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Sea Areas

Irish Sea

image BNQ81.jpg

The Irish Sea washes the shores of Cumbria from the Solway Firth to Morecambe Bay. Across the firth you can see Scotland, the hills of Dumfries and Galloway. In the Irish Sea you might glimpse the Isle of Man. To the south are the mountains of Wales. Or you might see nothing at all.



map features
Examples of the map symbol for sea areas, Cumbria from a miscellany of map notes (in no order).
Aikin 1790 Westmoreland ...
A tiny area of sea in the Kent Estuary is plain.
Bowen 1720 Westmorland
The small area of sea shown at the Leven and Kent estuaries is plain, tinted blue.
private collection (224) example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
Bacon c1890s Bacon's Map of Cumberland
example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. A few sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'Salton Bay'
Sandbanks might be shown by a dotted outline, perhaps labelled, eg:-
'Silloth Bank'
'Middle Bank'
The sea area is plain with some areas labelled, eg:-
'ENGLISH CHANNEL'
Badeslade 1742 Map of Westmorland North from London
The small sea area is plain.
Batty 1888 Principal Mountains of Westmorland and Cumberland
The sea area is plain. One part is labelled:-
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Bazaar 1890 The sea area is shaded, and some areas are labelled, eg:-
'ENGLISH CHANNEL'
Bazaar 1890 (EW/Cum/ edn c1896) The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'Allonby Bay'
'Bay of Morecambe'
Roberts c1800 The sea area is plain, some areas labelled, eg:-
'ENGLISH CN[ ]'
the remainder cut off by the dissection.
Bill 1626 (Wmd) example symbol on  
map
The sea area is engraved with a moire effect.
Black 1870s The sea are is tinted blue, fading to uncoloured far from land. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'ENGLISH CHANNEL'
Black 1841 map Lake District of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire
The sea area is plain, with some areas labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Morecambe Bay'
Although not drawn as a shipping route, a line S by W from the estuary south of Ulverston is labelled:-
'Direction of Fleetwood 19 miles in direct distance from Ulverston'
Black 1850 map (Cum/Railways) example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. Two areas are labelled:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'BAY OF MORECAMBE'
Blaeu 1645 Little sea is shown on the Westmorland map, on the Cumberland map the sea areas are plain, labelled:-
'MARE HIBERNICUM Anglis THE IRISH SEA'
partly in swash lettering. The Solway Firth is labelled:-
'Ituna Bay / Eden fl'
Two galleons are drawn in the Irish Sea. Each seems to have three masts and a sprit with some sails set others furled; spritsail, fore and fore top sails, main and main top sails, lateen sail on the mizzen mast.
Blome 1673 (Wmd) Mapp of ye Countie of Westmorland
The small sea in river estuaries, is plain.
Blome 1681 (Wmd/Cmd) The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
'Itune Bay'
Hinton 1748 (Cmd) The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE BRITISH OCEAN [Irish Sea]'
'Solway Firth'
'Ituna Bay [Solway/Eden]'
Bowen and Bowen 1767 Cumberland and Westmorland
The sea area is plain, but filled with panels of descriptive text and, of course, the latitude and longitude grid lines. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Moricambe'
'Solway Firth or Eden River'
Walney Island is missing, although the outline of Lancashire north of the sands is shown.
Bowen and Kitchin 1760 The sea areas are plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Solway Frith now Eden R.'
'Moricambe'
'IRISH SEA'
Bowles 1773 The sea is plain, some sea areas labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'IRISH SEA'
Brookes 1773 map Map of England and Wales ...
The sea area is plain, the area off Cumberland labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
Butters 1803 (Wmd) The tiny amount of sea area shown in the Kent Estuary is shaded and tinted blue green.
Cary 1798 map 1 (6th edn 1815) The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are lebelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
Cary 1789 Map of Westmoreland ...
The small amount of sea area shown in the Kent Estuary is plain.
Cary 1787 example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain; a few areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'SOLWAY FRITH or EDEN R'
Cary 1794 New Map of England and Wales
The sea area off Cumberland is shaded. Two areas are labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'Allonby Bay'
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
Cary 1798 map 2 (11th edn 1828) Environs of the Lakes ...
The sea area shown, the Irish Sea, is plain and unlabelled.
Chambers 1890s The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Solway Firth'
'Morecameb B.'
Collins 1852 Collins' Pocket Ordnance Railway Atlas of Great Britain
The sea area is plain. Off Cumbria are labelled:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'Morecambe B.'
Collins 1693 example symbol on  
map
The sea areas is plain. Depth soundings are given in fathoms; these are scattered over the chart though it is possible to see some lines of soundings, for example westward from St Bees Head.
Sandbanks are shown by dotted areas, with a double line of dots around the edge. There might be relevant depth soundings, and a sandbank might be labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'King Williams Sand'
'Hyle Sand'
example symbol on  
map
A couple of ships are shown. One of these, for example, off Kirkcumbrick, is a three masted ship; sprit with small mast, fore mast with main and top sails, main mast with a furled main and a top sail, mizzen mast with a lateen sail and a yard for a top sail. The hull appears to be black and white with a row of at least four gun ports, perhaps a naval vessel. It is possible to imagine a large lantern at the stern.
Cooke 1802 Lakes, The ...
The sea area west of Cumberland is plain, labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
Cooper 1808 Westmoreland
The sea area, Morecambe Bay, is shaded and tinted blue.
Cowley 1743 Improved Map of Westmoreland
What little sea is shown is plain.
Cruchley 1870s example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'Bay of Morecambe'
'SOLWAY FRITH'
'Allonby Bay'
Drayton 1612/1622 example symbol on  
map
The sea is engraved with a moire effect pattern, tinted pale blue?
Dury 1764 Chart of the Cumberland Coast
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Solway Frith'
Ellis 1765 Modern Map of Westmoreland ...
The small sea areas either side of the Cartmel peninsula are plain, not tinted.
Feltham 1803 map 1 Great Roads of England and Wales ...
The sea area is plain.
Feltham 1803 map 2 Lakes, The
The tiny bit of sea at Bootle is plain.
Ford 1839 map The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'Wampool Bay'
'Duddon Mouth'
Garnett 1850s-60s H (edn 1870s) The sea is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Gibson 1759 The tiny amount of sea area shown in the Leven and Kent Estuaries is plain.
Jefferys 1757 New Map of England and Wales
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
Grierson 1749 (EW/Chart) The sea is plain, and has a scatter of depth soundings, presumably in fathoms. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'CHANNEL'
'Tor Bay'
Sandbanks are shown by dotted areas. In the Hampshire area there are:-
'Shingels'
'Middle / Owers'
Crosses (+) are used to mark rocks. To the west of the Isle of Wight are three dots labelled:-
'Needles'
Hall 1822 Map of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire
The sea area is plain, and unlabelled.
Harrison 1790 The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Solway Frith or Eden R.'
Hogg 1784 New Map of Cumberland and Westmoreland
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Moricambo'
'Solway Firth or Eden R.'
A sandbank is outlined by dotted line off Drigg, labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'Burr Sand'
Hollar 1644 (edn 1675+) The sea area is plain. There are lines at odd angles across the sea areas which look like rhumb lines from centres off this sheet of the map. I have not tried to produce lines back to possible centres to make further deductions.
Hondius 1607 example symbol on  
map
Sea areas on the two maps are engraved differently. Plate 2 has the sea pecked; plate 3 has a moire effect.
The Irish Sea is labelled:-
'MARE HIBERNICUM'
in block caps on plate 2, in swash lettering on plate 3.
example symbol on  
map
Both plates have a galleon: flat stern on which the rudder is mounted; sprit with a sail; and three masts, foremast with main and top sail, main mast with main and top sail, mizzen mast with a lateen sail.
Plate 2 has a monstrous fish swimming in the sea.
The Solway coast on plate 2 shows the river channel between sandbanks. Although no other sands are shown around Cumbria on the two plates, there are sandbanks in the Irish Sea labelled:-
'North Grounds / Middel Grounds / South Grounds'
Horsley 1732 example symbol on  
map
Sea areas are shaded. This sets up the land in clear contrast to the surrounding sea. Two sea areas are labelled with Roman and English names:-
'Ituna AEstuarium / Solway Firth'
'Morecambe AEstuar / Morecambe Bay'
Housman 1800 map 1 (Wmd/Cmd/Cum/Lan/Yrk) The sea area is plain, labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'IRISH SEA'
with river estuaries labelled, and the:-
'Solway Firth'
Hudson 1842 map (4th edn 1853) Sea areas are plain. The only sea area labelled is:-
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Hutchinson 1748 (Wmd) Correct Map of Westmorland
What little sea area is shown is plain.
Jansson 1646 Cumbria and Westmoria ...
example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain, with rhumb lines from the compass rose. It is labelled, in swash lettering:-
'IRISH SEA'
and in ordinary style:-
'Itunae Baye [Eden Estuary / Solway Firth]'
There are a couple of square rigged ships in the sea. Both seem to have three masts, fore sail and fore topsail, main sail and main top sail, and a lateen sail. The stern of one is square.
Jenner 1643 Westmerland ...
What sea is shown is plain.
Keer 1604 The sea area is stippled; some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'OCEANUS BRITANNICUS'
for the English Channel. The sea is decorated with a few ships, sea nymphs blowing horns, and, lower right, Neptune on a horse holding a trident, accompanied by a nymph, of course.
Keer 1605 (edn 1620) Westmorland and Cumberland ...
The sea is patterned by a moire effect. It is labelled simply:-
example symbol on  
map
'OCEANUS'
with some swash lettering.
Kitchin 1784 Great Britain, England and Wales ...
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'Solway Firth'
Kitchin 1763 The sea is plain; some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
'Solway Firth'
Kitchin 1750s Westmoreland
The small area of sea at the river mouths by the Cartmel peninsula is plain.
Kitchin 1763 (Wmd) New Map of Westmoreland
The small area of sea in the Leven and Kent Estuaries is plain.
Kitchin and Jefferys 1748 (Wmd/edn 1751) Sea areas in the Kent and Leven Estuaries are plain.
Laurie and Whittle 1806 Completion of the Roads to the Lakes ...
The sea area to the east of Cumberland is plain.
Lea 1687 The sea is plain, the sea area in the south labelled:-
'OCEANUS BRITANNICUS Versus GALLIAM'
There are some 3 masted ships, men of war, in the sea, for decoration.
Leigh 1830 map New Map of the Lakes in Westmoreland Cumberland Etc, ...
The sea area is plain, with some areas labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'IRISH SEA'
'Wampool Bay'
Lily 1546 The sea is stippled. The English Channel is labelled:-
'MARE BRITANNICUA[]'
There are a few ship for decoration.
The Solway
can be recognised.
Linton 1852 map Map of the Lake District and the West Cumberland and West Coast Railways
The sea are is plan, some areas labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
Lloyd 1573 New Description of the Flourishing Kingdon of England ...
The sea area is pecked. The sea area here is labelled in beautiful swash lettering:-
'MARE HIBERNICUM'
LNWR 1910 map Map of the Lake District
The sea area is printed a pale green blue. One sea are is labelled:-
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Lowes c1800 Sea area is plain, off Whitehaven labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
Luffman 1803 Westmoreland
The tiny area of sea, in the Kent Estuary, is plain
NER c1900 example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. A sea area might be labelled, perhaps if it is of interest to travellers, eg:-
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Marshall 1808 map Sea areas are plain, and might be labelled, eg:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
Morden 1676 Westmorland ...
The sea areas are plain.
Mercator 1564 The sea area is depicted by small peck marks.
Mercator 1595 (Cum) example symbol on  
map
The sea area is engraved with patches of curved shading that interlock to give an impression of waves. The Irish Sea is labelled in swash lettering:-
example symbol on  
map
'MARE HIBERNICUM'
also labelled is:-
'Solway Fryth'
Millward and Dickinson 1737 The sea area is plain, with seas labelled, eg:-
'THE ENGLISH CHANNEL'
The distance from Dover to Calais, 22 [miles], is shown in the strait.
Mogg 1822 map Map of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire
The sea area is plain.
Moll 1717 (EW) The sea is plain, with some sea areas labelled, eg:-
'THE ENGLISH CHANNEL'
Moll 1724 The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
'Solway Frith'
'Moricambo'
Morden 1688 The sea is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
'Solway Fyrth'
sandbanks are shown by dotted areas. They might be labelled, eg:-
'The Dogger Bank'
The Lancaster Sands are shown in Morecambe Bay.
Morden 1695 Westmorland ...
The very small sea area shown is plain, the Leven and Kent estuaries.
Morden 1708 (version 1720-31/Wmd) The sea areas is plain, labelled on the Cumberland sheet:-
'THE BRITISH OCEAN other sea areas, eg:-'
'Solway Firth'
'Itunae Bay'
'Moricambo'
Nelson 1859 map The sea area is tinted light blue. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'MORECAMBE BAY'
'Sallom B.'
Ogilby 1699 (edn 1712) The sea is plain with some sea areas labelled, eg:-
'BRITTISH SEA'
'THE CHANNEL'
The coast line is shaded.
Otley 1818 District of the Lakes
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'The IRISH SEA'
Otley 1818 District of the Lakes ...
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
'The IRISH SEA'
Overton 1708 The sea is plain, some areas labelled, eg:-
'THE BRITISH CHANNEL'
'THE STREIGHTS OF DOVER'
'Spithead'
Some ships are drawn for decoration; for example a 3 masted ship with 2 gun decks off Cuckmere, and a galley with a square sail off Rye.
A few sandbanks are shown as dotted areas, for example at the Thames mouth.
Paterson 1785 Sea areas are plain, with some areas labelled, eg:
'IRISH SEA'
Paterson 1785 Any small area of sea that shows is plain. A sea area might be labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
off Whitehaven vol.2 p.8 and vol.2 p.70.
Pennant 1777 Map of Scotland, Hebrides and Part of England
example symbol on  
map
The sea are is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'ITUNA AEST / SOLWAY FIRTH'
'MORICAMBE AEST [Morecambe Bay, not in the Solway]'
Perrot 1823 (Wmd/Cmd/Cum) The sea area is covered with from lines extending from the coast. Two areas are labelled:-
'G Solway'
'B. de Morecambe'
Philip 1920s Philips' Cyclists' Map of the Lake District
example symbol on  
map
The sea area is printed blue. Some ares are labelled, eg:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'MORECAMBE BAY'
'Allonby Bay'
Sandbanks are drawn in outline by a dotted line and might be labelled, eg:-
'Silloth Bank'
'Middle Bank'
Near the seaward end of Silloth Bank is a small symbol of a ship, perhaps a lightship?
Philip 1900s The sea area is printed blue. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'Morecambe Bay'
'IRISH SEA'
'Solway Firth'
Pratt 1905 example symbol on  
map
The sea area is printed blue, with some sea areas labelled, eg:-
'The Solent'
The coast line is not emphasised.
Harbours are clearly recognisable, but not labelled.
Ptolemy 1540 example symbol on  
map
The sea area is engraved to represent waves. A couple of sea areas are labelled:-
'OCEANUS GERMANICUS [North Sea]'
'Mare Anglicu~ [English Channel]'
Ptolemy 1793 The sea area is plain, tinted pale blue for a distance into the offing. The main sea areas are named by Ptolemy, eg:-
'HIBERNICUS OCEANUS'
and two estuaries by Cumberland:-
example symbol on  
map
'Ituna AEstuarium'
the Solway Firth and Eden Estuary; and:-
'Moricambe AEstuarium'
Morecambe Bay. Each marked by a circle at the mouth of the estuary.
Bowles 1782 Bowles's Post Chaise Companion
Very little sea is shown on the sheets for Cumbria. Vol.2 p.177 starts at Tinmouth where the sea that is shown is plain.
It is difficult to judge from the tiny area of sea shown in the Kent Estuary, but the sea area seems to be shaded.
Rocque 1760s The sea is shaded and tinted blue (or the coast is shaded far out from land). Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'Spithead'
Red Guide 1892 map District of the Lakes
The sea area is colour printed blue. A couple of sea areas are labelled:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Reynolds 1848 (edn 1864) The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'SOLWAY FIRTH'
'Morecambe Bay'
Ramsay 1866 Geological Map of England and Wales
The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
example symbol on  
map
'SOLWAY FRITH'
'Morecambe Bay'
Rocque 1746 [Westmorland]
The small area of sea that is shown, is plain.
Ruthven 1855 The sea area is plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'MORECAMBE BAY'
Sanson 1679 (Cum) Ancien Royaume de Northumberland ...
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
'MER D'IRELANDE.'
Saxton 1579 Anglia
example symbol on  
map
The sea area is pecked, and tinted blue. The sea off Cumbria is labelled in swash lettering:-
'MARE HIBERNICUM'
example symbol on  
map
Off Cumbria there are two ships. Neither appears to have a square end and rudder. One has two masts and a jib, one main sail is set, the main top is furled. The other has one mast and a jib, and carries on mainsail.
example symbol on  
map
There are various sea monsters, or great fishes, one off Cumbria.
Elsewhere there are other ships, larger and smaller. And in the sea off Wales there is Neptune with his trident, carrying a naked lady in the coils of his tail.
Saxton 1576 Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comitatus
The sea area is pecked, and tinted with a blue wash, and simply labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'OCEANUS'
example symbol on  
map
In the sea are a couple of monstrous fishes and a number of sailing ships. The ships include three, two and one masted square rigged sailing vessels.
example symbol on  
map
There are also two fishing boats with their single sail furled on its yard which is laid along the boat from stem to stern posts. Over the side of each boat is a fishing net being handled by two fishermen.
Detail notes by Ian Friel:-
Camden 1607 map (edn 1610) Westmorlandiae Comitatus ...
The small area of sea that is shown in the river estuaries is pecked, and tinted blue.
Seale 1761 Westmoreland ...
The tiny bit of sea shown, the Leven and Kent estuaries, is plain.
The sea is plain, with some areas labelled, eg:-
'St. GEORG HIS CHANNEL'
Depth soundings in fathoms are scattered about the seas around the south coast of England and English Channel.
A few sandbanks are drawn as dotted areas, some labelled, eg:-
'Dogger Sand'
'Owers'
The Shingles can be recognised, but are not labelled.
Rocks are shown by crosses or dots, for examples west of the Isle of Wight, and at Black Point, Flanders.
Anchorages are marked by a fisherman's anchor, for example off Hurst and at Spit Head.
A couple of ships are drawn to decorate sea areas; the clearer of these has three mast and a sprit, the fore mast with main and a furled top sail, main mast with furled main and top sails, mizen with a lateen sail. There are flags at the mast heads.
Seller 1694 Westmorland ...
The small area of sea shown off the Cumberland coast is plain, not tinted.
Senex 1719-57 General View of Ogilby's Direct and Principal Cross Roads
The sea area is plain. The sea area off Cumberland is labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
Simons 1635 Westmerland ...
The sea to the west of Cumberland is plain. The border label on this side of the map is:-
'The Sea West'
Simpson 1746 map Westmorland
The small amount of sea shown is plain, labelled:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
Smith 1800 Smith's New and Accurate Map of the Lakes
The sea area is plain. A few sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Allonby Bay'
Speed 1611 The sea area is plain and the coast line shaded for emphasis.
Speed 1611 Kingdome of Great Britaine and Ireland ...
The sea is plain, and has been tinted blue. Sea areas are labelled:-
'THE DEUCALIDON SEA'
'THE IRISH SEA'
'THE BRITISH SEA'
'THE WEST OCEAN'
'THE GERMAN OCEAN'
The last two in florid swash lettering to fill otherwsie empty space on the map.
The sea is decorated with a couple of ships, sea monsters, and 'royal beasts' carrying flags of the three nations of Great Britain.
The ships are crudely drawn two masted carracks. That on the left seems to have pointed ends, not a flat stern with rudder. Three ships' flags appear to be the flag of Aragon, Spain, horizontal bands, red yellow red (but we don't know who coloured the map or when).
Three of the monsters in the sea are interesting. There is a lion carrying the standard of England; a unicorn carrying the standard of Scotland; and some other mythical beast carrying the standard of Ireland.
Speed 1611 (Wmd) Countie Westmorland ...
The small area of sea shown in the Kent and Leven estuaries is engraved in a moire effect.
Speed 1611 Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile ...
The sea area is engraved in a moire effect, tinted green blue, labelled in swash lettering:-
example symbol on  
map
'THE IRISH SEA'
The outer part of the Solway Firth is labelled:-
'Itunae Baye'
example symbol on  
map
A sea monster; snout like a pig, ruff, forepaw held in front, spouting like a whale, is engraved off the coast below St Bees Head.
example symbol on  
map
Off Allonby is a ship, tinted brown; square stern with a rudder, three masts, fore main and top sails, main main and top sails, lug sail on the mizzen, and two large plain flags, tinted blue.
Stukeley 1723 Itineraries through Britain of Antonini Augusti ...
The sea areas are plain. Some sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'OCEANUS BRITANNICUS'
for the English Channel. It is possible to recognise sea areas, eg:-
Solway Firth
Morecambe Bay
Unknown 1772 Accurate Map of Great Britain
The sea area is plain. Off Cumberland are labelled:-
'IRISH SEA'
'Solway Firth'
Unknown 1700s example symbol on  
map
The sea area is plain. Various parts have labels describing their shape and relationship to land, etc, eg:-
'Ocean or Main Sea'
'Strait'
'Inland Sea'
'Gulf or Bay'
Sandbanks are shown by dotted areas labelled as:-
'Sands'
and on a small area around one of these there are depth soundings in figures, presumably fathoms, labelled:-
'Soundings'
An area of rocks in the sea is shown by crosses (+) and labelled:- Rocks
Across part of an ocean there are lines of arrows labelled:-
example symbol on  
map
'Course of Winds'
There is an unlikely feature in the south west where what looks like a river with banks and form lines is drawn across the sea from shore to shore, labelled:-
'Current of Water'
Unknown 1814 (Cum/Lakes) The sea area is tinted blue, and is overrun with the coast form lines.
Waldseemuller 1513 Sea areas are partly shaded, and there is a label:-
'OCEANUS GERMANICUS'
for the sea north of Scotland.
Wallis 1815 The sea area is plain, with some areas labelled, eg:-
'ENGLISH CHANNEL'
Some shipping routes are marked by a dotted line, labelled, eg:-
'to Jersey 35 Leagues'
Wallis 1812 (Wmd) A tiny area of sea, in the Kent Estuary, is plain.
Walton 1679 The sea are is plain. The main sea areas are labelled, eg:-
'THE CHANNEL'
West 1784 map Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire
The sea is plain, with one sea area labelled:-
'THE IRISH SEA'
West 1784 map (edn 1811) Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmoreland and Lancashire
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
'THE IRISH SEA'

references

: 1972: AA Book of the Seaside: Drive Publications & Automobile Association (Basingstoke, Hampshire)

: 1933 (8th edn) & (regular editions): West Coast of England Pilot: Hydrographic Department, Admiralty (London)

Sawyers, William: 1975 (reprint) & 1840 (?): List of the Cumberland Shipping Corrected to January 1840: Moon, Michael (Beckermet, Cumbria):: ISBN 0 904131 09 2



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