button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 228:-
  River Eden
  River Caldew

station here, as it has generally done with respect to the other stations upon the wall. This situation will suit exactly well with those rules which the Romans observed in building these stations. For here is a plain area for the station, and a gentle descent to the south, and towards the river, for the out-buildings. And by all accounts, and the usual evidences, it is upon this descent, and chiefly to the south-east, that the Roman buildings have stood. Abundance of stones have been lately dug up in this part. I was told of some, which by the description of them resembled the stones of an aqueduct. The ruins of the wall are very visible to the brink of the precipice, over which it seems to have passed in going down to the river, just as at Burdoswold. But doubtless both these precipices have been made more steep, since the building of the wall, by the falling away of the bank. It is not unlikely (as some have thought) that the river Eden has formerly run near the north side of Carlisle castle, and joined the river Caudey near the north-west corner. However, I think it evident, that there must have been some alteration in the course of the river since the time of the Romans. And I believe the wall has been carried forward pretty directly from the height on one side of the river to the opposite height on the other. We are told in Camden, "that the wall passed the river over-against the castle, where in the very channel the remains of it (namely the great stones) appear to this day [i]."
  Newton Arlosh
  Kirkandrews upon Eden

"On the west side of Eden the walls are mostly obscure. At a part between Grinsdale on the one side and Newton on the other, Severus's wall is very visible, and Hadrian's may be discovered about a furlong to the south of it. And a little to the east of Kirkanders the vestiges are clear. Between Wormanby and Brugh the track of the walls is also visible, and they come within a chain or two of each other. But excepting the ditch at the west end of Brugh, Hadrian's vallum appears no more after this with plainness and certainty. And Severus's wall in the general is for several miles very obscure, and much levelled. The people hereabouts have no stone quarries for building, so that they spare no pains in digging for stones, wherever they have any prospect of finding them, upon which account the wall and stations have been sufficiently plundered. The ditches are here the most visible part of the works, and are very discernible in going up to Beaumont. At the entrance into Wormanby I apprehended I saw something like a military way, that seemed to be continued to Brugh on the south side of the wall, but I am doubtful of this.
"The distance between Stanwicks and Brugh is about four measured miles and a half, and in all this space we have not one visible castellum; but allowing the usual interval between them, there must have been five; for by carrying on the computation thus, the next visible castellum comes just in the proper place.
  Burgh by Sands
  Watch Hill

"The name of BRUGH leads one to think of a station there. And when I was upon the spot I saw and heard such evidences as leave no room for doubt. The station has been a little to the east of the church, near what they called the old castle, where there are the manifest remains of its ramparts. On the west side these remains are most distinct, being about six chains in length. And Severus's wall seems to have formed the north rampart of the station. I was assured by the person to whom the field belonged, that stones were often plowed up in it, and lime with the stones. Urns have also frequently been found here. I saw, besides an imperfect inscription, two Roman altars lying a door in the town, but neither sculptures nor inscriptions are now visible upon them. I saw also a large stone coffin standing in the church yard, which has been dug up hereabouts not long ago. If, besides all this, we consider the distance from the last station at Stanwicks, I think it can admit of no doubt but there must have been a station here, though most of its ramparts are now leveled, the field having been in tillage many years. I shall only farther add, that it was very proper to have a station at each end of the marsh, which, if the water flowed as high as some believe, would at that time make a kind of bay; and then the station here, and the next at Drumbrugh castle, would be the more necessary. The walls are lost near the village, which is a mile in length; yet by pretty certain accounts it appears, that Severus's wall has passed on the north side of the town. I take it, that about a quarter of a mile west from this town there has been a castellum; for, at this place, they have dug up a larger quantity of stones, than the bare thickness of the wall could well have afforded. They call the field the Watch-hill, and a remarkable tree in it called the Watch-tree; and the tradition runs, that in antient times there was a watch tower on this spot. I was also told that they sometimes struck upon a pavement hereabouts, not far from the track of the wall, and that the stones they found there, were such as they now use in paving. This, I think, must be the military way, especially since it seems to have been between the two walls. For, as Severus's wall seems to have run nearly parallel to the highway from Brugh westward, and to the north of this way; so from Brugh to Dikesfield there is a ditch very visible to the south of Severus's wall, at first five chains, and at the end of the village Long-brugh about ten from it, which therefore must have belonged to Hadrian's vallum.
"Whether Hadrian's work has been continued any farther than this marsh, or to the water side beyond Drumbrugh, is doubtful. But I am pretty confident that it was not carried on so far as the wall of Severus at this end, any more than at the other. And I can by no means yield to Mr. Gordon's sentiments, that the one for a good space at each end was built upon the foundation of the other. However it is certain, that from the side of the marsh to the west end of the wall there is no appearance of Hadrian's work, or any thing belonging to it.
  Boustead Hill

"From hence to Drumbrugh castle no vestige of the wall is to be seen; though I think it certain, that the wall did not pass through the marsh, but by Bow-steed hill and Easton: for both tradition and matter of fact favour this course of it. The country people often strike upon the wall, and could tell exactly several places through which, by this means, they knew it had passed, and always by the side of the marsh. Besides, it is no way reasonable to suppose, that the Romans would build their wall within tide-mark; and it is evident, that the water has formerly overflowed all this marsh. The Solway frith has reached much higher, both southward and northward, than it does now; and in very high tides it
[i] See before, p.174.
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