button to main menu  Complete Guide to the English Lakes, 1855

Transcription of Harriet Martineau's Complete Guide to the English Lakes, 1855

This transcription and notes are from A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 2nd edn 1855. The copy used is in the Armitt Library, item A1159.
source type: Martineau 1855
button title page


The transcript of the body text is made into records page by page, ignoring the problems that a section or sentence might be split across page breaks. Each page will be presented as a separate web page. The original markers for footnotes are replaced in the transcript by a serial number within each page. Marginals have been added during transcription and editing.
Somewhen, the text, at present in MODES for Windows records, will migrate to MODES xml. At this change the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) will be considered, though that methodology is biased towards academic study of 'Literature' rather than everyday text. TEI would mark up the whole text as one document, the particular arrangement into pages for an edition treated as a subsidiary feature. I need to have smaller units as records, which will become html pages. The book here is being treated as an object in its own right, rather than a text which just happens to be in a book.
Some of the exact typesetting has been ignored, though italics and some special characters are indicated using html markup. Hyphenation across lines has been removed, judging as well as I am able to retain the hyphen where it likely belongs, comparing with the same word elsewhere in the text if possible. A word split across pages is left that way, but the beginning part of the word is added as inferred data to its continuation on the following page.
Peculiarities of spelling and grammar are preserved; they might be confirmed by '(sic)', but not always: I have typed and have proof read as accurately as I can.

Text Indexing

Keywords for indexing the text have been recorded, as well as I am able: mostly using today's placenames rather than the text's version; recognising unnamed places if possible; using locality type terms if nothing else is possible, in particular trying to spot 'stations' ie special viewpoints; indexing objects and topics only if useful. Thus, I have tried to interpret and understand the text to make the indexing helpful and comprehensible in today's world; a basic rule is 'would you want this page if you were searching with this keyword?' The placename spellings of the text are put into the Old Cumbria Gazetteer, where all sorts of spellings are indexed. References to different rocks are mostly indexed by the keyword geology, as I am not always able to make a reliable interpretation of rock names. Botanical names are indexed with spellings standardsised to today's pattern, but no attempt has been made to regularise the binomial to a modern term.
placenames If Martineau's placename is similar but not exactly the same, index under the regularised form, eg:-
    Crummock Water = Crummock Lake.
If there is probably confusion, then add a locality term to the placename, eg:-
    Raven Crag, Longsleddale
using the place identifier in the standard gazetteer. For streams this might appear as:-
    Sour Milk Gill (2)
If Martineau's placename is really different then record two keywords, eg:-
    Bleaberry Tarn = Burtness Tarn
The first explains what the regularised term refers to, the second indexes Martineau's term which would otherwise be unfindable.
Uncertainty is marked by an added detail:-
    Tarn How (?)
directory Person and place names in the directory section are not indexed; mostly, a few significant places and persons have been indexed on an ad hoc basis. The places are mostly too 'local' for the general purpose of the Lake Guides project. Relevant material might be xtracted to a gazetteer entry.

Gazetteer Extracts

Chunks of text relevant to each place are extracted and gathered together, and loaded into the record for the place in a gazetteer. This is much easier to use for a place than searching through pages in the guide book; you can go to the original text and read it all in context if you wish. The gazetteer is arranged using standard placename spellings, today's version of the placename, but will be indexable on all sorts of spellings, and by other place data. The gazetteer can also hold extracts from other sources, and map square images.
Not all keywords allocated to the text will prompt a gazetteer entry. Some places in the text will be unidentifiable some keywords are for other topics than places, char, botanical species, rocks, etc.


Harriet Martineau makes little formal use of 'stations' as were proposed by Thomas West in his Guide to the Lakes, 1778. Good viewpoints from which to appreciate a view are suggested, and might be considered as stations. The gazetteer entries, and indexing keywords, use the term 'station' followed with a pertinent placename when this seems a useful thing to do.

Binomial Names

In her botanical names, Harriet Martineau does not always follow the regular pattern of leading capitals that we recognise today. In many instances she does have a leading capital for the Genus and not for the species, which is today's normal practice. When a genus is repeated he might or might not indicate this with a capital letter abbreviation. I have followed the spelling accurately, I hope; I suspect the typesetter had difficulty with the Latin names as I do. None of the variations are marked by '(sic)'.
The pattern of a leading capital for genus but not for species is a recent convention. The preface of Clapham, Tutin and Warburg, 1952, has:-
In the spelling of certain specific epithets it has been customary to use an initial capital letter when the epithet concerned is derived from a personal name or is a noun, e.g. the name of another genus, or the pre-Linnean name for the plant. This custom is not made obligatory by the International Rules of Nomenclature but is mentioned in a recommendation attached to these Rules. The use of the initial capital has certain advantages; for instance it conveys some information about the origin of the name and explains the apparent lack of grammatical agreement between a generic name and a specific epithet which appears when written with a small initial letter to be adjectival (e.g. Selinum Carvifolia). We found upon inquiry, however, that many botanists in this country prefer, as a matter of convenience, to drop the initial capital. We have therefore adopted small initial letters for all specific epithets in the body of the book, but have indicated those which are commonly spelled with capitals.
For indexing the modern style of spelling is used. And, I have tried to correct spelling mistakes eg Isoetes laustris, left unchanged in the text, is indexed Isoetes lacustris.

Gazetteer Extracts?

The botanical data is NOT used for gazetteer extracts. Instead an attempt has been made to tabulate the data by ???:-
binomial / common name / habitat / placename
binomial as given, no attempt to modernise.
The few missing binomials have been added, using modern terms, marked by being in [ ]s.
common name as given, except put into lowercase and unecessary hyphens removed to match other conventions in this project.
habitat a simple list of keywords, sometimes deduced rather uncertainly from Jonathan Otley's information, some detail kept in ( )s.
placename standardised terms, matching the gazetteer.
All this means that what you get is not what Jonathan Otley wrote: if you want his form of words you will have to look at the original text. If the data is not edited it remains a confusing muddle, edited it is no longer the original data.

Following Martineau ???

The descriptions of routes use no grid references of locations. Travel was by foot and horseback and carriage, on roads and tracks that will have changed, perhaps improved perhaps faded away; though paths are remarkably longlived.
When travelling around, Harriet Martineau could likely presume on other residents. She could ask to cross their private grounds, stand in their gardens for views, and so on. Today this is not possible. As an individual you may be well behaved, even gentlemanly, but the number of people wanting to see what there is to see, is too great for access to be granted so easily to private land.

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