button to main menu  Clarke's Survey of the Lakes, 1787

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Page 47:-
purpose; for such was their reputation for valour, that they awed the whole county so, that none of the inhabitants dared risk their lives in attempting to leave their home.
Not many years after, Prince Edward went to Palestine, accompanied by his consort Eleonora, during which time he instituted the order of St John of Acre or Acon. This order was founded partly on account of his recovery from a wound made by a poisoned dagger, and partly on account of the birth of his first child, who was thence called Joan of Acre. The news of his father's death having reached him, he immediately set out for England, bringing with him many of his knights : vast numbers of the nobility of England went over to Italy to meet and congratulate him on this occasion, as we learn from the historians of those times *. The Knights of St John did not long continue a distinct and independent order; for their numbers being much diminished, they were added to the Hospitalers: to them King Richard the I. added the Knights of St Thomas, whose tutelary saint was Thomas a Becket. The Knights of St Thomas were distinguished from the rest by wearing the ring affixed to the cross: this was given them on account of a ring being the only curiosity that Richard had brought with him from Palestine, and all these different orders of Knights were afterwards united by Edward the I.
In order to apply this to our present purpose, we must recollect that these Knights all wore the White Cross with mullets †, the Templars excepted, who wore a Red Cross with mullets; and if we examine this ancient ornament, we shall find the emblems of all the orders united in it. The spear and socket represent the cross; the balls bear the mullets, and represent escallop shells; the ring is here very conspicuous; and the reason why the tongue is sharp pointed, is sufficiently understood by those who know that these Knights were the free masons of that time; and that to this day the order of Knights Templars is retained among that ancient and respectable fraternity.
As it may seem strange that such a valuable ornament should be found in this uncultivated spot, I must inform my readers, that Edward the I. resided much in this county, and that he settled many of his knights here, as appears from tradition, history, and the names and privileges of several adjacent places: his parliament likewise met at Carlisle, and he himself died upon Brough Sands, near that city. After his death his knights continued their residence in the same place, till they were finally abolished by Queen Elizabeth: till that time they were the champions of the country, and extremely active in repelling their turbulent neighbours the Scots. Now it is evident from the spear, that this instrument has belonged to the master of the order: I cannot help therefore concluding, that he has been killed in some skirmish with the Scots, and that his insignia have been buried with him; and this is the more probable, as we have very many instances of the kind. It may be objected to this, that both history and tradition are both totally silent concerning any battle that had been fought in or near this place: I allow the objection has some weight; but when we consider that this whole county, together with adjacent ones, was for many ages one continual scene of devastation, war, rapine, and tumult; it is not so surprising that we should find one battle unnoticed, as that such ordinary occurrences, as battles then were, should have been particularly mentioned at all.
  Greystoke Castle
  Howard Family

From the four-mile post, or a little further, is seen Greystoke, (or Greystock,) Castle, the seat and birth-place of the Duke of Norfolk, the origin of whose family I shall copy from Buck's History of Richard the III. published in 1647, page 65. "So fortunate and honourable (says he) hath that house been in the service to this state, and the infinite alliance and cognation it holds with the most ancient families; the extrac-
* (Vide Matt. Paris, p.768.)
† Mullets are a bearing in armour, resembling a star with five points, and are said to represent the rowel of a spur, or the five points express Christ's five wounds, as some say.
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