button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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[Wil]ton, and Strickland 1419. Here were an house of Grey and another of Black friars [x]. and an hospital of St. Nicholas, of royal foundation, for 13 lepers before 22 Edward I. [y] and here is now another mean parish church, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, with an altar-monment of the Dentons of the 15th century.
  placename, Carlisle
The first half of Caerleol signifying a city, the other may have some resemblance to Luguvallium, softened into Luol, Leol, and then into Leel, mistaken for the French termination L'isle [z]. Dr. Gale [a] derives it from Lle an army, and Gual the wall, as Lugdunum from Llu and dun a hill., for Tacitus [b] says that the Lyonnois call themselves a Roman colony and part of the army. Lugo Augusti in Mela is Turris Agusti [c]. As to Ptolemy's Λενκοπιξια it is Whithern in Galloway. The Saxon Chronicle [d] says that Rufus, after placing a garrison here, returned into the south, and sent hither [myccle maenige Eyrhrcen folces mid thisane & othre thaerto thunigene that land to thane - Anglo Saxon = sent many men and their women and livestock there to settle and till the land?], which bishop Gibson in his edition of the Chonicle, had translated a great multitude of English, but in his Camden proposes reading [Lyrhrcen - Anglo Saxon], q.d. Husbandmen, as better agreeing with the tillage there mentioned, and all the records ascribe the first improvement of the country to this colony.
  Pl.XI. fig.1.
  Pl.XI. fig.2.

The first inscription given here by Mr. Camden is now built up in the back wall of the house at Drawdikes, and was originally brought from Stanwicks. Horsley's copy [e] is most correct, and reads in the 3d line Augustiani a name frequent in Gruter, and in the 5th Aelia Ammilla Lusima. It appears to be of the lower empire, though k for l is common on inscriptions older than any in Britain [f]. The armed horseman is not now on the stone. The other fine and beautiful inscription is in the garden at Naworth [g].
The copper crescent P.XI. fig.3, 4. was found 1728 in digging a cellar over against the Bush inn in this city, and communicated to Mr. Horsley by Mr. Richard Goodman of that place, who supposed it an ornament or symbol of Isis or a fibula. Mr. Gale explained it to be a part of horse trappings hung at the horse's breast by the ring, and a pendant fixed to it from the hole in the shank [h].
Andrew de Harcla created earl of Carlisle 15 Edward II. being intoxicated with his sudden elevation, and, out of pique to the Spensers, caballing with the Scots, was executed next year [i]. The title was revived 1362 in the person of Charles great grandson of lord William Howard 3d son of Thomas duke of Norfolk, who by marriage with the heiress of Dacre became possessed of Naworth castle [k]. He died 1686, and was buried at Graystock. He was succeeded by his son Edward, buried at Wickham; he 1692 by his son Charles; he 1738 by his son Henry, and he by his only son Frederick 5th and present earl. The two last earls are buried at Castle Howard in Yorkshire, where Charles the 3d built a noble house and mausoleum, of which see before, p.84.
Carlisle was burned by the Scots in the reign of Henry III. and twice by accident in that of Edward I. A parliament met here 31 Edward I. and what great things they did in opposing the papal extortions, furthering the expedition against Scotland, concluding the marriage of prince Edward with a daughter of France, and other public transactions, our historians abundantly inform us. Edward I. continued here from January to June, when he set out on his expedition against Scotland, and died at Burgh on Sands. Robert Bruce burned this city 9 Edward II. and its earl Andrew de Harcla joining with Bruce was arrested in the castle, and hanged here. It was miserably harrassed in the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, and in vain beseiged by the insurgents under Aske in the reign of Henry VIII. That king is said to have built the citadel, which was repaired by Elizabeth. In 1597 here died of the plague 1196 persons. The city was surrendered to Lesley and the parliament forces after a severe seige, during which 3s. pieces were coined out of the plate of the inhabitants. In 1745 its weak garrison and defenceless state occasioned it to be surrendered to the rebels, by whom it was soon after given up. Great and ample privileges have been granted to this city by our several princes. It is now governed by a mayor, eleven aldermen, two bailiffs, two coroners, 24 common-council, and a recorder. It sends two members to parliament, and the assizes for the county are held here by statute 14 Henry VI. The see was founded by Henry I. a.r. 23. as the priory by him soon after his accession. Philip and Mary granted to the bishop the advowson and collation of all the four prebends. Here are two parish churches, St. Cuthbert's and St. Mary's. When the steeple of the former was rebuilt in the reign of Elizabeth there was found a large parcel of small silver coins to the quantity of near a Winchester bushel, called St. Cuthbert's pence, and supposed to have been an oblation at the first building. The latter church is the cathedral. Henry endowed the church with the tithes of all lands broken up for cultivation within Inglewood forest, by giving it an ivory horn. This horn, as it is called, is two teeth of an elephant, now remaining in the cathedral [l]. Bishop Halton petitioned Edward II. for a piece of ground to build an house for himself and successors within the precincts of the castle and within the city walls. The Pope, on the king's application, appropriated the church of Horncastle c. Lincoln, to the bishop's own use, for a retreat and provision against the Scotch inroads [m].
  Carlisle, Bishop of
Among the 51 bishops of the see, two are particularly intitled to a place in this work for their distinguished application and eminent proficiency in the subjects of it. Bishop Nicolson, son of Joseph Nicolson, rector of Plumland in this county, whose various writings are enumerated in Dr. Burn's History of Cumberland [n], for which he left such ample materials in three volumes folio, and one in octavo; the former bequeathed by him to the dean and chapter, the latter to his nephew Joseph Nicolson of Hawksdale, esq; Dr. Burn's coadjutor in his publication: Bishop Lyttelton, whose attention to the interests of antiquarian science while he was president of the Society of Antiquities found so faith-
[x] Tan. 78.
[y] Ib. 77.
[z] Horsl. 409.
[a] Anton. p.37. MS. n.
[b] Hist. I.
[c] See Simler's Antoninus, p.281.
[d] P. 108.
[e] Cumb. xxxix.
[f] Horsl. 265.
[g] Cumb. xxiv. Horsl. 258. Dr. Gale saw it at general Stanwic's. MS. Ant.
[h] MS. letter among Mr. Allan's.
[i] Dugd. Bar. II. 97.
[k] Dugd. Bar. II. 281.
[l] Archaeol. I. 168.
[m] Burn, II. 228-310.
[n] Burn, I. 120.
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