button to main menu Morden 1695

   back to object record


title cartouche
scroll cartouche
map maker
Printed in a prettily tinted scroll cartouche, upper left:-
snip from map image
WESTMORLAND by Robt. Morden
Printed lower right:-
Sold by Abel Swale, Awnsham & John Churchill

up is N
The map is probably printed with compass North at the top of the sheet. The scales of latitude and longitude suggest that polar North is a few degrees anticlockwise from compass North.

scale line
scale lines
Printed lower left are three:-
snip from map image
Scales of Miles
Great / Middle / Small
each chequered in miles, tinted red and white, labelled at 4 and 8. The 8 miles = 79.9 mm, 73.7 mm, 68.2 mm respectively. The average map scale, wrongly assuming a statute mile is:-
1 to 170000
2.5 miles to 1 inch

lat and long
lat and long scales
snip from map image
Printed in the map borders are scales of latitude and longitude for a slanted rectangular projection; chequered in minutes labelled at 10 minute intervals of longitude, 5 of latitude, tinted red and white. The upper longitude scale is labelled in roman numerals for the number of minutes of time later than London. From the scales can be read:-
longitude, Kendal = 2d 25.5m W
suggests a prime meridian nearly 20d West of Greenwich, which is unlikely.
The map includes from about 1d 45m to 3d 5m W, from about 54d 10m to 54d 53m N; the whole of Westmorland.

sea area
sea plain
The very small sea area shown is plain, the Leven and Kent estuaries.

coast line
coast shaded
snip from map image
The small length of coast line is emphasised by shading, tinted blue. Foreshore shallows are dotted, perhaps engraved with a roulette. The dotting is closer at the edge of the area, which is tinted brown. The areas show conventional rather than accurate river channels.

snip from map image
Rivers are drawn by a double wiggly line, tinted blue, or tapering single wiggly line. A wide reach, the Leven at New Bridge for example, might have form lines. Larger tributaries and feeders to lakes are shown. Some rivers are labelled, eg:-
Winster flu
Can Flu
Blenkern beck R.
Eden R
Do not rely on consistent spelling, for example:-
Lune Flu / Lone Flu
Lowther R / Low Flu
Bridges are implied where a road crosses and interrupts a stream, for example at Burrow bridge on the Kendal to Shap road. But notice that the engraving of road and river might just intersect, as on the Sprint east of Burneside, or the river might interrupt the road as on the Eden by Temple Sowerby. I would not jump to any conclusions about which are bridges and which are fords. Bridges might be drawn where no road is shown, and perhaps labelled, eg:-
snip from map image
New Bridge

lakes Lakes are drawn in outline, the shore shaded, interior engraved with a water effect, tinted blue. Notice Broadwater which is engraved over and round the mountains at its south end (and anyway it's Haweswater). Some lakes are labelled:-
snip from map image
Ulles Flu
Hawswater [Hayeswater]
Broadwater [Haweswater]
Winander Mere
Other lakes, including some in adjacent counties, can be recognised:-
Thirlmere [labelled as the head of the Derwent]
Rydal Water [with a large island]
Grasmere [smaller, no island]
Easedale Tarn [perhaps]
Coniston Water
Kentmere Tarn
As well as the large island in Rydal water, a whole lot of islands are drawn in Windermere lake.

snip from map image
Relief is indicated by moderate size hillocks, shaded to the east, tinted pale brown. Some hillocks are drawn larger, for example at Farleton Knott and Whinfell. The hills are clustered in central lakeland and the Pennines, river plains left clear. Although the overall effect is attractive it is not truly informative.
Some hills are labelled, eg:-
Farleto~ Knothill
Whinfield hill
Helvillin hill
Cross fell
Murton Pike
A pass might be labelled, as at:-
Horse Hause
This provides a different slant on the interpretation of 'Horse House' on other maps, which could otherwise be understood as Hause House. Notice also:-
Lawsdale Horse
north of Selside.

Groups of tree symbols, the area tinted green, indicate woodland. Some groups might be labelled, eg:-
snip from map image
Mallerstang Forrest
Whinfeild Forrest
And some unlabelled groups might, cautiously, be recognised, for example fell Foot at the south end of lake Windermere.
Trees are drawn in most parks.

parks Parks are drawn by an outline with fence palings, interior with trees and undergrowth, tinted pale green. Some parks are labelled, eg;-
snip from map image
Cunswick Park
Gowburrow Park
Or the park might be recognised by a house or a settlement, as at Lowther.

county snip from map image
County boundaries are a bold dotted line, the inner side of each county tinted palely: Westmorland yellow, Cumberland pink, Lancashire green, Yorkshire ?brown. Durham is not shown. Adjacent counties are labelled, eg:-
The county boundary is drawn alongside other features where necessary, for example along the River Winster. Windermere is entirely within Westmorland, the boundary following the shore. Ullswater is divided with Cumberland.

settlements Settlements are positioned by a circle with added elements, differentiated by style of labelling. Towns are tinted red.
  towns circle, buildings and towers, tinted red; labelled in upright lowercase text, eg:-
snip from map image
Ambleside / Amboglana
The extra placename is the name of the roman town. Notice a neat example of an engraver's correction where the o of Amboglana has been added above.
  villages circle, building with tower; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
snip from map image
Great Asby
  hamlets circle; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
snip from map image
Ravingstondale or Russendale
  houses circle and tower, or circle; labelled in italic lowercase text, eg:-
Kendale castle
Grarigg Hall
Notice a series of re-engraved placenames south west of Orton and other instances of re-engraving.

roads snip from map image
A few roads are drawn by a double line, for example:-
From the south, Lancaster, Lancashire; to Kendal by Burton or Farleton, then Shap, Westmorland; to Penrith, Cumberland.
From Lancaster to Kendall and Apalby
though the route to Appleby is via Penrith. This is part of the London to Carlisle road plotted by John Ogilby. Other roads are shown and labelled, sometimes incorrectly.
More notes on the Westmorland and Cumberland roads on Robert Morden's maps:-


beacons A beacon is carefully drawn, post, ladder, fire basket, on a hillock labelled:-
snip from map image
Orton Beacon
Also labelled is:-
Penrith Beacon
but with no apparatus.

copper mines
West of Great Langdale is:-
the Coper mines

stones A group of stones on the county boundary are labelled:-
Dunmalrase Stones
South of Shap are:-
snip from map image
Stone Heaps
marked by circle with tiny towers?
Where the boundaries of Westmorland, Lancashire and Yorkshire meet a stone is drawn, labelled:-
The County Stone
At the road junction S of Tebay is:-
Brandreth Stone

wells Labelled by Patterdale is:-
St Patricks well

crosses Notice Cross fell on the border north of Milborne Forest.
An indeterminate mark east of Stainmore is labelled:-
Rear Cross als Roycross
A cross (+) is marked NE of Pendragon castle, labelled:-
Hoomill Cross

A double ring with an entrance to the south. at Eamont Bridge, is labelled:-
snip from map image
King Arthur round Table

roman sites
roman towns
Some roman placenames are given:-
Vertara [Brough Castle]
ABALLABA [Appleby]
Amboglana [Ambleside]
Catadupa [waterfall, Levens]

button to lakes menu   Lakes Guides menu.