button to main menu  Otley's Guide 1823 (5th edn 1834)

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Page 150:-
the rocks of this district should be regarded as stratified or unstratified. It is true they present little of that regularity of appearance which is observable in the rocks of many other districts; yet it will be admitted on due examination that they are in some degree stratified.
Granite is understood to occupy the lowest place in the series of rocks hitherto exposed to human observation, and it appears to be the foundation upon which all the others have been deposited; in some countries it also constitutes the peaks of the highest mountains, protruding itself through all the upper or newer formations. That however is not the case in the district under consideration. It is here only exposed to view in the excavated parts of some of the mountains; or where it rises so far as to form hills or ridges, they are of inferior elevation.
That rock of granite which seems best entitled to the distinction of primitive, may be seen denudated in the bed of the river Caldew, near the north-east side of Skiddaw; and in a branch of the river Greta, between Skiddaw and Saddleback, about 1400 feet above the level of the sea. This granite is of a grey kind, composed of quartz, white felspar, and black mica. It is traversed in various directions by veins of quartz; in some of which, molybdena, apatite, tungsten, wolfram, and other minerals have been found.
A variety of granite with reddish felspar, and which from a deficiency of mica, has sometimes been
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