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placename:- Furness
county:- Cumbria
locality
coordinates:- SD27
10Km square:- SD26, SD27, SD28, SD29

1Km square SD2070

text:- Mason 1907 (edn 1930)

Page 31:-
...
FURNESS is a bit of Lancashire entirely separated from the rest of the county by the waters of Morecambe Bay. The little Winster stream alone divides it from Westmoreland, and the Duddon from Cumberland; but nowhere does it touch the shire of which it forms a part.
Furness is in every way like the two counties between which it is wedged; it is a bit of mountain country, full of slate mountains of the Cumbrian group. Like Scotland, it consists of highlands and lowlands: Low Furness is the peninsula at the end of the district, which has low shores and low islands lying off the shores; the largest of these is Walney Isle. Slate is quarried in the slate mountains of High Furness, and veins of lead and copper are worked. In Low Furness, where the rocks are not of slate, but of mountain limestone, a great treasure has been found of late years, enormous beds of iron-ore, which yields iron of the very best kind. This valuable "find" has changed much of Low Furness into a Black Country, full of smoke, and noisy with the roar of blast furnaces and the clang of many hammers. ...
date:- 1907
period:- 1900s

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 22:-
...
All the way to Furness, ... There are few objects more picturesque, to this day, than the huts of the woodcutters, who remain on a particular spot till their work is done. Upon piled stems of trees heather is heaped, to make a shaggy
Page 23:-
thatch; and when the smoke is oozing out, thin and blue, from the hole in the centre, or the children are about the fire in front, where the great pot is boiling, the sketcher cannot but stop and dash down the scene in his book. The children will say he is "spying fancies," - as they say of every one who sketches, botanizes, or in any way explores; and perhaps somebody may have the good taste to advise him to come at night, when the glow from the fires makes the thicket a scene of singular wildness and charm. A sad story about a charcoal-burner belongs to this neighbourhood. On two farms lived families which were about to be connected by marriage. The young lover was a "coaler," - a charcoal-burner; and one stormy day, when he was watching his fire, and sitting on a stone near his hut to take his dinner, he was struck dead by lightning. The poor crazed survivor, his Kitty Dawson, went to that hut after the funeral, and would never leave it again. She did nothing but sit on that stone, or call his name through the wood. She was well cared for. There was always food in the hut, and some kind eye daily on the watch,- though with care not to intrude. One day in winter, some sportsmen who were passing took the opportunity of leaving some provision in the hut. They became silent, and silenced their dogs. But she could never more be disturbed. They found her dead.
person:- charcoal burner
person:- : Dawson, Kittty
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

old map:- Close 1805

A Map of Furness, Lancashire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, drawn by William Close, engraved by R Hixon, Strand, London, published by George Ashburner, Ulverston, Lancashire, 1805.
A MAP of FURNESS
thumbnail CS02, button to large image

placename:- Furness
date:- 1805
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 131:-
...
While I was looking round from this hill [in Lancaster] for the mouth of the Lone which empties itself not much below, Forness, the other part of this county, almost torn off by the sea, presented itself to my view. For the shore here running out a great way to the west, the sea, as if enraged at it, lashes it more furiously, and, in high tides. has even devoured the shore, and made three large bays, viz. Kentsand, into which the river Ken empties itself, Levensand and Duddensand, between which the land projects in such a manner that it has its name thence, Foreness and Foreland signifying the same with us as Promontorium anterius in Latin.

placename:- Foreness
other name:- Fourness
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 142:-
...
Mr. Camden speaks of Furness as almost separated from Lancashire by the encroachment of the sea. He might have affirmed that it is no where else connected with any part of the county. ...
Page 142:-
...
The low or plain part of Furness, which is so called to distinguish it from the woody or mountainous part, produces all sorts of grain, but principally oats, whereof the bread eaten in this country is generally made; and there are found here veins of a very rich iron ore, which is not only melted and wrought here, but great quantities are exported to other parts to mix with poorer ores.
In the mountainous parts of this country are found quarries of a fine durable blue slate to cover buildings with, which are made use of in many other parts of the kingdom; and here are several cotton-mills lately erected; and if fuel for fire were more plentiful, the trade in this country would much increase; but there being no coals nearer than Wigan or Whitehaven, and the coast duties high, firing is rather scarce, the country people using only turf or peat, and that begins to be more scarce than formerly.
Bishop Gibson derives the name of Fourness from the numerous furnaces there antiently, whose rents and services called Bloomsmithy rent are still annually paid.
In the mosses of Furness much fir is found, but more oak: the trunks in general lie with their heads to the east, the high winds having been from the west. High Furness has ever had great quantities of sheep which browse upon the hollies left in great numbers for them; and produces charcoal for melting iron ore, and oak bark for tanners' use in great abundance. Low Furness was applied to the uses of agriculture. The forests abounded with deer and wild boars, and the legh or scofe or large stags, whose horns are frequently found underground here.
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- West 1784 map

A Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, now Cumbria, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, engraved by Paas, 53 Holborn, London, included in the Guide to the Lakes by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Westmorland, and in London, from the 3rd edition 1784, to 1821.
LOW FURNESS
image Ws02SD27, button   goto source.
thumbnail Ws02SD27, button to large image

placename:- Low Furness
county:- Lancashire

poem:- Drayton 1612/1622 text

Poem, Polyolbion, by Michael Drayton, published 1612, part 2 with Cumbria published by John Marriott, John Grismand, and Thomas Dewe, London, 1622.
page 135:-
page 136:-

placename:- Furnesse
person:- : Amphitrite
person:- : Saxons
person:- : Britons
date:- 1612; 1622
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s; 1620s

source:- Lloyd 1573

Map, Angliae Regni, Kingdom of England, with Wales, scale about 24 miles to 1 inch, authored by Humphrey Lloyd, Denbigh, Clwyd, drawn and engraved by Abraham Ortelius, Netherlands, 1573.
thumbnail Lld1Cm, button to large image
Furnes

placename:- Furnes
date:- 1573
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

button   roman road, Furness

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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