button to main menu  Otley's Guide 1823 (5th edn 1834)

button title page
button previous page button next page
Page 175:-

black lead mines
THE mineral substance from which black-lead pencils are manufactured has successively been known by the several names of wad, black-cawke, black-lead, plumbago, and graphite. In the progress of chemistry and its application to mineralogy, the original term wad was abandoned, probably in consequence of the same name being given by the Germans to a substance somewhat resembling this in appearance, but of a different nature, viz. an oxide of manganese: the term black-cawke might be subject to a similar objection, the word cawke being applied by miners to a sulphate of Barytes: the names of plumbago and black-lead, although still retained in common use, tend to convey an erroneous idea of the subject, as lead forms no part of its composition, which is found to be principally carbon combined with a small portion of iron: and graphite, perhaps the least objectionable term, has scarcely yet obtained currency.
gazetteer links
button -- Borrowdale Graphite Mine (?)
button next page

button to main menu Lakes Guides menu.