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salt spring, Borrowdale
locality:-   Manesty
civil parish:-   Borrowdale (formerly Cumberland)
county:-   Cumbria
locality type:-   spring
locality type:-   well
locality type:-   salt spring
coordinates:-   NY25171847
1Km square:-   NY2518
10Km square:-   NY21

BRP51.jpg (taken 25.9.2009)  
BRP53.jpg (taken 25.9.2009)  

evidence:-   probably old map:- OS County Series (Cmd 70 1) 
placename:-  Salt Well
source data:-   Maps, County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

evidence:-   descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821) 
source data:-   Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P094, button  goto source
Page 94:-  "... The Grange was the place where they laid up their [monks of Furness] grain and their tithe, and also the salt they made at the salt spring, of which works there are still some vestiges remaining, below Grange."
image WS21P114, button  goto source
Page 114:-  "[Mr Pennant's description] ..."
"'... Borrowdale ... a salt-spring, once the property of the monks of Furness, trickles along the shore; ..."

evidence:-   old map:- Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Der) 
source data:-   Map, uncoloured engraving, An Accurate Map of the Matchless Lake of Derwent, ie Derwent Water, scale about 3 inches to 1 mile, by Peter Crosthwaite, Keswick, Cumberland, 1783, version published 1800.
"Salt Spring / Mr. Banks's"
item:-  Armitt Library : 1959.191.3
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old text:- Clarke 1787
placename:-  Borrowdale Well
item:-  cutaneous eruptionsrheumatismgale
source data:-   Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, written and published by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787; published 1787-93.
image CL13P083, button  goto source
Page 83:-  "... Below this house [Manesty] is Borrowdale-well, a medical water of excellent quality, and was formerly much frequented; it is a never failing cure for cutaneous eruptions in man or beast, by washing only. I attended it several years, (but not of late) on account of rheumatic pains in my left shoulder, about mid-summer, five or six years successively: It so cured me that I have not had the slightest touch of it these twelve years past."
"The water is strongly saline, but the want of convenience for lodgers makes it little frequented. It rises out of a dead flat through a spar-rock adjoining to a peat-moss, whereon grows the plant called Gale, which curious plant is found on almost every moss in this country."
"The water tastes very like sea-water, is very clear and pellucid; but a kind of moss seems to arise with it, and remain upon the top like a scum. I could wish that some of our medical Gentlemen, who are not employed in inventing or defending useless theories, would describe its qualities; I cannot, as it is out of my line. I therefore speak only what I have seen and experienced."

evidence:-   old map:- Clarke 1787 map (Der) 
placename:-  Spaw Well
placename:-  Borrowdale Well
source data:-   Map, uncoloured engraving, Map of Derwentwater and its Environs, scale about 13 ins to 1 mile, by James Clarke, engraved by S J Neele, published by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland and in London etc, 1787.
item:-  private collection : 169
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834) 
item:-  geology
source data:-   Guide book, A Concise Description of the English Lakes, the mountains in their vicinity, and the roads by which they may be visited, with remarks on the mineralogy and geology of the district, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland now Cumbria, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirkby Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823; published 1823-49, latterly as the Descriptive Guide to the English Lakes.
image OT01P154, button  goto source
Page 154:-  "... A salt spring near the Grange in Borrowdale, has anciently been in some repute for its medicinal qualities; another has been more recently discovered in working a lead mine near Derwent Lake. They both issue from veins in this rock, but their source remains unknown."

evidence:-   old text:- Postlethwaite 1877 (3rd edn 1913) 
item:-  spa
source data:-   Book, Mines and Mining in the English Lake District, by John Postlethwaite, Keswick, published by W H Moss and Sons, Whitehaven, Cumberland now Cumbria, 1877; published 1877-1913.
image PST3p083, button  goto source
page 83:-  "..."
"The water which springs in the northern end of the mine [Brandlehow] was formerly largely impregnated with salt, and it has occasionally been used medicinally. The amount of salt and other minerals in the water is now much less than formerly."
"The following analysis of the water is copied from a paper by Thomas Ransome, Esq., in 1848. Man. Lit. and Phil. Soc., Ser.2, Vol.8, p.399."
The solid contents are contained in the following proportions in the imperial pint:- 
Or in 1,000 parts by weight -  ""The peculiarity of this water is the large quantity of chloride of calcium which it contains. The largest amount recorded in any analysis I have been able to find is in one of the saline springs at"
image PST3p084, button  goto source
page 84:-  "Leamington, which contains 28 grains in the pint, or not quite one-third of the quantity in the Brandley spring; but the deficiencies of sulphate of magnesia and soda prevent it being used for the same purposes as those celebrated springs.""
image PST3p108, button  goto source
page 108:-  "... At a short distance from this vein [Brandley Vein], on the western side, apparently connected with the eastern copper vein, there is a salt spring, from which the mine derives its name. The water is similar to that at Brandley Mine, and has frequently been used medicinally. About sixty-five years ago a well was dug by the proprietor, Major General Sir John Woodford, K.C.B., and a house built over it for the convenience of bathers, and this was opened to the public free of charge; but the public did not appreciate the privilege, and the house was allowed to fall into decay. If a high price had been charged by the generous knight for the use of the mineral water, it would no doubt have been much more highly esteemed."
Chloride of Calcium 87.67
Chloride of Magnesium 1.53
Chloride of Sodium 110.23
Sulphate of Magnesia 4.35
Chloride of Calcium 9.86
Chloride of Magnesium .17
Chloride of Sodium 12.40
Sulphate of Magnesia .48
Water 977.09

BRP52.jpg (taken 25.9.2009)  

Mentioned in:-
Short, Thomas: 1740: History of Mineral Waters
on page 85:-
"Barrowdale Well, near Grange, three miles from Keswick in Cumberland, it lies in a Level near a Moss; it was found at first by Miners digging in Quest of Ore, and springs out of the hard blewstone which constitutes all those dreadful Mountains, and terrible precipices called Fells. Being a kind of Lapis scissilis, is pretty solid of a blewish Colour, and much of it bear a pretty good Gloss in polishing. It's a rough, severe purge to strong Consitutions, heats the Body much excites a Thirst, being a mere Brine of inland Salt, so strong as it would well bear the Expence of a Salt work there, for scarce a 22d part of the German Ocean is Salt, but a 16 of this is pure Salt, and might be brought to a much richer Brine, were the freshes made out of it, which drain into it at present, being a kind of pond; there grows no Grass as far as this water reaches. ... But however harsh a vomit and Purge Barrowdale Well is, it wants not it's Customers and Admirers, and indeed in Dropsical, cacochymic, cachetic, disorders; foulness of the Stomach, slipperyness of the Bowels from Relaxations, or much Mucus, some icteritious disorders, it is of Service to several. ..."

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