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Waterfalls
Forces


image BMH23.jpg

Everywhere in the Lakes there are falls of water, small and large. There are endless small falls with a picturesque gnarled tree just by. There are large and noisy falls over lumpy rocks. Some falls are very diasppointing unless it has rained recently.



map features
Examples of the map symbol for waterfalls, Cumbria from a miscellany of map notes (in no order).
Bacon c1890s Bacon's Map of Cumberland
example symbol on  
map
Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering upstream. Some rivers are labelled, in a variety of styles, eg:-
'R. Bleng'
'Eden River'
'Gelt Riv.'
'Esk R.'
'Trout Beck'
'Croglin Water'
'Ease Gill'
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. A few bridges are labelled, perhaps by settlement names, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Esk Bridge'
'Stockley Br.'
'Ouse Br.'
'Pooley Bridge'
Waterfalls might be marked by two or three lines across a stream, and labelled, eg:-
'Sour Milk Force'
'Birker Force'
'Scale Force'
Black 1841 map Lake District of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire
River estuaries are drawn in some detail, and have the coast shading. Rivers are then drawn by wiggly line tapering inland; a large river might be drawn by a double line with form lines, and islands, for example see the River Lune. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'R. Mite'
'River Duddon'
'Wampool R.'
'Troutbeck'
'Riv. Eden'
The table of symbols says that waterfalls will be shown by 2 or 3 short lines across a stream's course. Examples can be seen at Rydal, labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'Upper Fall [2 lines]'
'Lower Fall [3 lines]'
and around Skelwith:-
'Colwith Force'
'Fall'
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. Some are labelled, eg:-
'Skelwith Br.'
'Troutbeck Bridge'
Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Derwent Water) Accurate Map of the Matchless Lake of Derwent
The rivers that feed and drain the lake are drawn by double line with form lines; single wiggly lines are used for most of the minor streams entering the lake. Rivers might be labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Derwent R.'
'Greata River'
'Grange River'
'Mr West's Black Beck of Torver'
example symbol on  
map
Bridges are marked where a road crosses and interrupts a stream.
The Lake District has so many waterfalls that would be noticed in the south of England, that they are often taken for granted. The map points out falls particularly worthy of remark; though the criteria are no more clear than in a modern tourist guide. Round Derwent Water are:-
'Pocklington's Cascade & two Summer Houses'
on the stream on the east that passes Barrow Cascade Hall belonging to Joseph Pocklington. He had 'improved' this waterfall. And in the south east corner:-
'The Great Waterfall / R. Stephenson's Esq.'
which is Lodore Falls.
The area to the north of the lake has a label about erosion:-
'Here lie the Splendid Spoils of Mountain Floods; Those Fertile Plains, brought Captive from their Sides, And yon Stupendous Chasms (Cloud high) have left; Bereft of Soil.'
Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Ullswater) Accurate Map of the Beautiful Lake of Ulls Water
The rivers that feed and drain the lake are drawn by double line with form lines; unobtrusive single wiggly lines are used for the minor streams entering the lake. Rivers might be labelled, eg:-
'Goldrill beck'
'Grysedale beck'
'Ara River'
On this river is labelled:-
'Ara Force or Cataract / 80 Feet Fall'
Bridges are marked where a road crosses and interrupts a stream, or by a double line, in the absence of the road. Some of the engraving shows the road and river intersecting rather than the road interrupting the stream; the bridge/road engraving looks like an afterthought so maybe this does not imply a ford. Bridges are not labelled.
Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Coniston Water) Accurate Map of Coniston Lake
The main rivers that feed and drain the lake are drawn by double line with form lines; unobtrusive single wiggly lines are used for the minor streams. Rivers might be labelled, eg:-
'Church Beck'
'Yew-dale Beck'
'Oxness ... River'
'Mr. West's Black Beck of Torver'
Bridges are marked where a road crosses and interrupts one of the larger rivers. The engraving of the road across minor streams intersects rather than interrupts; perhaps implying fords.
Crosthwaite 1783-94 (Buttermere etc) Accurate Map of Buttermere, Crummock and Loweswater Lakes
The main rivers that feed and drain the lakes are drawn by double line with form lines; unobtrusive single wiggly lines are mostly used for the minor streams. Rivers might be labelled, eg:-
'Sour Milk Gill'
'Cocker River'
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts one of the larger rivers. The road to Scale Force appears to be crossed by the river, perhaps fords?
A messy bit of engraving on the stream running to Crummock Water is labelled:-
'Scale Force'
but no other waterfall is noticed. Scale Force is described in a note lower right:-
'The Water at Scale Force falls 152 feet within 6 Degrees of Perpendicular, and the mean quantity of water to be meet with would perhaps pass through a hole at the lower end of a Hogshead one foot Square, before it would overflow at the upper end.'
Hudson 1842 map (4th edn 1853) Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering upstream. The broader part just above an estuary might be a double line with form lines. A number are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'R. Leven'
'Mint R.'
'Stanley Gill'
A number of river valleys are labelled, and in some instances this is the only indicator of the river name; examples:-
'Glencoin'
'Grisedale'
But, remember that not all valley names are river names, as at:-
'Deepdale'
Waterfalls might be marked by two chevrons across a stream, perhaps labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Lowdore Waterfall'
'Scale Force'
The chevrons might point up or down the fall.
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. A few are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Duddon Br.'
'Penny Bridge'
'Garnett Br.'
but it is not always clear whether a bridge or settlement is labelled.
The layout of roads each side of Windermere suggests the ferry, which is not marked or labelled. But it is indicated by the building labelled:-
'Ferry Inn'
Nelson 1859 map Rivers are drawn by a wiggly line tapering upstream. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'R. Ehen'
'Ellen R.'
'Cald Beck'
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream, and some are labelled. Often the label could apply to the settlement at the bridge as at:-
'Penny Bridge'
But there are instances where the bridge is meant, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Laverock Br.'
'Mint Br.'
'Bell Br [N of Sebergham]'
Waterfalls are marked by a double line across a stream, labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Galeforth Spout'
'Scale Force'
'Aira Force'
or just:-
'Waterfall [Lodore]'
Otley 1818 District of the Lakes
example symbol on  
map
Rivers are drawn by wiggly line tapering upstream. A wider river might be drawn by double line, with form lines, for example the Lune near Lancaster. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
'Leven R.'
'Duddon River'
'River Kent'
'Cockley Beck'
Where the flo of a river is not clear there might be an arrow, as on the Eden at the north of the map area.
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. A few are labelled, though it is not always clear whether a bridge or settlement is labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Newby Bridge'
'Pooley Bridge'
'Santon Bridge'
The last is labelled alongside a village labelled Pooley. There are bridges shown by a double line across a stream, without any nearby road, for example over the Kent north of Burneside.
By Windermere there is a label:-
'Ferry'
example symbol on  
map
A waterfall might be indicated, for example see the three down arrows across the stream line above Rydal. Less clear are the arrows under the label:-
'Scale Force'
by Crummock Water.
West 1784 map Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire
Rivers are drawn by wiggly lines tapering upstream from their estuaries which have form lines. Some are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Crake R.'
'Kent River'
'Cockley Beck'
Many rivers are shown, but the countless small becks!
Lakes are drawn in outline, with form lines, mostly tinted blue. Many are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'DERWENT WATER'
example symbol on  
map
'Kentmere Tarn'
'WINDERMERE WATER'
'THURSTON OR CONISTON WATER'
Islands are shown in the lakes.
Bridges are not drawn, but are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. A few are labelled, eg:-
'Duddon Bridge'
'Ouse Bridge'
'Pooley Bridge'
A couple of waterfalls are noticed:-
example symbol on  
map
'Waterfall [E side of Ambleside]'
'Waterfall [on the Kent, E if Sizergh]'
The alignment of roads either side of Windermere water, south of Bowness, suggests a ferry.

references

Blair, Don: 2002: Exploring Lakeland Waterfalls: Lakeland Manor Press (Keswick, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 9543904 0 7

Fellows, Griff J: 2003: Waterfalls of England: Sigma Leaisure (Wilmsloe, Cheshire):: ISBN 1 85058 767 1; upland England, useful gazetteer for The Lakes

Welsh, Mary & Hindmarsh, Joy (illus): 1985: Naturalist's Guide to Lakeland Waterfalls throughout the Year: Westmorland Gazette (Kendal, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 902272 61 6

Welsh, Mary & Macaulay, David (illus): 1987: Second Naturalist's Guide to Lakeland Waterfalls throughout the Year: Westmorland Gazette (Kendal, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 90227265 9

Welsh, Mary & Macaulay, David (illus): 1987: Third Naturalist's Guide to Lakeland Waterfalls throughout the Year: Westmorland Gazette (Kendal, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 902272 73 X

Welsh, Mary & Macaulay, David (illus): 1989: Fourth Naturalist's Guide to Lakeland Waterfalls throughout the Year: Westmorland Gazette (Kendal, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 902272 80 2



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