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placename:- St Bees Lighthouse
site name:- North Head
site name:- St Bees Head
parish St Bees parish, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
lighthouse
coordinates:- NX94151437
10Km square:- NX91

1Km square NX9414

photograph

St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- 29.8.2008
photograph

St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- 29.8.2008

old map:- OS County Series (Cmd 67 13)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- St Bees Lighthouse
lighthouse
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD02NX91, button to large image
Light House
Tower symbol, on St Bees Head.
county:- Cumberland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

source:- Otley 1818

New Map of the District of the Lakes, in Westmorland, Cumberland, and Lancashire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by Jonathan Otley, engraved by J and G Menzies, Edinburgh, Lothian, Scotland, published by J Otley, Keswick, Cumberland now Cumbria, 1818; pblished 1818 to 1850s.
image OT02NX91, button   goto source.
thumbnail OT02NX91, button to large image
Lt. House
Marked by a tower.
lighthouse

old drawing:- Smith 1746 B

Survey of the Coast of Cumberland, by George Smith, 1746
thumbnail SM2102, button to large image
Drawing, pencil and ink, A View of Bees Head, in a Survey of the Coast of Cumberland, by George Smith, 1746.
ms at bottom:-
A View of Bees-head, from the rocks above White-haven.
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early

old chart:- Hydrographic Office 1850s onwards (edn 1973)

St. Bees Head / Gp. Fl. (2) 20 sec. 336 ft. 21 M. / Fog Detr. Lt. E.F. Horn (2)

placename:- St Bees Head
date:- 1875
period:- 19th century, late; 1870s

old map:- Walker 1842

Chart, Position of all the Lighthouses in the British Isles, scale about 38 nautical miles to 1 inch, published by J and A Walker, 72 South Castle Street, Liverpool, Lancashire, 1842.
marked as a coast light
St. Bees Hd. - Steady
date:- 1842
period:- 19th century, early; 1840s

old map:- Hydrographic Office 1850s onwards

coast view on Admiralty chart
thumbnail HY01P5, button to large image
Lighthouse
date:- 1858
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- Lantern, and the fresnel lens. -- 29.8.2008
tiny photograph, 
button to large St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- Weathervane on the lantern. -- 29.8.2008
tiny photograph, 
button to large St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- Coat of arms of the Corporation of Trinity House, motto:- -- 'TRINITAS IN UNITAM' -- 29.8.2008
tiny photograph, 
button to large St Bees Lighthouse -- North Head -- St Bees Head -- St Bees -- Cumbria / -- Foghorn, a short way off on the cliff top, -- NX93991443 (at) -- 29.8.2008

Woodman, Richard: 1985: View from the Sea: Century Publishing (London):: ISBN 0 7126 1024 3

hearsay Trinity House were granted a patent for a light here in 1718, requested in response to merchant traders sailing in these seas. They farmed out the task by a lease to Thomas Lutwige for 99 years at an annual rent of L20.00. He was to build and maintain a light, and was allowed to levy three halfpence per ton on shipping at Whitehaven, Workington and Maryport for his trouble. He built an untidy tower with lighthouse keepers' accomodation at the base. The keepers were paid 7s. a week; they climbed up ladders to tend the fire in an iron basket hung from a gallows at the top.
William Hutchinson commented on the uselessness of coal lights in 1760s:-
Open coal fire light, exposed to all winds and weathers, cannot be made to burn and show a constant steady blaze to be seen at a sufficient distance ... for in storms of wind, when lights are most wanted, these fires are made to burn furiously ... so as to melt the very ironwork about the grate, and in cold weather when it snows, hails or rains hard, the keepers of the lights do not care to expose themselves ...
Robert Stevenson described the light in 1801:-
St Bees light is from coals exposed upon the top of an old tower in an open chauffer, which is at the top only two feet diameter, at bottom one foot six inches and two feet deep; so that in storms, so small a body of fire cannot be kept up as it ought ot be. About one hundred and thirty tons of coal are said to be used annually.
William Daniell RA, sketched the ruinous lighthouse in 1814, noting that it:-
... was of the meanest description and provided with a very bad light supplied by a coal fire. I imagine a light in this situation is admitted to be of very little use or such a one as this could not scarcley be submitted to or escpae the vigilant observation of the Trinity House.
It displayed the light of a coal fire, and its column of smoke in the daytime, till 1822 when the tower caught fire. There is said to be a painting of this early light at Trinity House.
Joseph Nelson built a new tower at a cost of L2322.00, with argand burners and reflectors. In the mid 19th century it was altered to a flashing light. New optics were fitted in 1951; a 1500 watt electric lamp with a catadioptric lens, showing two white flashes in twenty seconds. The light intensity is 146000 candelas and is visible 21miles on a clear dark night.

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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