button to main menu  Clarke's Survey of the Lakes, 1787

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page xxxix:-
conceive why, in a day when hardly a single breeze is a-stir, the surface of a lake, which is as smooth as a mirror, should, without any apparent cause, begin to be in motion, which in less than an hour rises to a considerable swell, with a direction sometimes to one quarter and sometimes to another; yet such is really the case, and similar appearances have been observed in some of the Alpine lakes, though it has been imputed as a lie to Buchannan, that he tells of a similar phaenomenon being frequent in the lake of Lenox. I have formed a theory to account for it, but as I have not had the opportunity of making a sufficient number of observation, shall omit it here.
  Bosom Wind
The Bosom-Wind is quite a different affair, and takes place wherever one object in the direction of the wind overlooks another, or universally where any thing breaks the current of the air that would otherwise impinge directly on the objects beyond it; this is particularly the case where large rocks screen things below them from the direct force of the wind, yet subject them to what is called a Bosom-Wind. Near the sources of the Caldew is a valley called Swineside, never visited by the rays of the sun during the Winter months: on the northern side of the hill which overshadows it in this manner, and at a considerable height above the valley, is a pretty large bason of water, called Booth-scale-tarn; three fourths of which is surrounded either by an exceedingly steep heath, or by entire rocks, and the fourth, being the side right above the valley, gives an outlet to the water. A road leads from the low grounds to this lake, and from the outlet winds above half round it, gradually ascending to some rocks where are slate-quarries, on account of which it was first made; near these quarries the road is a considerable height above the lake, and the perpendicular height of the hill above it cannot be less than four hundred yards; on the other side of this height the descent is at an angle of perhaps fifty degrees, but on this at a much greater. On a wet and windy day, in Autumn, I once took a ride with two companions to this lake: the wind blew directly over the height which I mentioned, not striking upon us except in uncertain puffs, on account of the intervention of the hill; that is, the wind, inpinging on the inclined plane of the other side of the hill, was compelled, towards the summit of it, in an oblique direction, its powers continually increasing, and itself being more and more condensed by the addition of fresh air pressing on its course in a similar diverted manner. This current at the summit met with the regular wind, and after striking violently on the mass of air moving in higher regions, was, by means of a combination of the weight and motion of that air, at last repelled into the tranquil and stagnant air beneath, where there was not a resistance from motion, and thus occasioned the wind of which I am speaking. It was this wind which amused me very much at that time: I was looking at the lake beneath, and saw it grow black near the centre; the spot where this first appeared changed directly into a livid appearance, by being contrasted with the rest of the water, through which from this spot, as a fixed point, rolled concentric circles of waves towards the circumference in a tumultuous manner, whilst the centre itself remained quite smooth and undisturbed. The wind which produced this agitation immediately after ascended the sides of the bason, and affected us with very great force; I could also observe the heath on the other sides of the pool shook by the same, and in the same main direction from a centre very forcibly. Such was the effects that I observed: I am told, however, that others have known a wind of the same kind, in dry weather, snatch the water out of the pool, and scatter it as spray through the whole of this imprisoned space.
  Helm Wind
As I am now to speak of the Helm-Wind, it may be necessary, for the sake of those readers who have not seen any thing of the kind, to premise, that Cross-fell is one-continued ridge, stretching without any branches, or even subject to mountains, except two or three conical hills called Pikes, from the N.N.W. to the S.S.E. from the neighbourhood of Gillsland almost to Kirkby-Steven, that is above 40 miles. Its direction is nearly in a right line, and the height of its different parts not very unequal; but is in general such, that some of its more eminent parts are exceeded in altitude by few hills in Britain, and perhaps not by any in England. As it rises in the interior part of the country, it has in some degree an effect on the weather on its different sides,
gazetteer links
button -- "Booth Scale Tarn" -- Bowscale Tarn
button -- "Cross Fell" -- Cross Fell
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