112. Burn, II. 420-423.
[h] Horsl. 273-4.
[k] Horsl. 273,274.
[l] Ib.
[m] Horsl. Cumb. li.
[n] Ib. lii.
[o] Ib. liii.
[p] Ib. liv.
[q] Ib. liia. pref.xx.
[r] Archaeol III. 104.
[s] Burn, II. 420.
[t] 80 yards, Todd.
[u] 72, Todd.
[x] Hutchinson, 103. Gent. Mag. 1752. 311. Stuk. I. 47. Burn, II. 448.
[y] Stuk. ib.
[z] Lel. VII. 72.
[a] Burn, II. 424.
[b] Mag. Brit. I. 380. Buck.
gazetteer links
button -- "Addingham" -- Addingham
button -- College, The
button -- "Glasenby" -- Glassonby
button -- "Kirk Oswald Castle" -- Kirkoswald Castle
button -- "Kirk Oswald" -- Kirkoswald
button -- Little Meg
button -- "Long Meg and Her Daughters" -- Long Meg and Her Daughters
button -- "Naward Castle" -- Naworth Castle (?)
button -- "Plumpton Park" -- Plumpton Park
button -- "Petriana" -- Voreda
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