button to main menu  Gents Mag 1824 part 1 p.4

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Gentleman's Magazine 1824 part 1 p.4
removed from among these, as the two latter distances seem to admit of such a supposition. Between these four and the fourteen at the south end, only fifteen now remain in their original position. They are left here and there, and serve as a sort of guide to trace the course of the monument. The blasted and broken fragments of the others maya be seen in the walls adjoining.
One of the most prominent that remains, is called Guggleby stone, which formed part of the west line, and stands on its small end near the footpath leading to the village of Keld; it is eight feet high and 37 feet in girth at its middle. The stone next remaining north of it, which formed part of the east line, is about 13 feet long, and six feet in diameter; but it is a different kind of stone to all the rest; this is basalt or whinstone, and all the others are granite. This stone probably once was placed upon its end; for one end seems to have been squared with a chisel, and it has the appearance of having been overturned by digging limestone from beneath it. In the middle of the part squared is a hole four inches over, and two inches deep; about two feet therefrom, on a sloping corner, is another hole of about the same size. on one of the corners at the other end is a rude circle, eight inches across, and a shallow hole in the centre. By minute examination, other inscriptions of this kind, perhaps, might be found here, as on the obelisks at Aubrey described by Dr. Stukeley.
These masses of granite were, no doubt, originally from Wastdale, which is about two miles from the south end of the monument: for here a bed of similar granite is found, the only bed I believe in Westmoreland. It is remarkable that, for the distance of three miles eastward from the low end of Wastdale, an immense quantity of rounded worn-like granite stones of all sizes, up to four yards in diameter, are found scattered over the face of the country to the above distance or further, which is wholly of a limestone and freestone strata. They seem to be spread in a fan-like form from Wastdale, and are more thickly scattered, and also of smaller size, as the distance increases. These primary stones being found on the surface of secondary ones, demonstrate that they have been thus thrown by some convulsion of nature of which we have no record; or, according to Professor Buckland, in his Reliquiae Diluvianae on similar appearances, they have thus been transported and drifted by a diluvial current. He, indeed, supposes, that a diluvial current is the only adequate cause that can account for these appearances. See also Edin. Rev. for Oct. 1823, No.77.
Whether the stones which composed the Carl Lofts were brought direct from Wastdale, or whether they were gathered from among the scattered ones, can only now be a mater of conjecture; but probably they were some of the scattered ones; as they might be found nearer for carriage and already detached. But how such immense blocks (several being from 3 to 4 yards in diameter) could be carried and placed in the regular manner they were, it is difficult to form an idea.
"That the monument was Danish, may be inferred from the custom of the northern nations of arranging their recording stones in forms that they seemed to determine should be expressive of certain events; those that were placed in straight and long order commemorated the emulations of champions: squares shewed equestrian conflicts: circles the interments of families: wedge-shaped a fortunate victory."* Pennant agrees in this opinion, and supposes that "success might have attended the northern invaders in this place, which gave rise to their long arrangement."† Hence, if this be correct, they have been placed here between eight or nine hundred years. Dr. Burn in his History of Westmoreland, says, "undoubtedly this hath been a place of Druid worship, which they always performed in the open air within this kind of inclosure, shaded with wood, as this place of old time appears to have been, although there is now scarce a tree to be seen, (Shap Thorn only excepted, planted on the top of a hill for the direction of travellers). At the high end of this place of worship, there is a circle of the like stones about 18 feet in diameter, which was their sanctum sanctorum, as it were, and place of sacrifice." But Dr. Burn seems only to have taken a limited view of the monument. He only speaks of the south end upon the com-
* Olaus Magnus de Gent. Septentr. l.1. c.18.
† Pennant's Northern Tour, i. 297.
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