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Hart Horn Tree, Brougham
Hart Horn Tree
locality:-   Whinfell Forest
locality:-   Whinfell Park
civil parish:-   Brougham (formerly Westmorland) (?) 
county:-   Cumbria
locality type:-   tree
coordinates:-   NY57762882 (?) 
1Km square:-   NY5728
10Km square:-   NY52

evidence:-   old map:- OS County Series (Wmd 4 10) 
placename:-  Hartshorn Tree
source data:-   Maps, County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.
"Hartshorn Tree (Site Of)"

evidence:-   descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26
placename:-  Hart Horn Tree
source data:-   Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
"... Hart-Horn Tree, where they shew'd us the head of a stag nail'd up against a tree, or rather shew'd us the tree where they said it was nail'd up, in memory of a famous chase of a stag by one single dog. It seems the dog (not a greyhound, as Mr. Cambden's continuator calls it, but a stanch buckhound, to be sure) chas'd a stag from this place, (Whitefield Park) as far as the Red Kirk in Scotland, which, they say, is sixty miles at least, and back again to the same place, where, being both spent, and at the last gasp, the stag strain'd all its force remaining to leap the park pales, did it, and dy'd on the inside; the hound, attempting to leap after him, had not strength to go over, but fell back, and dy'd on the outside just opposite; after which the heads of both were nail'd up upon the tree, and this distich made on them; the hound's name, it seems, was Hercules."
"Hercules kill'd Hart a Greese, / And Hart a Greese kill'd Hercules."

evidence:-   descriptive text:- Simpson 1746
item:-  stagdeerhoundbuckhoundHerculeshawthorn
source data:-   Atlas, three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
image SMP4P193, button  goto source
"In Whinfield Park, at the Borders of this County, is shewn a Hawthorn Tree, against which the Heads of a Stag and a Dog were formerly nailed up in Memory of a famous Chace: It seems a Dog (not a Greyhound, as Mr. Camden's Continuator calls it, but a staunch Buckhound) singly chased a Stag from this Park, as far as the Red Kirk in Scotland, which they say is 60 Miles at least, and back again to the same Place; where being both spent, the Stag exerting his last Force, leaped the Park Pales, and died on the Inside; the Hound attempting to leap after him, had not Strength enough to get over, but fell back and died on the Outside just opposite. The Heads of both were nailed upon the Tree, and underneath this Distich on them:"
"Hercules kill'd Hart-a-Greese"
"And Hart-a-Greese kill'd Hercules.[1]"

evidence:-   old map:- Jefferys 1770 (Wmd) 
placename:-  Hart Horn Tree
source data:-   Map, 4 sheets, The County of Westmoreland, scale 1 inch to 1 mile, surveyed 1768, and engraved and published by Thomas Jefferys, London, 1770.
"Hart Horn Tree"
item:-  National Library of Scotland : EME.s.47
Image © National Library of Scotland

evidence:-   old text:- Pennant 1773
placename:-  Hart Horn Oak
placename:-  Hart's Horn Tree
item:-  huntinggreyhoundHerculesdeerHart a Greese
source data:-   Book, A Tour from Downing to Alston Moor, 1773, by Thomas Pennant, published by Edward Harding, 98 Pall Mall, London, 1801.
image PEN6p153, button  goto source
Pennant's Tour 1773, page 153  "If the Hart-horn oak exists, it escaped my notice. Mr. Brooke, Somerset Herald, told me he had seen an ancient tree in the road leading from Penrith to Appleby, not far from Lady's Pillar, said to be Hart's-horn Tree, which road is over part of Whinfel-park, that has been inclosed. It took its name from a pair of stag's horns nailed on it, in memory of a famous chace, in the years 1333 or 1334, between a greyhound named Hercules, and a stag. They are said to have run from this park to Red Kirk in Scotland, and back again: that the stag had just strength enough to leap over the pales, within which it died. Hercules, in attempting to follow, fell down, and died on the outside. - The horns of the stag were nailed on one of the oaks; and, in process of time, being lost in the growth of the tree, another pair were nailed on, and, to record this wonderful chace, the following lines were inscribed:"
""Hercules killed Hart a-greese,
"And Hart a-greese killed Hercules.""
"But Dr. Burn justly observed, that it is much more probable that the chace was to Nine Kirk, or the Church of St. Ninian, a place on the Eimot, within the verge of the forest, than to Red Kirk in Scotland, a distance so remote as to take away all credit from the relation."

evidence:-   old map:- Donald 1774 (Cmd) 
placename:-  Hart Horn Tree
source data:-   Map, hand coloured engraving, 3x2 sheets, The County of Cumberland, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, by Thomas Donald, engraved and published by Joseph Hodskinson, 29 Arundel Street, Strand, London, 1774.
"Hart Horn Tree"
2 trees 
item:-  Carlisle Library : Map 2
Image © Carlisle Library

evidence:-   descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821) 
placename:-  Harthorn Oaks
source data:-   Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P200, button  goto source
Addendum; Mr Gray's Journal, 1769 
Page 200:-  "... Passed ... Harthorn-oaks, ... crossed the Eden and the Eamont ... [to] Penrith ..."

evidence:-   old text:- Clarke 1787
placename:-  Hartshorn Tree
item:-  deerhoundHerculeshunt
source data:-   Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, written and published by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787; published 1787-93.
image CL13P003, button  goto source
Page 3:-  "..."
"I SHALL begin my observations at the Countess's Pillar, where likewise my plans commence: I shall, however, exceed this bound, to take notice of a very large Oak Tree in Whinfield-Park, called the Harts-horn Tree. Concerning this tree there is a tradition, confirmed by Anne Countess of Pembroke in her memoirs, that an hart was run by a single dog from this place to Red-Kirk in Scotland and back again: when they came near this tree the hart leaped the wall but the dog, worn out with fatigue, was unable to follow him, and died there; the hart, equally fatigued, could proceed no farther, and in this situation they were found by the hunters, the dog dead on one side of the wall, and the deer on the other. In memory of this remarkable chace, the hart's horns were fixed upon this tree, whence it obtained its name; and as all extraordinary events were in those days recorded in rhymes we find the following popular one upon this occasion, from which we learn the dog's name likewise:"
""Hercules kill'd Hart of Greece,
"And Hart of Greece kill'd Hercules.""
"This story appears to have been literally true, as the Scots preserve it without any variation, and add, that it happened in the year 1333 or 1334, when Edward Baliol King of Scots came to hunt with Robert de Clifford in his domains at Appleby and Brougham. I cannot, however, help thinking the Countess is mistaken in calling the dog a Grey-Hound, as he must have run upwards of 80 miles, even supposing the deer to have taken the direct road; and this no one, who is acquainted with the nature of dogs, can suppose a grey-hound capable of performing."

evidence:-   old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions) 
placename:-  Harthorn Tree
item:-  stagHeartagreesegreyhoundHercules
source data:-   Book, Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
image CAM2P159, button  goto source
Page 159:-  "..."
"... Hart-horn tree, ... borrowed its own [name] from a stag which was coursed by a single greyhound to the Red Kirk in Scotland, and back again to this place, where both being spent, the stag leapt the pales, and died on the other side, and the hound, attempting to leap, fell and died on this side. Both their heads were"
image CAM2P160, button  goto source
Page 160:-  "nailed on the tree, and the dog's name being Hercules, they made this rhyme on them inscribed on a brass plate:"
"Hercules kill'd Hartagreese
And Hartagreese kill'd Hercules."
"But this seems all vulgar tradition, and for Red kirk we should rather suppose Nine kirks at Brougham a neighbouring parish; and before this there was a place in the park called Harthorn sike, perhaps from some large horns."

evidence:-   old text:- Gents Mag
item:-  hunting
source data:-   Magazine, The Gentleman's Magazine or Monthly Intelligencer or Historical Chronicle, published by Edward Cave under the pseudonym Sylvanus Urban, and by other publishers, London, monthly from 1731 to 1922.
image G825A516, button  goto source
Gentleman's Magazine 1825 part 1 p.516  "Compendium of County History. - Westmorland."
"... WHINFELL, ... The hart's-horn tree which grew by the way-side near Hornby Hall had its name from a pair of horns hung up in it about 1333 or 1334, after a memorable chase. The stag was started by a grey-hound, and after chasing it to a considerable distance and back again, the stag vaulted the park paling, but instantly died. The dog, in attempting to clear it, fell backwards and expired. One of these horns were broken out of the tree in 1648, and the other in 1658. ..."

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