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title cartouche
plain cartouche
map maker
Printed in a plain cartouche, lower left:-
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The District of the LAKES; By J. Otley
The cartouche is embedded in a pile of hills, with heights, described below. Printed at the bottom:-
KESWICK Published by Jona. Otley 21st June 1827. And, with additions, 20th. July 1833. / Engraved by J. & G. Menzies, Edinr.

north point
magnetic deviation
up is N
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Printed upper left is a north point; N-S line, North marked by a spear point/fleur de lys, E-W line labelled W E. A line is engraved across the north point, 28d West ie anticlockwise from North, labelled:-
Magnetic Needle
The map is printed with North at the top of the sheet.

scale line
Printed lower centre is a scale of:-
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chequered and labelled in miles. The 10 miles = 63.4 mm gives a scale 1 to 253840. The map scale is about:-
1 to 250000
4 miles to 1 inch

lat and long
lat and long scales
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Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a trapezoidal projection? just not rectangular; chequered in minutes, labelled at 10 minute intervals. The map includes from 2d 40m to 3d 38m West, from 54d 2m to 54d 47m North; the central Lake District, Lancashire to just north of Sebergham, from the coast as far east as Shap.

sea area
sea plain
The sea area is plain, labelled:-
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coast line
coast shaded
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The coast line is heavily shaded for emphasis. Foreshore shallows are pecked, in particular the areas of sands are shown, and labelled:-
Cartmel Wharf
Lancaster Sands
Rocks might be shown by crosses, as off the shore of the Isle of Walney.
One island is labelled:-
but a couple of others can be recognised, eg:-
Piel Island
Chapel Island

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Rivers are drawn by wiggly line tapering upstream. A wider river might be drawn by double line, with form lines, for example the Lune near Lancaster. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Leven R.
Duddon River
River Kent
Cockley Beck
Where the flo of a river is not clear there might be an arrow, as on the Eden at the north of the map area.
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream. A few are labelled, though it is not always clear whether a bridge or settlement is labelled, eg:-
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Newby Bridge
Pooley Bridge
Santon Bridge
The last is labelled alongside a village labelled Pooley. There are bridges shown by a double line across a stream, without any nearby road, for example over the Kent north of Burneside.
By Windermere there is a label:-
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A waterfall might be indicated, for example see the three down arrows across the stream line above Rydal. Less clear are the arrows under the label:-
Scale Force
by Crummock Water.

lakes Lakes are drawn in outline, shaded. Some larger lakes are labelled:-
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Ulls Water
Hawes Water
Burnmoor Tarn
Elter Water
Blea Tarn
Esthwaite Water
Devoke Water
Over Water
I might not have found all; and many others can be recognised, including a number of small tarns, for example:-
Ennerdale Water
Wast Water
Rydal Water
Brothers Water
Blea Water
Small Water
Kentmere Tarn
Skeggles Water
Coniston Water
Urswick Tarn
etc etc.
Islands are drawn in several lakes and a number might be recognised. None are labelled.

hill hachuring
Relief is indicated by attractive hill hachuring which clearly shows where is hilly, though not in any quantitative way. Many hills are labelled, eg:-
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White barrow
Ill Bell
Place Fell
Stickle Pikes
Valleys might be labelled, eg:-
Although not called a pass, there are labels:-
Printed lower right, overlaid by the title cartouche, is a diagram of the heights of hills. The picture is a pile of summits at their relative heights, each labelled:-
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Pikes / 3160
Scawfell / 3100
Hevellyn / 3070
Skiddaw / 3022
Gable / 2925
Bowfell / 2911
Pillar / 2893
Grasmoor / 2756
Old Man / 2577
Grisedale Pike / 2580
Stickle or Langdale Pikes / 2400
Carrock / 2110
Causey / 2030
Black Combe / 1919
Lord's Seat / 1728
Wansfell / 1590
Cat Bell / 1448
Latrigg / 1160
Scilly Bank / 500
St Bees Heads 222 Feet above the Sea

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A few areas of woodland are indicated by groups of tree symbols. Although not delimited by a paling fence these are in parks at Greystoke, Gowbarrow, and Lowther. In the wooded area a tussock symbol is used to show the whole area, and this symbol alone shows the ?forest area of the fell between Threlkeld and Matterdale. At laest one forest area is labelled:-
Naddle Forest

parks snip from map image
Parks are generally ignored but notice that the groups of tree symbols show the extent of Greystoke, which has a dotted outline and avenues of trees on its boundaries, and of Lowther parks and there are trees and label:-
Gowbarrow Parks
by Ullswater.

county snip from map image
The county boundaries are a dotted line, but this does not show where it lies with another feature. The county areas are labelled:-
Not all of each county is included.

settlements Settlements are marked by blocks or small groups of blocks, perhaps with a cross (+) for a church, differentiated by style of lettering.
  towns group of blocks; labelled in upright block caps, eg:-
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  villages group of blocks and/or a cross; labelled in italic block caps, eg:-
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  hamlets block and/or a cross; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
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But: various sizes of italic and upright lowercase text are used for other features on the map, and block caps for dales.
The distinction of town, village, hamlet is not very helpful, or reliable!

roads snip from map image
Roads and tracks are drawn by a double line, solid or dotted. Broader roads have the lines light bold, described as shaded by some, which suggests turnpiking. A network of routes covers the area. Destinations at road ends are given, eg:-
The sands roads are shown:-
To Appleby
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from Hest Bank, across Lancaster Sands and the Kent Estuary, to Kents Bank.
from west Holker, across Ulverston Sands and the Leven Estuary, to the foot of Ulverston Canal.
from the coast near Ireleth, across the Duddon Estuary, to the coast near Millom.
?across the tip of the Esk Estuary, south of Ravenglass.

canals Canals are drawn by a double line; light very bold. The two canals are labelled:-
  Lancaster Canal
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from the south, through Lancaster to Kendal, labelled:-
The Lancaster Canal
The Lune Aqueduct is clearly recognisable; and notice the canal basin in Kendal.
  Ulverston Canal
from a building west of Ulverston to the coast, labelled:-


lighthouses On St Bees Head is a tower labelled:-
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Lt. House

spas Just off the edge of the map, south of Shap, is a circle labelled:-
which is Shap Wells.

water mills
A water mill is drawn by a starred wheel near Kellet, labelled:-
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though no river is shown.

inns An inn might be shown, for example at the north end and to the west of Bassenthwaite Lake are:-
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Castle Inn
William Green thanks Jonathan Otley for his help, in the preface to his Tourist's New Guide, published 1819:-
Mr. Otley ... has studied, with much industry, the natural history of the district. Watch repairing, is a part of Mr. Otley's employment, and his general turn for mechanics, has qualified him to construct various portable mathematical instruments. To a pocket compass, he has adapted a graduated circle, which being placed when wanted, on the top of his walking stick, he observes the relative direction of surrounding hills, and by a barometer, he calculates their heights. He constructed the map accompanying this work, and his travels, and observations, have enabled him to correct some of the errors of former maps. The altitude of mountains are chiefly taken from the trigonometrical survey, published by order of the board of ordnance, but from which, though little, he has in a few instances presumed to vary; these are added to the heights of other hills not before published.

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