button to main menu  Simpson's Agreeable Historian, 1746

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Page 174:-
and contains about 1,040,000 Acres, and 14,825 Houses. It is not divided into Hundreds, as most other Counties are, but Wards, of which there are five, viz. South-Ward, North-Ward, West-Ward, Leath-Ward, and Eskdale-Ward, wherein are 58 Parishes, containing one City, one Borough, and 12 other Market Towns; and sends six Members to Parliament, two for the County, two for the City of Carlisle, and two for the Borough of Cockermouth.

The Air is cold and sharp, tho' not so much as might be expected from its Northern Situation, being shelter'd by Hills on the Side next Scotland. The Soil is for the most Part fruitful of Corn and Grass, the Plains affording good Plenty of the one, and the rich Mountains of the other, which are therefore always stocked with great Store of Sheep. The County affords pleasant Prospects, which would be still more agreeable, if Trees could be brought to thrive better than they generally do. The chief Commodities are Coal, Lead, Copper, Lapis Calaminaris, Black Lead, (call'd by the Inhabitants Wadd,) Fish, especially Salmon, Wild Fowl, Pearls, &c. The Black Lead, which is almost peculiar to this County, is not properly a Metal or Mineral, but rather an Earth, strongly impregnated with the Streams of Lead: There is more of it here than suffices for the Consumption throughout Europe. As to the Pearls, they are found at the Mouth of the little Brook Irt, somewhat to the N. of Ravenglass, in a sort of Shell Fish, or Muscles, which the Country People used to gather up at low Water: They are of all Colours; those that are not bright and shining, commonly call'd Sand-Pearl, are as useful in Physick, as the finest, tho' not so beautiful. There has been a Patent not long since granted to some Gentlemen and others for Pearl Fishing here, but it is uncertain whether it will turn to any Account.

There are many considerable Rivers in this County, and large Bodies of Water, which the Inhabitants call'd Meres. Of the Rivers, the Chief are the Eden, and the Derwent: the Eden takes its Rise from Ulles Water, and after a Course of about 30 Miles
gazetteer links
button -- "South Ward" -- Allerdale above Derwent Ward
button -- "West Ward" -- Allerdale below Derwent Ward
button -- (black lead mine, Seathwaite)
button -- "North Ward" -- Cumberland Ward
button -- "Cumberland" -- Cumberland
button -- "Eden, River" -- Eden, River
button -- "Eskdale Ward" -- Eskdale Ward
button -- "Picts Wall" -- Hadrian's Wall
button -- "Irt Brook" -- Irt, River
button -- "Leath Ward" -- Leath Ward
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