Transcription of Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778 Norgate, Martin 2005 last edit: 27.4.2008

Transcription of Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778

Lakes Guides

Transcription of A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Westmorland, and in London, 1778; made from the 11th edition, 1821.

editor -- Norgate, Martin & MN : 30.3.2005

last edit: 18.12.2006

Transcription of Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778 author West, Thomas 1778 18th century, late 1770s guide book Guide to the Lakes AMATL:AS1221

These notes are taken from several editions of A Guide to the Lakes by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821. The books studied are those in the Armitt Museum and Library, Ambleside, Cumbria.

The edition used for transcription is the 11th edition, 1821, item AMATL:A1221. The choice of this edition was originally made by Lynda Powell, when working at the Armitt, who sent photocopy pages for a 'trial run' of transcription and versioning the text into web pages, in 2001. While it would be valuable to use the very first edition, that would not have the useful added material of later editions, from Thomas West himself and from later editors. It may be possible to do a more pure transcription at a later stage of the project.

source type : West 1778

All editions of the guidebook are available in the Armitt Library collections:-

Map of the Lakes

A map of the tours is provided from the 3rd edition, 1784, onwards.

Guide to the Lakes, Editions

source type : West 1778

The following editions of A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, have been seen at the Armitt Museum and Library, 18.12.2003:-


1st edition, 1778

West, Thomas: 1778: Guide to the Lakes: Richardson and Urquhart (London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

no map; no illustrations


2nd edition, 1780

West, Thomas: 1780 (2nd edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson and Urquhart (Royal Exchange, London) & Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

frontispiece, Grasmere; some addenda


3rd edition, 1784

West, Thomas: 1784 (3rd edn): Guide to the Lakes: Law, B (Ave Mary Lane, London) & Richardson and Urquhart (Royal Exchange, London) & Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

frontispiece, Grasmere; Map of the Lakes, Paas; numerous addenda


4th edition, 1789

West, Thomas: 1789 (4th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson, W (Royal Exchange, London) Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

frontispiece, Grasmere; some addenda


5th edition, 1793

West, Thomas: 1793 (5th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson, W (Royal Exchange, London) Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

Map of the Lakes, Paas; numerous illustrations; numerous addenda


5th edition, 1793

West, Thomas: 1793 (5th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson, W (Royal Exchange, London) & Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

Map of the Lakes, Paas; Map of Cumberland, J Cary, in 4 pieces; Map of Westmoreland, J Cary, in 4 pieces; numerous engravings, various styles; numerous addenda, other descriptions of the Lakes


6th edition, 1796

West, Thomas: 1796 (6th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson, W (Royal Exchange, London) Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

frontispiece, Grasmere; Map of the Lakes, Paas; ?one other illustration; some addenda


7th edition, 1799

West, Thomas: 1799 (7th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Richardson, W J and J (Royal Exchange, London) & Robson, J (New Bond Street, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London) & Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland)

frontispiece, Lowdore; Map of the Lakes, Paas; some addenda


8th edition, 1802

West, Thomas: 1802 (8th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, William (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, W J and J (Royal Exchange, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London)

Map of the Lakes, Paas, tinted; some addenda


9th edition, 1807

West, Thomas: 1807 (9th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, William (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, W J and J (Royal Exchange, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London)

Map of the Lakes, Paas, tinted; some addenda


9th edition, 1807

West, Thomas: 1807 (9th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, William (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, W J and J (Royal Exchange, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London)

Map of the Lakes, Paas, tinted; some addenda


10th edition, 1812

West, Thomas: 1812 (10th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, J (Royal Exchange, London) & Clarke, W (New Bond Street, London)

Map of the Lakes, Paas, tinted; some addenda


11th edition, 1821

West, Thomas: 1821 (11th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, J (Royal Exchange, London)

frontispiece, Grasmere; Map of the Lakes, Paas, tinted; some addenda


11th edition, 1821

West, Thomas: 1821 (11th edn): Guide to the Lakes: Pennington, W (Kendal, Westmorland) & Richardson, J (Royal Exchange, London)

frontispiece, Grasmere; some addenda; (this copy is the edition transcribed)

Edition Date AMATL filecode all 1778=1821 WS01 &WEST01 1st 1778 A1208 WS08 2nd 1780 A1209 WS09 3rd 1784 A1210 WS10 4th 1789 A1211 WS11 5th 1793 A1212 WS12 5th 1793 A1213 WS13 5th 1793 map A1213.1 WS03 & WEST03 6th 1796 A1214 WS14 7th 1799 A1215 WS15 8th 1802 A1216 WS16 9th 1807 A1217 WS17 9th 1807 A1218 WS18 10th 1812 A1219 WS19 11th 1821 A1220 WS20 11th 1821 A1221 WS21 11th 1821 map A1221.1 WS02 & WEST02 epitome 1st 1809 A1222 WS22 epitome 2nd 1813 A1223 WS23 epitome 2nd 1813 A1224 WS24
Guide to the Lakes, Addenda

source type : West 1778

The eleven addenda included with the 11th edition of the Guide to the Lakes by Thomas West, 1821, are listed below:-


Dr Brown's letter describing vale and the lake of Keswick.

page 193


Extract from Dr Dalton's descriptive poem enumerating the beauties of the Vale of Keswick

First printed in Pearch's Collection of Poems, vol.1, 1775.

page 197


Mr Gray's Journal, in a letter to Dr Wharton, 18 October 1769.

page 199


Ode to the Sun, by Mr Cumberland, 1776.

page 224


A Night Piece on the Banks of Windermere, by Rev James Plumtre, Summer 1797.

page 229


A Description of Dunald Mill Hole, by A Walker, 1760.

page 236


A Tour to the Caves in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

page 238


Further Account of Furness Fells

Or, Observations on placing objects on the eminences, and planting trees in the vallies seen in this tour.

page 284


Account of Ennerdale.

page 293


Specimens of the Cumberland Dialect:-

Harvest; or, the Bashful Shepherd

Horace book.2 ode.7, translated in the Cumberland dialect.

page 298


Mrs Radcliffe's Description of the Scenery in a Ride over Skiddaw, 1794.

page 304

Addenda in Other Editions

The addenda to West's Guide have not always been the same. Three other articles were included in one edition or another:-

Article 6

Description of the natural curiosities in the edge of Yorkshire

in the 2nd to 7th editions; replaced by the Night Piece from the 8th edition.

Article 10

Some remarks on the provincial words ...

in the 2nd to 5th editions; replaced by Mrs Radcliffe's article from the 6th edition.

Article 11

Address to the Genius of the Caves

in the 3rd edition; replaced by Ennerdale from the 4th edition.

edition 1st 2nd 3rd 4/5th 6/7th 8-11th article numbers Dr Brown; Keswick - 1 1 1 1 1 Dr Dalton; Keswick - 2 2 2 2 2 Mr Gray's journal - 3 3 3 3 3 Ode to the Sun - 4 4 4 4 4 Dunald Mill Hole - 5 5 5 5 5 Curiosities of Yorks. - 6 6 6 6 Night Piece - 6 Tour to the Caves - 7 7 7 7 7 on Furness - 8 8 8 8 8 Cumberland Dialect - 9 9 9 9 9 Provincial words - 10 10 10 Mrs Radcliffe; Skiddaw - 10 10 Genius of the Caves - 11 Ennerdale - 11 11 11
Guide to the Lakes, Advertisements

source type : West 1778

Various advertisements, etc, appear in different editions of West's Guide to the Lakes. Relevant advertisements from a number of editions are listed below:-

West's Guide, 2nd edn 1780

Preface page ii:-


Mr. Cumberland's Dedication to Mr. Romney.

West's Guide, 5th edn 1793

Preface page i:-

SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE Lakes. Engraved by S. ALKEN, from drawings by J. SMITH and J. EMES. / Printed for WM. CLARKE, No.38, New Bond Street, London; and sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal. / Directions for placing the Views in West's Guide to the Lakes.

Vale of Lonsdale, : 25

Coniston Lake, : 51

Winandermere, great island, : 56

..., from Calgarth, : 75

Elter Water, : 76

Stockgill Force, : 78

Upper Cascade Rydal, : 79

Rydal Water, : 81

Grasmere Lake, : 82

Leathes Water, : 84

Derwent Water from Castle Crag, : 95

... from Ormathwaite, : 112

Buttermere, : 135

Lowes Water, : 139

Ulles Water, upper end, : 154

..., towards Gowbarrow, : 156

Preface page ii:-

This Day are Published, In a Portable Quarto Volume, price Twelve Shillings in Boards, PLANS OF The Lakes IN Cumberland, Westmorland, &c. WITH AN ACCURATE SURVEY OF THE ROADS LEADING TO THEM, FROM PENRITH, KESWICK, &c. ON A LARGE SCALE, And forming a Complete Guide for those who Make the TOUR of the LAKES. BY JAMES CLARKE, LAND-SURVEYOR. Printed for W. CLARKE, New Bond-street, London; and Sold by the AUTHOR'S WIDOW, Penrith, Cumberland; and W. PENNINGTON, Kendal.

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-


1. General view of Derwent and Bassenthwaite waters, from Ashness.

2. View of Skiddaw, and Derwent-water, from Brandilow Woods

3. View of Lowdore water-fall.

4. View of Grange, in Borrowdale.

5. View of the lake and vale of Grasmere.

6. View of Rydal-water.

7. View of the bridge and town of Keswick.

8. View of Brathay-Bridge, near Ambleside.

9. View of the upper end of Ulls-water.

10. View of the lower end of Ulls-water

11. View of the Palace of Patterdale.

12. View of Patterdale, from Martindale-Fell.

13. View of the lower water-fall at Rydal.

14. View of Windermere-Water, from Gill-Head, below Bowness.

15. View from Rydal, looking towards Windermere-water.

16. View of Ambleside

17. View across Windermere-water, looking over the great island, from the hill above the ferry-house.

18. North view on the road leading from Keswick to Ambleside, taken near the sixth mile stone.

19. View looking down Windermere-water, from above Rayrig.

20. View of the bridge and part of the village of Rydal.

Published by W. BYRNE, No 79. Tichfield Street, London; and sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal,- Price four pound and eight shillings.

And last:-

MAY 1, 1793. IN THE COURSE OF THE PRESENT YEAR WILL BE PUBLISHED, A Series of Views of the Lakes, IN AQUA-TINTA, Of a proper size to bind with West's Guide, From Drawings by Messrs. SMITH and EMES. The Price will not exceed one Guinea.

Subscribers names are received by Mr. SMITH, Bryanstone Street, Portman Square; Mr. EMES, No.1, North Street, Upper Charlotte Street; Mr. BLAMIRE, Strand; and Mr. CLARKE, Bookseller, New Bond Street, London; also by Mr. PENNINGTON, Kendal, where specimens of the Work may be seen.

West's Guide, 5th edn 1793

Advertisement at the back of the volume.

SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE Lakes. Engraved by S. ALKEN, from drawings by J. SMITH and J. EMES. / Printed for WM. CLARKE, No.38, New Bond Street, London; and sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal. / Directions for placing the Views in West's Guide to the Lakes.

[list as before]

Followed on the next page:-

This Day are Published, In a Portable Quarto Volume, price Twelve Shillings in Boards, PLANS OF The Lakes IN Cumberland, Westmorland, &c. WITH AN ACCURATE SURVEY OF THE ROADS LEADING TO THEM, FROM PENRITH, KESWICK, &c. ON A LARGE SCALE, And forming a Complete Guide for those who Make the TOUR of the LAKES. BY JAMES CLARKE, LAND-SURVEYOR. Printed for W. CLARKE, New Bond-street, London; and Sold by the AUTHOR'S WIDOW, Penrith, Cumberland; and W. PENNINGTON, Kendal.

West's Guide, 6th edn 1796

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-

SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE LAKES By MESSRS. SMITH AND EMES, ENGRAVED BY MR. ALKEN. Of a proper size to bind with the Guide. ...

[list as before]

Printed for W. CLARKE, New Bond Street, London; and Sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal.- Price one Guinea.



[list as before]

Published by W. BYRNE, No 79. Tichfield Street, London; and sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal,- Price four pound and eight shillings.

West's Guide, 7th edn 1799

Advertisement at end of volume:-

SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE LAKES. BY MESSRS. SMITH AND EMES, ENGRAVED BY MR. ALKEN. Of a proper size to bind with the Guide. [list] PRINTED FOR W. CLARKE, New Bond Street, London; and sold by W. PENNINGTON, Kendal. Price, one Guinea.

West's Guide, 8th edn 1802

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-


SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE LAKES, BY MESSRS. SMITH AND EMES, ENGRAVED BY MR. ALKIN, Of a proper size to bind with the Guide, and consisting of / ... / Price, 1l. 1s.



FOUR VIEWS OF THE LAKES, BY MR. WALMSLEY, ENGRAVED BY MR. JUKES. Price, 15s.; or, coloured, 1l. 10s.

SMITH'S MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. Price, 4s.; or, on Canvas, in a Case, 6s.

A MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. (The same as in the Guide). Price, 1s.


West's Guide, 9th edn 1807

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-


SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE LAKES. BY MESSRS. SMITH AND EMES, ENGRAVED BY MR. ALKIN. Of a proper size to bind with the Guide, and consisting of [list] Price, 1l. 1s.


SMITH'S MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. Price, 4s. or, on Canvas, in a Case, 6s.

A MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. (The same as in the Guide.) Price, 1s.


West's Guide, 10th edn 1812

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-


THE DESCRIPTIVE PART ONLY, of West's Guide to the Lakes. Price, 3s.

SIXTEEN VIEWS OF THE LAKES. BY MESSRS. SMITH AND EMES, ENGRAVED BY MR. ALKIN, of a proper size to bind with the Guide, and consisting of [list] Price, 1l. 1s.

SMITH'S MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. Price, 4s. or, on Canvas, in a Case, 6s.

A MAP OF THE LAKES, NEATLY COLOURED. (The same as in the Guide.) Price, 1s.

West's Guide, descriptive part, 2nd edn 1813

Advertisement at the end of the volume:-

LATELY PUBLISHED, AND SOLD BY W. PENNINGTON, KENDAL, AND OTHER BOOKSELLERS, Price 6 Shillings, THE TENTH EDITION OF West's Guide to the Lakes, With the Map neatly coloured, various Notes, and an Addenda, containing

[addenda listed]

Smith's Map of the Lakes, neatly coloured, On Canvas, in a Case, Price, 7s. 6d.

A Map of the Lakes, neatly coloured, (the same as in the Guide) Price 1s.

Transcription of Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778

This transcription, and notes, are from A Guide to the Lakes, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Westmorland, and in London, 1778; using the 11th edition, 1821. This edition has footnotes by William Cockin, made for the 2nd and 3rd editions, 1780 and 1784, and numerous addenda. The copy used is in the Armitt Library, Ambleside, item AMATL:AS1221.

source type : West 1778


Deciding how to arrange a transcription in 'records' which are destined to become html pages is not easy. Thomas West's text is ever so slightly rambling; there is no regular paragraph structure, no regular use of headings, though it's all very readable! even if the picturesque hyperbole is repetitive. The transcript here is made page by page, ignoring the problems that a sentence might be split across page breaks; excepting footnotes, which may go on from page to page, and which are gathered together on the page on which they start. The original markers for footnotes are star or asterisk, section sign, etc, which are replaced in the transcript by a serial number within each page.

Somewhen, the text, at present in MODES records, will migrate to xml. At this change the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) should be considered, though at first sight that methodology seems very biased towards academic study of 'Literature' rather than everyday text. TEI would mark up the whole of West's text as one document, the particular arrangement into pages for an edition treated as a subsidiary feature.

The exact typesetting has been ignored. In particular: font posture, italic or upright, is ignored (a future upgrade will have italics recognised); and hyphenation across lines has been removed, judging as well as I am able to retain the hyphen where it likely belongs. A word split across pages is left that way, but the beginning part of the word is added as inferred data to its continuation on the following page.

Peculiarities of spelling and grammar are preserved, some are perhaps just typesetter's errors; they are perhaps confirmed by '(sic)', though the variable use of o and ou in words like colour and honour is not usually commented upon.

Also see OFR file:-

Notice that there is potential for interesting problems if the transcription is checked by machine for consistency of punctuation. It happens that there are more open quotes than close quotes, and for quotes to remain unclosed at the end of a page of text ...

transcription footnotes Cockin, William Armitt Library West 1778 italic hyphenation spelling grammar Text Encoding Initiative TEI
Text Indexing

Keywords for indexing the text have been recorded, as well as I am able: using today's placenames as well as the text's versions; recognising unnamed places if possible; using locality type terms if nothing else is possible, in particular trying to spot 'stations' ie special viewpoints; indexing objects and topics only if useful. Thus, I have tried to interpret and understand the text to make the indexing helful and comprehensible in today's world; a basic rule is 'would you want this page if you were searching with this keyword?'

Marginal Comments

Marginal comments have been added by the present editor and attempt to structure the text into journeys and descriptions at viewpoints, the stations, and of places.

Map Indexing

We have indexed maps by cutting them up into 'squares', using the national grid so that all maps conform to some extent, and indexing placename in both map and standard spellings to the map square. It is fairly easy to find place within a square, as long as it is not too crowded, and the map square is presented at a reasonable size.

The analogous process with text is to cut it up into pages and index placenames to page, again using both the text and standard spellings. The index terms are in the set of keywords allocated by the editor. But it is always a bother trying to find a placename within a whole page of text; not too difficult, but more trouble than is reasonable. The bits of text relevant to one place might be scattered over several pages.

Gazetteer Extracts

For text, it is worth carrying out a further process. The chunks of text relevant to each place are extracted and gathered together, and loaded into the record for the place in a gazetteer. This is much easier to use. And you can still go to the original text and read it all in context. The gazetteer is arranged using standard placename spellings, today's version of the placename, but will be indexable on all sorts of spellings, and by other place data. The gazetteer can also hold extracts from other sources, and map square images.

Not all keywords allocated to the text will prompt a gazetteer entry. Some places in the text will be unidentifiable; for some places there will be no useful description (perhaps they shouldn't be indexed at all); some keywords are for other topics than places, char, clap bread, roads in general, etc.

keywords indexing placename stations marginal notes route descriptions indexing keywords gazetteer map squares pages
Following West

Thomas West's description of his routes takes a great deal for granted; there are no grid references of locations, no step by step instructions. Thomas West uses trees and other landscape features for markers, which will have changed after more than 200 years. He travelled on foot and horseback so following his routes by car is not always practical; following them by foot would take more time than we have. Although paths are remarkably longlived they do change, as do roads. Some interpretation of Thomas West's routes is done from maps, some from our own travels, using car and foot. Forgive us our errors; we've done our best.

Thomas West in his time was a 'gentleman' and could presume on other gentlemen. He could ask to cross their private grounds, stand in their gardens for views, and so on. Today this is not possible. As an individual you may be well behaved, gentlemanly, but the number of people wanting to see what there is to see, is too great for access to be granted so easily.


Thomas West suggests a number of 'stations' from which to appreciate a view. These are noticed quite formally, in numbered sequences, for some of the lakes. But the reader should be aware that there are other stations along the way, referred to in the text without a heading, and that the system of headings is abandoned after Bassenthwaite Lake has been visited.

The gazetteer entries, and indexing keywords, use the term 'station' followed with a pertinent placename. Other authors introduced their own stations at later dates. In particular notice that the maps of Peter Crosthwaite, drawn in the 1780s, plot both West's and Crosthwaite's own stations.

The reader must also be aware that the term station is also used by Thomas West for roman camps etc.

stations viewpoints
West 1778/1821, Marginal Notes Synopsis

The marginal notes in the transcription are added by the editor. In effect they provide a synopsis of the lakeland tour proposed by Thomas West in his guide book.

frontispiecesection fpce Grasmere, printsection fpce mapsection map The Lakessection map introductionsection 1 station, Hornby Roadsection 6 introduction, continuedsection 7 itinerarysection 7 season to visitsection 7 itinerary from northsection 9 itinerary from southsection 10 telescopesection 11 landscape mirrorsection 12 Lancastersection 13 Lancaster Castlesection 13 roman campssection 14 placenamesection 14 Lancaster Castlesection 15 Wery Wallsection 17 Romanssection 18 Scotssection 19 roman altar (?)section 20 roman potsherd & roman coinsection 21 chartersection 22 Lancastersection 23 station, Hornby Roadsection 25 Lancaster to Cartmelsection 26 Lancaster to Hest Bank & Lancaster Sandssection 26 Cartmelsection 31 Kents Bank to Cartmel & Cartmel Priorysection 31 Cartmel to Ulverstonsection 34 Leven Sandssection 35 Ulverstonsection 36 iron minessection 37 Furness Abbeysection 37 return to Ulverstonsection 41 Conishead Priorysection 42 stations, Conisheadsection 44 Ulverston to Lowick & Greenodd to Conistonsection 46 station, Coniston roadsection 46 Coniston Watersection 47 station, Water Parksection 47 along Coniston Watersection 48 station, Peel Nesssection 49 station, Beck Leven Footsection 51 Coniston Water by boatsection 52 Coniston Watersection 53 Coniston to Hawksheadsection 54 station, Hollin Bank Ssection 54 Esthwaite Watersection 55 Hawkshead to Windermeresection 56 Windermeresection 56 Station, Claifesection 57 station, Harrow Farmsection 60 station, Belle Isle Ssection 61 station, Belle Isle Nsection 62 Windermere by boatsection 63 station, Rawlinson Nabsection 65 station, Brant Fellsection 66 Windermeresection 70 Bowness-on-Windermeresection 73 Bowness to Amblesidesection 73 station, Rayriggsection 73 roman fort, Amblesidesection 75 Amblesidesection 75 Stockghyll Forcesection 76 Ambleside to Keswicksection 77 Rydal waterfallssection 78 Rydal Hall & station, Rydal Hallsection 79 Rydal Water & Grasmeresection 80 station, Grasmere Hillsection 80 station, Loughrig Fellsection 81 Leathes Watersection 83 Station, Dalehead Hallsection 84 Keswicksection 86 Derwent Watersection 87 station, Cockshot Woodsection 87 station, Crow Parksection 88 station, Walla Cragsection 89 along Derwent Watersection 92 station, Castle Cragsection 94 Keswick to Borrowdalesection 96 return to Keswicksection 100 Borrowdale to Amblesidesection 101 station, Crow Parksection 104 station, Swinsidesection 105 station, Fawe Parksection 105 station, Latriggsection 106 station, River Gretasection 108 station, Crosthwaite Vicaragesection 110 Derwent Water by boatsection 112 Derwent Water by moonlightsection 116 Derwent Watersection 117 Bassenthwaite Lakesection 118 station, Armathwaite Hallsection 120 station, Scarnesssection 121 station, Broadnesssection 122 along Bassenthwaite Lakesection 123 roman campssection 124 along Bassenthwaite Lakesection 126 station, Beck Wythopsection 126 Keswick to Buttermeresection 129 Newlands Hausesection 129 Buttermeresection 136 tourists' woessection 137 Crummock Watersection 138 Loweswatersection 140 station, Mellbreaksection 140 to Ennerdale and Wast Watersection 141 Keswick to Penrithsection 144 roman road & roman campsection 144 Scotssection 149 Ullswatersection 151 station, Dunmallard Hillsection 153 roman campsection 154 station, Stybarrow Cragsection 156 station, Patterdale Hotelsection 157 along Ullswatersection 158 station, Watermillock & cannon & echoessection 161 Ullswater to Amblesidesection 162 Kirkstone Passsection 162 to Haweswatersection 162 Haweswatersection 163 Haweswater to Kendalsection 165 Penrithsection 167 placename & chartersection 169 Giant's Gravesection 170 from Penrithsection 170 station, Beacon Hillsection 172 Shap Abbeysection 173 Shap to Kendalsection 173 station, Stone Cragsection 176 Kendalsection 177 manufacturessection 178 chartersection 179 churchsection 179 Kendal Castlesection 182 from Kendalsection 183 Watercrooksection 183 Levens Force etcsection 184 return to Kendalsection 187 Kendal to Lancastersection 188 addendasection 193 Dr Brown & Keswicksection 193 Dr Dalton & Keswicksection 197 Mr Gray's Journalsection 199 Mr Cumberland & Ode to the Sunsection 224 Rev Plumtre & Night Piece on Windermeresection 229 A Walker & Dunald Mill Holesection 236 Tour to the Caves & Rev John Huttonsection 238 Furness Fellssection 284 eminences & objects & treessection 284 Ennerdalesection 293 Cumberland Dialectsection 298 Bashful Shepherdsection 298 Horace bk.4 ode 7section 302 Mrs Radcliffe & Ride over Skiddawsection 304 title pagesection i prefacesection iii advertisementsection vi contentssection vii

frontispiece Grasmere, print Frontispiece

Image WS21F.jpg. I. Feary delint. / Engraved by Robt. Havell & Son. / GRASMERE.

The hills appear to be Helm Crag on the left; the road to Keswick going up to Dunmail Raise; then Seat Sandal and the Helvellyn Range which in reality would be visible from an elevated position; Great Rigg leading up to Fairfield; and part of Rydal Fell to the right.

Grasmere lake Feary, I Havell, Robert and Son cattle agriculture dairy milking Helm Crag Seat Sandal Dunmail Raise Great Rigg Fairfield

title page Title page, 11th edition:-

Image WS21T.jpg.


For Nature here Wanton'd as in her prime, and play'd at will Her virgin fancies. Wild above rule or art (and beauteous form'd) A happy rural seat of various view. - Paradise Lost.


Reverse of title page, ie page ii:-

Printed by J. Kilner, Market-Place, Kendal.

title page Nature Pennington, William Richardson, J Kilner, J

preface Preface, page iii:-



THE speedy sale of the first edition of this work, has induced the publishers to use their best endeavours to make the present one still more worthy of public encouragement, by subjecting it to such alterations and improvements as were judged necessary to complete its design,- and of which it may be here proper to give some account.

The many imperfections of style and composition which but too evidently appeared in the first impression, are attempted to be rectified in this. Some additional matter is introduced into the body of the text, and a few notes are inserted on incidental subjects which were thought to be properly allied to the leading one. An ADDENDA is subjoined, containing a collection of several valuable miscellaneous pieces which have occasionally appeard respecting the lakes. And a friend of the publishers has communicated an original article, called A TOUR TO THE CAVES, which, it is hoped, will not only entertain, but be found particularly accurate as to matter of fact.-

Preface, page iv:-

In short, the publishers have done every thing in their power to make this GUIDE as complete and useful as its object is curious and popular.

GUIDES of every description should be well acquainted with the regions in which they exercise their vocation; and it must be natural for the purchasers of this manual to wish to know something of its author, and the pretensions he has to claim their implicit confidence in the character he assumes. This curiosity may now be properly indulged, as he is no longer within reach of either praise or censure;- but what we have to say on the subject will be very short.

MR. WEST, late of Ulverston, author of this tract, and also of the Antiquities of Furness, is supposed to have had the chief part of his education on the Continent, where he afterwards presided as a professor in some of the branches of natural philosophy: whence it will appear, that, though upon some account or other, he had not acquired the habit of composing correctly in English, he must nevertheless have been a man of learning. He had seen many parts of Europe, and considered what was extraordinary in them with a curious, if not with judicious, and philosophic eye. Having in the latter part of his life much leasure time on his hands, he frequently accompanied genteel parties on the Tour of the Lakes; and after he had formed the design of drawing up his Guide, besides consulting the most esteemed writers on the subject (as Dr. Brown, Messrs. Gray, Young, Pennant, &c.), he took several journeys, on purpose to examine the lakes, and to collect such information concerning them, from the neighbouring gentlemen, as he thought necessary to complete the work, and make it truly deserving of its title. From these particulars, and the internal evidence of the following pages, it is presumed

Preface, page v:-

the reader will be satisfied that the author was, in the most essential respects, well qualified for his undertaking. And should some of his digressions into antiquity be thought too long, or a few descriptions want precision, and now and then a station be dubiously pointed out - if, on the whole, the matter be selected by no uniform plan - let it be remembered, few writers of tours have been able to avoid blemishes of this kind, and that the chief end of the work is accomplished, if, along with due copiousness, it be authentic in the principal articles of local information.

Before the author's death (which happened very lately [1]) he had collected some new matter for this tract, which is introduced in the present edition in the manner he designed; but the revision of the language, &c. mentioned before, fell of course to another person; and, in justice to him and the author, it is proper to say here in what manner it has been executed.

As there is something particular, and often pleasing in the author's strokes of description, and manner of thinking, care has been taken, all along to preserve his ideas as much as possible, in his own order, terms, and mode of construction. A few needless repetitions aud (sic) redundancies have, indeed, been retrenched, but little has been added which was not necessary to complete the sense. On this account, as the work is in itself more of an useful than entertaining nature, it is presumed the judicious reader will not yet expect elegance of language, but be satisfied if, on the whole, he find it decently perspicuous and correct.


September 28, 1779.

Cockin, William : 1780=1784

preface addenda West, Thomas Tour of the Lakes Gray, Thomas Young, Mr Pennant, Thomas Brown, Dr

Mr. WEST died the 10th of July, 1779, at the ancient seat of the Stricklands, at Sizergh, in Westmorland, in the sixty-third year of his age; and, according to his own request, was interred in the choir, or chapel, belonging to the Strickland Family in Kendal Church.- As he was a man of worth as well as ingenuity, this further short memorial of his exit will not need an apology.

West, Thomas Holy Trinity, Kendal Strickland chapel

advertisement Advertisement, page vi:-


The late ingenious Mr. COCKIN, of Burton, wrote the preface to the second edition of this work, and revised the whole after the death of Mr. WEST: he also wrote all the articles marked with the letter X. All who knew Mr. C. will be satisfied how well he was qualified for the undertaking; and the internal evidence of the articles themselves, and the sale of ten editions. will, it is expected, be sufficient for others.

In thus edition, such corrections and improvements are made, as have appeared necessary since the publication of the former, in order to make the whole complete.

W. P.

Kendal, 1821.


Cockin, William Pennington, William

contents Contents, page vii:-


IN THE Order they are described.

1. Coniston-water ... [PAGE.] 46

2. Esthwaite-water ... 55

3. Windermere-water ... 56

4. Rydal-water ... 80

5. Grasmere-water ... ib.

6. Leathes-water ... 83

7. Derwent-water ... 86

8. Bassenthwaite-water ... 118

9. Buttermere-water ... 129

10. Cromack-water ... 138

11. Lowes-water ... 140

12. Ulls-water ... 151

13. Hawes-water ... 162



Lancaster ... 13

Cartmel ... 31

Ulverston ... 36

Dalton in Furness ... 41

(Hawkshead) ... 55

Ambleside ... 75

Keswick ... 86

Penrith ... 167

(Shap) ... 173

Kendal ... 177

(Burton in Kendal) ... 188

Articles contained in the Addenda.

ARTICLE I. Dr. Brown's Description of the Vale and Lake of Keswick ... 193

II. Extract from Dr. Dalton's Descriptive Poem ... 187

III. Mr. Gray's Journal of his Northern Tour ... 199

IV. Mr. Cumberland's Ode to the Sun ... 224

V. A Night-Piece, on the Banks of Windermere ... 229

VI. Description of Dunald-Mill Hole ... 236

VII. A Tour to the Caves in the West Riding of Yorkshire ... 238

VIII. Further Account of the Furness Fells &c. ... 284

IX. Account of Ennerdale ... 293

X. Specimens of the Cumberland Dialect ... 298

XI. Mrs. Radcliffe's Description of the Scenery in a ride over Skiddaw ... 304


map The Lakes A Map of the Lakes is tipped in facing page 1 in this copy of the 11th edition.

Image WS02.jpg. A MAP of the LAKES in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire.

Page 1:-

introduction A GUIDE TO THE LAKES.

SINCE persons of genius, taste, and observation, began to make the tour of their own country, and to give such pleasing accounts of the natural history and improving state of the northern part of the kingdom, the spirit of visiting them has diffused itself among the curious of all ranks.

Particularly the taste for one branch of a noble art [1] (cherished under the protection of the greatest kings and best of men) in which the genius of Britain rivals that of ancient Greece and modern Rome, induces many to visit the lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire; there to contemplate in Alpine scenery, finished in nature's highest tints, the pastoral and rural landscape, exhibited in all their styles, the soft, the rude, the romantic, and the sublime; and of which, perhaps, like instances can no where be found assembled in so small a tract of country.- What may be now mentioned as another in-

map Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire West 1784 map introduction landscape landscape painting painting Guide to the Lakes

Landscape Painting.

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[in]ducement to visit these natural beauties, is the goodness of the roads, which are much improved since Mr. Gray made his tour in 1765, and Mr. Pennant in 1772. The gentlemen of these counties have set a precedent worthy of imitation in the politest parts of the kingdom, by opening, at private expense, carriage roads for the ease and safety of such as visit the country; and the public roads are equally properly attended to.

The design of the following sheets is to encourage the taste for visiting the lakes, by furnishing the traveller with a Guide; and for that purpose, the writer has here collected and laid before him all the select stations and points of view, noticed by those authors who have made the tour of the lakes, verified by his own repeated observations. He has also added remarks on the principal objects, as they appear viewed from the different stations; and such other incidental information as he judged would greatly facilitate and heighten the pleasure of the tour, and relieve the traveller from the burthen of those tedious enquiries on the road, or at the inns, which generally embarrass, and often mislead.

The local knowledge here communicated will not, however, injure, much less prevent,

Gray, Thomas Pennant, Thomas road stations

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the agreeable surprise that attends the first sight of scenes that surpass all description, and of objects which will always affect the spectator in the highest degree.

Such as wish to unbend the mind from anxious cares or fatiguing studies, will meet with agreeable relaxation in making the tour of the lakes. Something new will open itself at the turn of every mountain, and a succession of ideas will be supported by a perpetual change of objects, and a display of scenes behind scenes in endless perspective. The contemplative traveller will be charmed with the sight of the sweet retreats that he will observe in these enchanting regions of calm repose; and the fanciful may figuratively review the hurry and bustle of busy life, in all its gradations, in the variety of unshaded rills that hang on the mountains' sides, the hasty brooks that warble through the dell, or the mighty torrents precipitating themselves at once with thundering noise from tremendous rocky heights; all pursuing one general end, their increase in the vale, and their union in the ocean.

Such as spend their lives in cities, and their time in crowds, will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature's first

objects ideas

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cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes, must return penetrated with a sense of the Creator's power, in heaping mountains upon mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. Such exhibitions of sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence.

When exercise and change of air are recommended for health, the convalescent will find the latter here in the purest state, and the former will be the concomitant of the tour. The many hills and mountains of various heights, separated by narrow vales, through which the air is agitated and hurried on, by a multiplicity of brooks and mountain torrents, keep it in constant circulation, which is known to add much to its purity. The water is also as pure as the air, and on that account recommends itself to the valetudinarian.

As there are few people, in easy circumstances, but may find a motive for visiting this extraordinary region, so more especially those who intend to make the continental tour should begin here; as it will give, in miniature, an idea of what they are to meet with there, in traversing the Alps and Appenines; to which our northern mountains are not inferior in beauty of line, or variety

convalescence air water

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of summit, number of lakes, and transparency of water; not in colouring of rock, or softness of turf; but in height and extent only. The mountains here are all accessible to the summit, and furnish prospects no less surprising, and with more variety than the Alps themselves. The tops of the highest Alps are inaccessible, being covered with everlasting snow, which commencing at regular heights above the cultivated tracts, of wooded and verdant sides, form, indeed, the highest contrast in nature; for there may be seen all the variety of climate in one view. To this, however, we oppose the sight of the ocean, from the summit of all the higher mountains, as it appears intersected with promontories, decorated with islands, and animated with navigation; which adds greatly to the perfection and variety of all grand views.

Those who have traversed the Alps, visited the lake of Geneva, and viewed Mount Blanc, the highest of the Glaziers, from the valley of Chamouni, in Savoy, may still find entertainment in this domestic tour. To trace the analogy and differences of mountainous countries, furnishes the observant traveller with amusement; and the travelled visitor of the Cumbrian lakes and mountains, will not be disappointed of pleasure in this particular [1].


In truth, a more pleasing tour than these lakes hold out to men of leisure and curiosity cannot be devised. We penetrate the Glaziers, traverse the Rhone and the Rhine, whilst our domestic lakes of Ulls-water, Keswick, and Windermere, exhibit seenes (sic) in so sublime a style, with such beautiful colourings of rock, wood, and water, backed with so tremendous a disposition of mountains, that if they do not fairly take the lead of all the views of Europe, yet they are indisputably such as no English traveller should leave behind him. - Mr. Cumberland's Dedication to Mr. Romney.

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This Guide may also be of use to the artist who may purpose to copy any of these views and landscapes, by directing his choice of stations, and pointing out the principal objects. Yet it is not presumed positively to decide on these particulars, but only to suggest hints, that may be adopted or rejected at his pleasure.

station, Hornby Road The late Mr. Gray was a great judge of landscapes; yet whoever makes choice of his station at the three mile stone from Lancaster, on the Hornby road, will fail in taking one of the finest afternoon rural views in England. The station he points out is a quarter of a mile too low and somewhat too much to the left. The more advantageous station, as I apprehend, is on the south side of the great, or Queen's road, a little higher than where Mr. Gray stood; for there the vale is in full display, including a long reach of the river and the wheel of Lune, forming a high crowned isthmus, fringed with tall trees, that in time past was the solitary site of a hermit [1]. A few

artist painting landscape painting stations objects station, Hornby Road Wheel of Lune Lune, River hermit

Hugh, to whom William de Lancastre, sixth baron of Kendal, gave a certain place called Askeleros and Croc, to look to his fishing in the river Loyn [or Lune.] - Burn's Westmorland, p.31.

Hugh, the Hermit Lancaster, William de Lune, River fishing Askeleros and Croc

Page 7:-

trees preserved on purpose by the owner, conceal the nakedness of Caton-Moor on the right, and render the view complete.

introduction, continued itinerary By company from the south (sic), the lakes may be best visited by beginning with Hawes-water, and ending with Coniston-water, or vice versa. Mr. Gray began his tour with Ulls-water, but did not see all the Lakes.- Mr. Pennant proceeded from Coniston-water to Windermere-water, &c. but omitted Ulls and Hawes-water. Mr. Gray was too late in the season for enjoying the beauties of prospect and rural landscape in a mountainous country; for in October the dews lie long on the grass in the morning, and the clouds descend soon in the evening, and conceal the mountains. Mr. Pennant was too early in the spring, when the mountains were mantled with snow, and the dells were darkened with impenetrable mist; hence his gloomy description of the beautiful and romantic vale of St. John, in his journey from Ambleside to Keswick. Flora displays few of her charms early in May, in a country that has been chilled by seven winter months.

season to visit The best season for visiting the Lakes is from the beginning of June to the end of Au-

Caton Moor itineraries season to visit winter

Page 8:-

[Au]gust [1]. During these months the mountains are decked in all the trim of summer vegetation, and the woods and trees which hang on the mountains' sides, and adorn the banks of the Lakes, are robed in every variety of foliage and summer bloom. In August nature has given her highest tints to all her colours on the enamelled plain and borders of the Lakes. These are also the months favorable to botanic studies. Some rare plants are then only to be found; such as delight in Alpine heights, or such as appear in ever-shaded dells, or gloomy vales [2].

Mr. Young visited the Lakes in this fine season, and saw them all, except Coniston and Esthwaite (both Lancashire Lakes), which are on the western side of the others, and lie parallel to Windermere-water.

Nothing but want of information could have prevented that curious traveller from

season to visit botany Young, Mr

Those, however, who love to see the variety of green and olive tints which appear in the springing and decaying foliage, would be much pleased with a sight of the lakes, either in May or September.

season to visit

Can Flora's self recount the shrubs and flowers, That scent the shade, that clasp the rocky bowers? From the hard veins of sapless marble rise The fragrant race, and shoot into the skies. Wond'rous the cause! can human search explore What vegetation lurks in every pore? What in the womb of different strata breeds? What fills the universe with genial seeds? Wond'rous the cause! and fruitless to enquire, Our wiser part is humbly to admire. - Killarney.

Killarney, poem Flora

Page 9:-

visiting the whole range of the lakes; which had he done, and described their scenery with that accuracy and glow of colouring he has bestowed upon the lakes of Keswick, Windermere, &c. a copy of his account would have served for a guide to all who make the same tour.

itinerary from north The course of visiting the lakes from Penrith, is by Bampton to Hawes-water, and from thence to Ulls-water, and return to Penrith. Next set out for Keswick, seventeen miles good road. Having seen the wonders of Keswick, and the environs, depart for Ambleside, fifteen miles of excellent mountain road, which afford much entertainment. From Ambleside ride along the side of Windermere, six miles, to Bowness, and, having explored the lake, either return to Ambleside, and from thence to Hawkshead, five miles, or cross Windermere at the ferry, to Hawkshead, 4 miles. The road, part of the way, is along the beautiful banks of Esthwaite-water. From Hawkshead the road is along the skirts of the Furness Appenines, to the head of Coniston-water, three miles, good road. This lake stretches from the feet of Coniston-fells to the south, six miles. The road is on the eastern side, along its banks, to Lowick-Bridge; from thence to Ulverston by Penny-Bridge, or by Lowick-Hall, eight miles; good carriage road


Page 10:-

every where. From Ulverston, by Dalton, to the ruins of Furness Abbey, six miles. Return to Ulverston, from thence to Kendal, twenty-one miles, or to Lancaster, over the sands, twenty miles.

itinerary from south This order of making the tour of the lakes is the most convenient for company coming from the north, or over Stainmoor; but for such company as come by Lancaster, it will be more convenient to begin the visit with Coniston-water. By this course, the lakes lie in an order more agreeable to the eye, and grateful to the imagination. The change of scenes is from what is pleasing, to what is surprising; from the delicate touches of Claude, verified on Coniston lake, to the noble scenes of Poussin, exhibited on Windermere; and, from these, to the stupendous, romantic ideas of Salvator Rosa, realized on Derwent-lake.

This Guide shall therefore take up the company at Lancaster, and attend them in the tour to all the lakes [1]; pointing out (what only can be described) the permanent features of each scene; the vales, the dells, the groves, the hanging woods, the scattered cots, the deep mountains, the impending cliff, the broken ridge, &c. Their accidental beauties depend upon a variety of circumstances; light

itineraries Poussin Dughet, Gaspard Lorrain, Claude Claude Rosa, Salvator

An abridged view of the tour may be seen in a table of roads at the end.


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and shade, the air, the winds, the clouds, the situation with respect to objects, and the time of the day. For though the ruling tints be permanent, yet the green and gold of the meadow and vale, and the brown and purple of the mountain, the silver gray of the rock, and the azure hue of the cloud-topt pike, are frequently varied in appearance, by an inter-mixture of reflection from wandering clouds, or other bodies, or a sudden stream of sunshine that harmonizes all the parts anew. The pleasure therefore arising from such scenes is in some sort accidental.

telescope To render the tour more agreeable, the company should be provided with a telescope, for viewing the fronts and summits of inacccssible (sic) rocks, and the distant country from the tops of the high mountains Skiddaw and Helvellyn. [1]

light clouds winds colours telescope

As descriptions of prospects, greatly extended and variegated, are often more tedious than entertaining, perhaps the reader will not lament that our author has not any where attempted to delineate a view taken from either of these capital mountains, but rather wish he had shown the same judgement of omission in some other parts of his work. However, as an apology of the most persuasive kind for what may appear either prolix or too high-coloured, in some of the following descriptions, let it be noted by the candid reader, at the out-set, that the lakes were his favourite object, and on which he thought enough could scarce ever be said, and, that the seducing effects of an ardent passion, are, in any case, easier to discover in others, than to rectify in ourselves. X.

N. B. In this edition is given Mrs. Radcliffe's description of the scenery in a ride over Skiddaw, Addenda, Article XI.

Cockin, William : 1780=1784

literary style descriptions

Page 12:-

landscape mirror The landscape mirror will also furnish much amusement in this tour. Where the objects are great and near, it removes them to a due distance, and shows them in the soft colours of nature, and in the most regular perspective the eye can perceive, or science demonstrate.

The mirror is of the greatest use in sunshine, and the person using it ought always to turn his back on the object that he views. It should be suspended by the upper part of the case, holding it a little to the right or left (as the position of the parts to be viewed require) and the face screened from the sun.

The mirror is a plano-convex glass, and should be the segment of a large circle; otherwise distant and small objects are not perceived in it; but if the glass be too flat, the perspective view of great and near objects is less pleasing, as they are represented too near. These inconveniences may be provided against by two glasses of different convexity. The dark glass answers well in sunshine; but on cloudy and gloomy days the silver foil is better. Whoever uses spectacles upon other occasions, must use them in viewing landscapes in these mirrors.

landscape mirror colours perspective spectacles

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Lancaster LANCASTER [1].

Lancaster Castle THE GATEWAY TOWER.

Image WS2113.jpg. Engraving of the Gateway Tower, Lancaster Castle.

THE castle here is the first object that attracts the attention of the curious traveller. The elevation of the site, and the magnificence of the front, strike the imagination with the idea of a place of much strength, beauty, and importance; and such it has been ever since its foundation, on the arrival of the Romans in these parts. An eminence of swift descent, that commands the fords of a great tiding riv-

castle Lancaster Castle Gateway Tower Romans Lune, River

(Longovicum, Notit, Imper.)

Longovicum Notitia Dignitatum

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roman camps [riv]er, would not be neglected by so able a general as Agricola; and accordingly he occupied the crown of this eminence in the summer of his second campaign, and of the christian aera 79, and here he erected a station to secure his conquest and the passes of the river, whilst he proceeded with his army across the bay of Morecambe, into Furness. The station was called Longovicum, and in process of time the inhabitants were called Longovices, i.e. a people living upon the Lon or Lune. The station communicated with Overborough, by exploratory mounts (some of them still remaining) on the banks of the Lune, which also answered the purposes of guarding the fords of the river, and overawing the natives. The mounts of Halton, Melling, and at the east end of the bridge of Lune, near Hornby are still entire. The station at Lancaster was connected with that at Watercrook, near Kendal, by the intervention of the beacon on Warton Crag, and the castellum on the summit of a hill that rises immediately above Watercrook, at present called Castle Steads.

placename The town that Agricola found here, belonged to the western Brigantes, and in their language was called Caer Werid, i.e. the Green Town. The name is still retained in that part of the town called Green Aer, for

Agricola roman fort, Lancaster Morecambe Bay Furness Longovicum Lune, River Overborough Over Burrow Halton Melling Hornby Watercrook roman fort, Watercrook Warton Crag beacon, Warton Crag Castle Steads castlesteads, Stainton Helm, The beacon, Helm Brigantes Caer Werid Green Town Green Aer placename, Lancaster

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Green Caer; the British construction being changed, and Werid translated into English.

Lancaster Castle The green mount on which the castle stands appears to be an artefactum of the Romans. In digging into it a few years ago, a Roman silver denarius was found at a great depth. The eminence has been surrounded with a great moat.

The present structure is generally supposed to have been built by Edward III. but some parts seem to be of a higher date. There are three styles of architecture very evident in the present castle [1]. 1. Round Towers, distant from each other about 26 paces, and joined by a wall and open gallery. On the western side there remain two entire, and from their distance, and the visible foundation of others, it appears they have been in number seven, and that the form of the castle was then a polygon. One of the towers is called Adrian's tower, probably from something formerly standing there dedicated to that emperor. They are two stages high; the lights are narrow slits: the hanging gallery is supported by a single row of corbels, and the lower stages communicate by a close gallery in the wall. Each stage was vaulted with a plain pyramidal vault of great height. Those in the more southern towers are entire, and called John of Gaunt's ovens; but the calling them so is as ridiculous as groundless.

Green Caer Lancaster Castle roman fort, Lancaster coin, roman roman coin denarius moat Adrian's Tower John o' Gaunt's Ovens

In 1778.

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Taillebois, baron of Kendal, is the first after the conquest who was honoured with the command of this castle; and William de Taillebois in the reign of Henry II, obtained leave to take the surname of Lancaster. It is therefore probable that the barons of Kendal either built or repaired the ancient castle, in which they resided, until they erected, upon the summer site of the station of Concangium, their castle at Kendal; for the remains of some of the bastions there agree in style with the towers here.

2. The second distinct style of building in Lancaster castle, is a square tower of great height the lower part of which is of remote antiquity; the windows are small and round headed, ornamented with plain short pillars on each side. The upper part of this magnificent tower is a modern repair; the masonry shows it; and a stone in the battlement, on the northern side, inscribed

E. R. / 1585 R. A.

proves that the repair was made in the time of Queen Elizabeth. It is pretty evident that two towers, with the rampart have been removed to give light and air to the lower windows on the outside of the great square tower; and it is joined by a wall of communication to Adrian's tower, that could not be there when the other two round towers were standing. There are two lesser square towers on the opposite side of the yard or court.

Kendal, Baron of Taillebois, William de Lancaster, William de Lancaster Castle Kendal Castle Concangium Elizabeth I

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3. The third style of building is the front or gateway. This may be given to Edward III., or to his son John of Gaunt. It faces the east, and is a magnificent building in the Gothic style. It opens with a noble and lofty pointed arch, defended by overhanging battlements, supported by a triple range of corbels, cut in the form of boultins. The intervals are pierced for the descent of missiles, and on each side rise two light watch-towers. Immediately over the gate is an ornamental niche, which probably once contained the figure of the founder. On one side is still to be seen, on a shield, France quartered with England; on the other side, the same with a label ermine of three points, the distinction of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III., the first English monarch that quartered France and England on a shield.- It was Henry V. that reduced the lilies of France to three [1].

Wery Wall On the north side of the hill, below the church-yard, are some remains of the wall that encompassed the station. It retains part of the ancient name of the place, being called Wery-wall. Those who suppose it to be that part of the priory-inclosure-wall, which was

Edward III John o' Gaunt coat of arms, Henry V coat of arms, Edward III coat of arms, royal Lancaster, Duke of Henry V Wery Wall

The improvements lately made in the castle, under the direction of Mr. Harrison, are very extensive, in the best style of Gothic architecture, and add greatly to the noble appearance of that ancient building.

Harrison, Mr

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situated on the north-side of the church-yard, may be satisfied it is not so, by viewing the part of the inclosure-wall yet standing, which is a thin mouldering fabric; whereas the Wery-wall is a cemented mass, that nothing but great violence can injure. Another fragment of it stands at a stile on the foot path, under the west end of the church-yard [1]. It is frequently met with in the church-yard, and its direction is to the western side of the castle. The father of the late William Bradshaw, Esq. of Halton, remembered the Wery-wall projecting over Bridge lane, and pointed directly to the river. This could never be the direction of the priory wall. To say nothing of the name which tradition has preserved, had Mr. Pennant viewed both, he would not have doubted a moment to join Camden against Leland. At Bridge-lane this wall makes an angle, and runs along the brow of the hill, behind the houses, in a line to Church-street, which it crosses about Covell cross. This is attested by the owners of the gardens. who have met with it in that direction, and always found blue clay under the foundation stones.

Romans Though the station was one of the first which the Romans had in these parts, and, from its importance, the last they abandoned,

Wery Wall St Mary, Lancaster Bradshaw, William Lancaster, Bridge Lane Pennant, Thomas Camden, William Leland, John Lancaster, Church Street Covell Cross roman fort, Lancaster Romans

This has been lately destroyed.

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yet, but few Roman British remains have been discovered at it.

Scots The Caledonians, the unconquered enemies and greatest plague of the Romans in Britain, were particularly galled and offended with the garrison at Lancaster, it being always the first to oppose them, as often as they invaded the empire, by crossing the Solway firth. For having taken advantage of the spring-tides and the darkness of the nights at the change of the moon, they escaped the garrison at Virosidium, Ellenborough, Arbeia, and Moresby; and skulking along the Cumberland coast, they crossed the Morecambe-bay, and were first discovered on the banks of the Lune. Here they were opposed by the townsmen, who kept the garrison; and if they did not return by the way they came, the alarm brought upon them the garrisons of Overborough, Watercrook, and Ambleside, which surrounded and cut them off. Hence arose a particular hatred to the Lancastrians, which time and repeated injuries fomented into rage. In the end, the barbarous clans, following close upon the heels of the flying Romans, in a particular manner satiated their desire of revenge upon the helpless Lancastrians, by sacking and destroying their town and fortifications, in order that they might at no future time oppose their invasions. The

Lancaster garrison roman fort, Lancaster Caledonians invasion Solway Firth Virosidium garrison Ellenborough garrison Arbeia garrison Moresby garrison Morecambe Bay Overborough garrison Watercrook garrison Ambleside garrison Romans, departure

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Saxons arriving soon after, raised on these ruins the town that remains to this day. Hence it may be inferred, that the present town of Lancaster stands on a magazine of Roman-British antiquities; and this is often verified by digging under ancient houses, where Roman remains are frequently found, and where it appears that the earth has been removed.- Beside what Dr. Leigh mentions, there are many recent instances that prove the conjecture.

roman altar In the year 1772, in digging a cellar, where an old house had stood, in a street or lane, called Pudding-Lane (almost in the centre of the town) there was found, reversed in a bed of fine sand, above five feet underground, a square inscribed stone, of four feet by two and a half dimensions. A foot and two inches were broken off the lower corner on the right hand side, so as to render the inscription obscure, but the remaining letters were very plain, elegantly formed, square, and about three inches high. The inscription had consisted of eight or nine lines, of which six are entire and of easy explanation; the loss in the seventh is easily supplied; but the eighth must be made out by the common style of such votive stones. The elegance of the characters pronounces them to be the work of the best times; but the two small letters in the

Saxons Lancaster antiquities Leigh, Dr Lancaster, Pudding Lane roman altar altar, roman inscription, roman roman inscription

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third and fifth lines reduce it to an age of the Emperor Gordian; and if the three small letters have been occasioned by the omission of the sculptor, then it will be of higher antiquity. It is known by inscriptions found at Olenacum (old Carlisle) that the Augustan wing mentioned on this tablet was stationed there in the time of Gordian; and now from this inscription, it seems to have been at Lancaster. This memorable stone was in the rare collection of Sir Ashton Lever, Knt.

roman potsherd roman coin A few years ago, in sinking a cellar in an old house in Church-street, great quantities of fragments of Roman earthenware were thrown out, urns, paterae, &c. many of them finely glazed, and elegantly marked with emblematic figures. Also some copper coins were found, and an entire lamp, with a turned-up perforated handle to hang it by, the nozzle of which was black from use. At the depth of two yards were likewise discovered a great number of human bones, with burned ashes, a wall of great thickness, and a well filled with rubbish of the same kind, probably leading to a vault were (sic) other human remains were deposited; but the curious must for ever regret that no further search was made into its use and contents.

What throws new light upon the station

Romans Gordian Augustan wing Lever, Ashton, Sir Olenacum Old Carlisle Lancaster, Church Street potsherd, roman roman potsherd urn paterae coin, roman roman coin bone, human

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here is the late discovery of a Roman pottery, at Quarmoor, near Lancaster. That these works have been very considerable may be supposed from the space discoloured with broken ware, the holes from whence the clay has been taken, and the great variety of bricks, tiles, and vessels that are found about them. But the greatest discovery is gathered from a tile with turned-up edges, impressed on each end with the words Ale Sebusia, which points out a wing of cavalry not heard of before. The same inscription is found on bricks, the label smaller, and the letters Ala Subasia. The shape of the second letter in the first word is like that in the inscription on the rock near Brampton, in Cumberland, supposed to have been cut in the time of the Emperor Severus, A.D. 207, and is the fifth L in Horsley's Alphabet. On the brick the letters are square, from which it may be inferred that this wing was long stationed at Lancaster.

charter This town, ever since the conquest, has been renowned for loyalty and attachment to the established government; for which King John honoured it with as ample a charter as he had conferred on the burgess of Bristol and Northampton. Charles II. confirmed it with additional privileges. But Lancaster derived its greatest lustre and importance

Quarmoor Quernmore roman potsherd potsherd, roman kiln, roman roman kiln brick, roman tile, roman roman tile roman brick Ale Subasia wing Brampton Severus Horsley's alphabet inscription, roman roman inscription John charter, Lancaster market charter Charles II Lancaster

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from the title it gave to Edmund, second son of Henry III, and to his issue, Dukes of Lancaster, and Kings of England, of the Lancastrian line. In the end, however, it suffered much by supporting their title to the crown in the contest with the house of York. And so little had it retrieved itself when Camden visited it in 1609, that he speaks of it as not populous, and that the inhabitants were all husbandmen. Since that time it is, however, much enlarged [1]. The new houses are particularly neat and handsome; the streets are well paved, and thronged with inhabitants, busied in prosperous trade to the West Indies, and other places. Along a fine quay, noble warehouses are built. And when it shall please those concerned to deepen the shoals in the river, ships of great burthen may lie before them; for at present we only see, in that part of the river, such as do not exceed 250 tons.

Lancaster The air of Lancaster is salubrious, the environs pleasant, the inhabitants wealthy,

Henry III Lancaster, Duke of Camden, William Lancaster shipping Lancaster, quay West Indies

The town has continued to increase. It has also been lately ornamented with a new town-hall, or exchange, esteemed a handsome building, with a noble portico. An elegant steeple has been also lately built to to (sic) the chapel (after the design of Mr. Harrison) by a donation of the late Mr. T. Bowes, which, with the turret on the exchange, add much to the pleasing or rather striking appearance this town has at a distance, on account of the castle, church, and the conspicuous situation of several good stone houses.

town hall, Lancaster Lancaster, town hall Harrison, Mr Bowes, T

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courteous, hospitable, and polite. The church is a handsome Gothic structure; but the inside view of the beautiful east window is obstructed by a toll screen behind the altar, and the rest of the church is further hurt by a multiplicity of pews. The only remains it has of ancient furniture are a few turn-up seats, carved in the style of the times when it belonged to the priory of St. Martin of Sayes, in France. Some of the carvings are fine, but the figures are either gross or grotesque. This building stands on the crown of an eminence, below the castle from which it is only separated by the moat. The views from the church-yard are extensive and pleasant, particularly the grand and much admired prospects of the northern mountains. The chapel is a neat and convenient place of worship. There are also in this town, presbiterian, quaker, and methodist meeting houses, and a Romish chapel. When the present incommodious bridge was lately repaired, some brass pieces of money were met with under a foundation stone, from which it was conjectured to be of Danish origin. A more ancient bridge stood higher up the river, at Skerton town end: an eligible situation for a new one, which would make a fine and convenient entrance into Lancaster, from the north, and which at present on many accounts it much wants [1].

St Mary, Lancaster misericord St Martin of Sayes's priory quakers methodists catholics presbyterians Skerton Bridge Lancaster, bridge coin, danish danish coin Lune, River

A new bridge has since been erected on the site above pointed out. It was built after a design of Mr. Harrison, consists of five equal eliptical (sic) arches, and is 549 feet long. The expense of the erection, which was paid by the county, amounted to 14,000 l. It is one of the handsomest bridges of its size in Europe, and does honour to the taste of the architect, and to the public spirit of those who promoted the work on so liberal a plan.

In the year 1792 an act was obtained, chiefly promoted by the inhabitants of Lancaster for making a navigable canal, from Kendal, by way of Lancaster and Preston, to go through the great coal countries in the neighbourhood of Chorley and Wigan, and to join the canals in the south of Lancashire, its principal design being for the carriage of limestone and slate from the north, and to return with coals. It is carried over the river Lune by the largest aqueduct in the kingdom, which is an amazing grand object, and is seen to advantage from Lancaster bridge, about two miles off.

Skerton Bridge Lancaster, bridge bridge, Lancaster Lune, River Harrison, Mr Lancaster Canal Lune Aqueduct coal limestone slate

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station, Hornby Road Before you leave Lancaster, take a ride to the three mile-stone on the road to Hornby, and there have Mr. Gray's noble view of the vale of Lonsdale, which he or his editor, describes in these words, in the note page 373 of his life:- 'This scene opens just three miles from Lancaster, on what is called the Queen's road. To see this view in perfection you must go into a field on the left [1]. Here, Ingleborough, behind a variety of lesser mountains, makes the background of the prospect; on each hand of the middle distance rise two sloping hills, the left clothed with thick wood, the right with variegated rock

station, Hornby Road Gray, Thomas Vale of Lonsdale Ingleborough milestone

As several mistakes have been made respecting this station, it is necessary to point it out more precisely. About a quarter of a mile beyond the third milestone, where the road makes a turn to the right, there is a gate on the left, which leads into a field, where the station meant will be found.

station, Hornby Road milestone

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and herbage. Between them, is the richest of valleys, the Lune serpentizes for many a mile, and comes forth ample and clear thro' a well wooded and richly pastured foreground. Every feature which constitutes a perfect landscape of the extensive sort, is here not only boldly marked, but also in its best position.'

Lancaster to Cartmel Lancaster to Hest Bank Lancaster Sands From Lancaster to Hest-bank, three miles, set out with the Ulverston carriers at the stated hour, or take a guide for the sands that succeed, called Lancaster Sands [1], and which are 9 miles over [2]. On a fine day there is not a

Lune, River Hest Bank Lancaster Sands sands guide Vale of Lonsdale

(Morecambe, Ptol.)


Along with the proper guides, crossing of the sands in summer is thought a journey of little more danger than any other. But those who wish to evade them may easily go, in one day, round to Ulverston, by the head of the aestuary.- The roads are in general very good, the ride about 37 miles, and not wanting in the natural variety peculiar to the country. The route will be thus:- From Lancaster to Burton 11 miles. (There observe Mr. Atkinson's neat house of freestone.) The old venerable building on the right hand of the road, about two miles short of Burton, is Borwick-hall, formerly the residence of Sir Robert Bindloss, but now only a farm-house. From thence to Millthorp 4 miles. (There see Dallam-Tower, the seat of Daniel Wilson, Esq. in which there are several elegancies, and more capabilities. Also, see a bold water-fall of the river at Beetham-mill). From Millthorp to Levens (an ancient seat of the late Earl of Suffolk, where a curious specimen of the old style of gardening may be seen, laid out by the gardener of King James II.) two miles. From thence to the nearer end of the long causeway at Beathwaite-green 1 mile. Thence to the Black Bull at Witherslack 3 miles (which takes you to the foot of Whitbarrow-scar, a remarkable precipice of limestone rock, formed in several places like a fortress). Thence to Newton (over the hill Tawtop) 4 miles. Thence to Newby-bridge 3 miles, which is situated at the lower end of Windermere-water. From thence to Bouth, on the common turnpike 3 miles. (But it might be worth while to go a little out of the way through a valley on the left hand, by Backbarrow Cotton-spinning-mills, the iron founderies, and Low-wood Gunpowder-mills, which are very romantically situated). From Bouth to Penny-bridge 2 miles, which brings you into the tract of the tour by Ulverston, now only four miles distant.- If, on account of getting post chaises, &c. it be thought more convenient to go by Kendal to Ulverston, the journey will be about 7 miles more, all good turnpike road. From Burton (where the two roads part) to Kendal is 11 miles, and from Kendal to the above-named Bewby-bridge (sic) (where they meet again) is about 13 miles.- This latter stage, which is mountainous and uneven, affords a great variety of prospects.

Lancaster Sands sands guide road, Lancaster to Hest Bank road, Lancaster Sands Lancaster to Hest Bank Burton-in-Kendal Atkinson, Mr Borwick Hall Bindloss, Robert, Sir Millthorp Milnthorpe Dallam Tower Wilson, Daniel waterfall, Beetham Beetham Mill Levens Hall garden, Levens Hall Suffolk, Earl of Beathwaite Green Causeway End Black Bull, Witherslack Witherslack Whitbarrow Scar Tawtop Tow Top Newton Newby Bridge Bouth turnpike Backbarrow spinning mill spinning mill Backbarrow iron foundry iron foundry Low Wood Gunpowder Mills gunpowder mill Penny Bridge Ulverston road, Kendal to Ulverston Kendal to Ulverston

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more pleasant sea-side ride in the kingdom. On the right, a bold shore, deeply indented in some places, and opening into bays in others; valleys that stretch far into the country, bounded on each side by hanging grounds, cut into inclosures, interspersed with groves and woods, adorned with sequestered cots, farms, villages, churches, and castles; mountains behind mountains, and others again just seen over them, close the fore scene. Claude has not introduced Socrate on the Tyber in a more happy point of view than Ingleborough appears in during the course of this ride. At entering on the sands, to the left, Heysham-point rises abruptly, and the village hangs on its side in a beautiful manner. Over a vast extent of sands Peel-castle, the ancient bulwark of the bay, rears its venerable head above the tide. In

seashore Lorrain, Claude Claude Ingleborough Heysham Point Lancaster Sands Peel Castle

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front appears a fine sweep of country sloping to the south. To the right, Warton-cragg presents itself in a bold style. On its arched summit are the vestiges of a square encampment, and the ruins of a beacon. Grounds bearing from the eye, for many a mile, variegated in every pleasing form by woods and rocks, are terminated by cloud-topt Ingleborough. A little further, on the same hand, another vale opens to the sands and shows a broken ridge of rocks, and beyond them, groups of mountains towering to the sky, Castle-steads, a pyramidal hill, that rises above the station at Kendal, is now in sight. At the bottom of the bay stands Arnside-tower, once a mansion of the Stanleys. The Cartmel coast, now as you advance, becomes more pleasing. Betwixt that and Silverdale-nab (a mountain of naked grey rock) is a great break in the coast, and through the opening the river Kent rolls its waters to join the tide. In the mouth of the aestuary are two beautiful conical isles, clothed with wood and sweet verdure. As you advance toward them they seem to change their position, and hence often vary their appearance. At the same time a grand view opens of the Westmorland mountains, tumbled about in a most surprising manner. At the head of the aestuary, under a beautiful green hill, Heversham village and church appear in fine perspect-

Warton Crag beacon, Warton Crag roman fort Ingleborough Castle Steads castlesteads, Stainton Helm, The Arnside Tower Stanley Family Silverdale Nab Kent, River Kent Estuary Holme Island Heversham

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[perspect]ive. To the north of Whitbarrow-scar, a huge arched and bended cliff, of an immense height, shows its stern beaten front [1]. The intermediate space is a mixture of rocks, and woods, and cultivated patches, that form a romantic view [2]. At the side of the

Whitbarrow Scar

A little to the left of Whitbarrow is Castlehead, which is now in the possession of the executor of John Wilkinson, Esq. The house is seen to advantage as you cross the sands, and greatly enlivens the part of the coast where it is situated.

Castlehead Wilkinson, John

The above description of this curious and pleasing ride is, as far as it goes, just, but not characteristic. What most attracts the notice of the traveller is not the objects of the surrounding country (though they are fine) but the sands themselves. For when he has got a few miles from the shore, the nature of the plain on which he treads cannot but suggest a series of ideas of a more sublime kind than those of rural elegance, and which will therefore gain a superior attention. The plain is then seemingly immense in extent, continued in a dead level, and uniform in appearance. As he pursues his often trackless way, he will recollect, that probably but a few hours before, the whole expanse was covered with some fathoms of water, and that in a few more it will as certainly be covered again. At the same time he may also perceive, on his left hand, the retreated ocean ready to obey the mysterious laws of its irresistable movement, without any visible barrier to stay it a moment where it is. These last considerations, though they may not be sufficient to alarm, must yet be able to rouse the mind to a state of more than ordinary attention; which, co-operating with the other singular ideas of the prospect, must affect it in a very sublime and unusual manner. This the bare appearance of the sands will do. But when the traveller reaches the side of the Eau, these affections will be greatly increased. He there drops down a gentle descent to the edge of a broad and seemingly impassable river, where the only remains he can perceive of the surrounding lands are the tops of distant mountains, and where a solitary being on horseback (like some ancient genius of the deep) is descried hovering on its brink, or encountering its stream with gentle steps, in order to conduct him through it. When fairly entered into the water, if a stranger to this scene, and he does not feel himself touched with some of the most pleasing emotions, I should consider him destitute of common sensibility. For, in the midst of apparently great danger, he will soon find that there is really none at all; and the complacency which must naturally result from this consideration, will be heightened to an unusual degree by observing, during his passage, the anxious and faithful instinct of his beast, and the friendly behaviour and aspect of his guide. All the fervors of grateful thankfulness will then be raised, and if, with the usual perquisite to his venerable conductor, he can forget to convey his blessing, who would not conclude him to want one essential requisite for properly enjoying the tour of the lakes?

Having crossed the river, the stranger traveller, (whom we will suppose at length freed from any petty anxiety) will now have more inclination to survey the objects around him. The several particulars peculiar to an arm of the sea (as fishermen, ships, sea-fowl, shells, weeds, &c.) will attract his notice and new-model his reflections. But if the sun shine forcibly, he will perhaps be most entertained with observing the little gay isles and promontories of land, that seem to hover in the air, or swim on a luminous vapour, that rises from the sand, and fluctuates beautifully on its surface.

In short, on a fine summer day, a ride across this aestuary (and that of Leven mentioned little further on) to a speculative stranger (or to any one who is habituated to consider the charms of nature abstractedly) will afford a variety of most entertaining ideas. Indeed, the objects here presented to the eye are several of them so like in kind to what will frequently occur in the tour of the lakes, some of them are so much more magnificent from extent, and others so truly peculiar, that it seems rather surprising that this journey should not often be considered by travellers from the south, as one of the first curiosities of the tour, in beauty as well as occurrence. And if the reader of this note be of a philosophic turn, this question may here offer itself to him, and to which it is apprehended he may found a satisfactory answer on every evident principles, viz. 'Why a view so circumstanced as this, and, when taken from the shore at full sea, so very like a lake of greater apparent extent than any in the kingdom, should never be brought into comparison with the lakes to be visited afterwards, and generally fail to strike the mind with images of any peculiar beauty or grandeur?' X.

Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Lancaster Sands tides Kent, River sea sands guide picturesque beauty

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Eau [1], or river of the sands, a guide on horseback called the carter, is in waiting to conduct passengers over the ford. The prior of Cart-

Eau, River Kent, River sands guide Carter, The

Pronounced commonly Eea.

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[Cart]mel was charged with this important office, and synodals and peter-pence allowed towards its maintenance. Since the dissolution of the priory, it is held by patent of the duchy of Lancaster, and the salary, twenty pounds per annum, is paid by the receiver-general.

Cartmel Kents Bank to Cartmel Cartmel Priory Cartmel is a small district belonging to Lancashire, but united to Westmorland a little below Bowness, on Windermere-water, from whence it extends itself betwixt the rivers Leven and Kent, and so intersects the great bay at Morecambe. It is three miles across from Cark-lane, where you quit the sands to Sand-gate. Pass through Flookburg [1], once a market-town, by charter granted to the prior of Cartmel, lord paramount, from King Edward I. The only thing worthy of notice in Cartmel is the Church, a hand-

Lancaster, Duchy of synodals peter pence Cartmel Priory Cartmel Lancashire Cark Lane Sands Gate Flookburgh Edward I market charter charter, Flookburgh

Near this place is a noted spaw, called Holy-well, found to be of great service in most cutaneous disorders, and much resorted to in the summer season from distant parts. It is an easy cathartic, restores lost appetite, and fully answers the ancient poetic description of a fountain.

'Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo.'

spa, Cartmel Holy Well skin diseases cutaneous diseases

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[hand]some Gothic edifice. The large east window [1] is finely ribbed with pointed arches, light and elegant; but the painted glass is almost destroyed. The preservation of this edifice reflects honour on the memory of George Preston, Esq. of Holker, who, at his own expense, new-roofed the whole, and decorated the inside with a stucco cieling (sic). The choir and chancel he also repaired, suiting the new parts to the old remains of the canons' seats, and thereby giving them their ancient uniform appearance. Persons uninformed of this, always take it to be the same as it was before the dissolution. The style of the building, like most of its contemporaries, is irregular. The form is a cross, in length 157 feet; the transept 110 feet; the height of the walls 57 feet. The tower on the centre is of a singular construction, being a square within a square, the higher set at cross angles with the lower. This gives it an odd appearance on all sides, but may have some reference to the octagonal pillars in the church, and both to the memory of something now forgotten. According to some accounts, it was built and endowed with the manor of Cartmel, by William Marischal the elder, Earl of Pembroke, in 1188, but as in the foundation deed mention is made of Henry II,- Richard,- and

Cartmel Priory stained glass Preston, George Marischal, William Pembroke, Earl of Henry II Richard I

The dimensions are 24 feet wide and 48 high. The great east window of York-minster measures 32 by 75 feet.

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Henry the younger, his lord the King, it appears rather to have been founded in the beginning of that reign; for William the elder, Earl of Pembroke, died in the fourth or fifth year of the reign of Henry III. He gave it, never to be erected into an abbey, to the canons regular of St. Austin, reserving to himself and his heirs the right of granting them the conge[acute] d'lire of a prior, who should be independent of all others. Under the north wall, a little below the altar, is the tomb-stone of William de Walton, prior of Cartmel. He is mentioned in the confirmation diploma of Edward II, and must have been one of the first priors. Opposite to this is a magnificent tomb of a Harrington and his lady, which Mr. Pennant thinks may be of Sir John Harrington, who, in 1305, was summoned by Edward I, 'with numbers of other gallant gentlemen, to meet him at Carlisle, and attend him on his expedition in to Scotland.' But it agrees better with a John de Harrington, called John of Cartmel, or his son, of Wrasholme-tower, in Cartmel, as Sir Daniel Fleming's account of that family has it, M.S.L.A. 1.132. The head of the Harrington family, Sir John Harrington, in the reign of Edward I, was of Aldingham, and lived at Gleaston-castle, in Furness, and died in an advanced age, in 1347; and is more probably the Sir John

Pembroke, Earl of Henry III Austin Friars Walton, William de prior, Cartmel Edward II Harrington Family Harrington, John, Sir Pennant, Thomas Edward I Cartmel, John of Wrasholme Tower Wraysholme Tower Fleming, Daniel, Sir Gleaston Castle

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Harrington mentioned in Dugdale's baronage, and said, as above, to be summoned by Edward I. There is not one vestige of the monastry (sic) remaining. There is indeed an ancient gate-house, but whether this was connected with the cloisters or not, tradition is silent, and its distance from the church is unfavorable to the conjecture.

Cartmel to Ulverston Proceed through rocky fields and groves to Holker, one mile, the seat of the right Hon. Lord George Cavendish. The carriage road is by Cark-hall. At the top of the hill there opens a fine view of Furness. Holker-hall lies at your feet, embosomed in wood. On the left, Ulverston-bay opens into the great bay, and is three miles over. The coast is deeply indented, and the peninsulas are beautifully fringed with wood. On the right, a bold bending rock presents a noble arched forehead; and a fine slope of inclosed grounds mixed with wood, leads the eye to Ulverston, the port and mart of Furness. Conishead shows its pyramidal head, completely clothed in woods. At its feet is the priory, shielded by a wing of hanging wood, that climbs up the side of a steep hill. Bardsea, under its rocks and hanging woods, stands in a delightful point of view. In front, a sweet fall of inclosures, marked with clumps of trees and hedge-rows, gives it a most picturesque effect.

Harrington, John, Sir Edward I Cartmel Priory Cavendish, George Cark Hall Furness Holker Hall Ulverston Bay Ulverston Conishead Conishead Priory Bardsea station, Great Head

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Also a white house on the sea bank, under the cover of a deep wood, has a most enchanting appearance. The coast from thence is of singular beauty, consisting of hanging wood, inclosed lands, and pasture grounds, varied through a great extent of prospect, in every pleasing form. Descend to Holker, which adds to the surrounding scenes what is peculiar to itself, joined to the improvements of the noble owner, finished in a masterly style [1]. The traveller will here observe husbandry in a more flourishing situation than in the country he is soon to visit. The husbandmen in this part, as elsewhere, are slow in imitating new practices; but the continued success which has attended the improvements on his lordship's estates, has not failed to effect a reformation amongst the Cartmel farmers.

Leven Sands In crossing Leven-sands, to Ulverston, you have on the right, a grand view of Alpine scenery. A rocky hill patched with wood and heath, rising immediately from the

Ulverston Bay Holker Hall Leven Sands Cartmel Sands Ulverston Sands

The connoisseur in painting may here have the pleasure of seeing a good collection of pictures; amongst which are, by Claude Lorrain, a very capital landscape, exhibiting a view of the Tiber, with the temple of Apollo, the nine muses, &c. another representing the departure out of Egypt, and two more small views. Also a large landscape by Rubens; two fine church pieces by B. Neels (the figures by Elshamer); and several others by Woverman, Hobina, Teniers, Swanevelt, Zuccarelli, Rysdal, and other eminent masters.

Holker Hall painting Lorrain, Claude Claude Rubens Neels, B Elshamer Woverman Hobina Teniers Swanevelt Zuccarelli Rysdal

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coast, directs the eye to an immense chain of lofty mountains, apparently increased in magnitude and height since they were seen from Hest-bank. On a fine morning this is a pleasant ride, when the mountains are strongly illuminated by the sun-beams, and patched with shadows of intervening clouds that sail along their sides; or when they drag their watery skirts over the summits, and, admitting the streaming beams, adorn their rocky heads with silver, and variegate their olive-coloured sides with stripes of gold and green. This fairy scene soon shifting, all is concealed in a mantle of azure mist. At the Eau, or ford of the river Leven, another carter conducts you over. On the dissolution of the priory of Conishead, King Henry VIII. charged himself and his successors with the payment of the salary, fifteen marks per annum, which the guide received from the priory.

Ulverston Ulverston, the London of Furness, is a neat town, at the foot of a swift descent of hills to the south-east. The streets are regular, and excellently well paved. The weekly market for Low-Furness has been long established here, to the prejudice of Dalton, the ancient capital of Furness. The articles of export, are iron-ore in great quantities, pig and bar iron, oats, barley, beans, potatoes,

Eau, River Leven, River sands guide Carter, The Conishead Priory Henry VIII Ulverston market, Ulverston Dalton-in-Furness iron ore pig iron bar iron iron oats barley beans potatoes

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bark, and limestone. The principal inns are kept by the guides, who regularly pass to and from Lancaster, on Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday, in every week.

iron mines Make an excursion to the west, three miles, and visit the greatest iron-mines in England. At Whitrigs the works are carried on with much spirit, by driving of levels into the bosom of the mountain. The ore is found in a limestone stratum mixed with a variety of spars of a dirty colour. There is much quartz in some of the works that admits of a high polish. At present the works in Stoneclose and Aldgarly are the most flourishing that have been known in Furness. This mineral is not hurtful to any animal or vegetable. The verdure is remarkably fine about the workings, and no one ever suffered by drinking the water in the mines, though discoloured and much impregnated with the ore.

Furness Abbey Proceed by Dalton to the magnificent ruins of Furness-Abbey, and there

'See the wild waste of all devouring-years, How Rome her own sad sepulchre appears, With nodding arches, broken temples spread, The very tombs now vanish like the dead.'

This Abbey was founded by Stephen, Earl of Mortaign and Boulogne, afterwards King

bark limestone sands guide iron mine Whitrigs iron mine quartz iron ore limestone spar Stoneclose iron mine Aldgarly iron mine Adgarley iron mine Dalton-in-Furness Furness Abbey Mortaign and Boulogne, Earl of Stephen

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of England. A.D. 1127, and was endowed with the lordship of Furness, and many royal privileges. It was peopled from the monastery of Savigny in Normandy, and dedicated to St. Mary. In ancient writings it is styled St. Marye's of Furness. The monks were of the order of Savigny, and their dress was grey cloth; but on receiving St. Bernard's form, they changed from grey to white, and became Cistercians; and such they remained till the dissolution of the monasteries.

The situation of this abbey, so favourable to a contemplative life, justifies the choice of the first settlers. Such a sequestered site, in the bottom of a deep dell, through which a hasty brook rolls its murmuring stream, and along which the roaring west wind would often blow, joined with the deep-toned matin song, must have been very favourable to the solemn melancholy of a monastic life.

To prevent surprise, and call in assistance, a beacon was placed on the crown of an eminence that rises immediately from the Abbey, and is seen all over Low-Furness. The door leading to the beacon is still remaining in the inclosure-wall, on the eastern side. The magnitude of the Abbey may be known from the dimensions of the ruins; and enough is standing to show the style of the architec-

Savigny monastery St Mary's Abbey Cistercians Furness Abbey beacon, Furness

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[architec]ture. The round and pointed arches occur in the doors and windows. The fine clustered Gothic, and the heavy plain Saxon pillars stand contrasted. The walls show excellent masonry, are in many places counter-arched, and the ruins discover a strong cement. The east window has been noble; and some of the painted glass that once adorned it, is preserved in a window in Windermere church. On the outside of the window, under an arched festoon, is the head of the founder, and opposite to it that of Maud his queen, both crowned and well executed. In the south wall, and east end of the church, are four seats adorned with Gothic ornaments. In these the officiating priest, with his attendants, sat at intervals during the solemn service of high mass. In the middle space, where the first barons of Kendal are interred, lies a procumbent figure of a man in armour, cross-legged. The chapter-house has been a noble room of sixty feet by forty-five. The vaulted roof, formed of twelve ribbed arches, was supported by six pillars on two rows, at thirteen feet distance from each other. Now supposing each of the pillars to be two feet in diameter, the room would be divided into three alleys, or passages, each thirteen feet wide. On entrance, the middle one only could be seen, lighted by a pair of tall pointed windows at the upper end of the room;

Furness Abbey St Martin, Bowness-on-Windermere Stephen Maud stained glass Kendal, Baron of crusader knight

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the company in the side passage would be concealed by the pillars, and the vaulted roof, that groined from those pillars, would have a truly Gothic disproportionate appearance of sixty feet by thirteen. The two side alleys were lighted, each by a pair of similar lights, besides another pair at the upper end, at present entire, and which illustrate what is here said. Thus, whilst the upper end of the room had a profusion of light, the lower end would be in the shade. The noble roof of this singular edifice did but lately fall in, and the entrance or porch is still standing, a fine circular arch, beautified with a deep cornice, and a portico on each side. The only entire roof now remaining, is of a building without the inclosure-wall. It was the school-house of the abbot's tenants, and is a single ribbed arch that groins from the wall.

There is a general disproportion remarkable in Gothic churches, which must have originated in some effect intended by all the architects; perhaps to strike the mind with reverential awe, at the sight of magnificence arising from the vastness of two dimensions, and a third seemingly disregarded; or, perhaps such a determinate height and length was found more favourable than any other to the church song, by giving a deeper swell to

Furness Abbey school, Furness Abbey

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the choir of chaunting monks. A remarkable deformity in this edifice, and for which there is no apparent reason or necessity, is, that the north door, which is the principal entrance, is on one side of the window above it. The tower has been supported by four magnificent arches, of which only one remains entire. They rested upon four tall pillars, whereof three are finely clustered, but the fourth is of a plain unmeaning construction.

return to Ulverston From the abbey, if on horseback, return by Newton, Stainton, and Adgarly. See on the right a deep embayed coast, the islands of Walney and Foulney, Peel-castle, and a variety of extensive views on all sides. At Adgarly the new iron-works are carried on under the old workings. The richest ore is found here in immense quantities: one hundred and forty tons have been raised at one shaft in twenty-four hours. To the right, you have a view of the ruins of Gleaston-castle, the seat of the Flemings soon after the conquest, which by a succession of marriages, went to Cansfield, then to Harrington, who enjoyed it six decents (sic), after that to Bonville, and lastly to Gray; and was forfeited by Henry Gray, Duke of Suffolk, A.D. 1559. Leaving Urswick behind, ascend Birkrig, a rocky eminence, and from the beacon have a variety

Furness Abbey Newton Stainton Aldgarly Adgarley Walney Island Isle of Walney Foulney Island Peel Castle Piel Castle Aldgarly iron mine Adgarley iron mine iron mine iron ore Gleaston Castle Fleming Family Cansfield Family Harrington Family Bonville Family Gray Family Suffolk, Duke of Gray, Henry beacon, Birkrigg Urswick Birkrigg

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of extensive and pleasant views, of land and sea, mountains and islands. Ulverston appears to the north east, seated under a hanging wood, and beyond that Furness-fells, in various shapes, form the grandest termination that can be imagined. The back view is the reverse of this. When the tide is up, you see a fine arm of the sea stretching far within land, terminated by bold rocks and steep shores. Beyond this expanse, a far country is seen, and Lancaster town and castle, in a fine point of view, under a screen of high grounds, over which sable Clougha rears his venerable head. Ingleborough, behind many other mountains, has a fine effect from this station. If in a carriage, return from the abbey by Dalton. This village is finely situated on the crest of a rocky eminence, sloping to the morning sun. At the upper end is a square tower, where formerly the abbot held his secular court, and secured his prisoners. The keep is in the bottom of the tower, and is a dismal dungeon.

Conishead Priory Return to Ulverston, and from thence to the priory of Conishead, the paradise of Furness; a Mount Edgecomb in miniature, which well deserves a visit from the curious traveller. The house stands on the site of the priory of Conishead, at the foot of a fine eminence, and the ground falls gently from it on all

Birkrigg Ulverston Furness Fells Lancaster Clougha Pike Ingleborough Dalton-in-Furness Furness Abbey, prison station, Birkrigg Conishead Priory

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sides. The slopes are planted with shrubs and trees in such a manner to improve the elevation; and the waving woods that fly from it on each wing give it an airy and noble appearance. The south front is in the modern taste, extended by an arcade. The north is in the Gothic style, with a piazza and wings. The apartments are elegantly furnished, and the house is good and convenient. But, what recommends itself most to the curious, is a plan of pleasure ground, on a small scale, containing beauties equal in number to gardens of the greatest extent in England. The variety of culminated grounds, and winding slopes, comprehended within this sweet spot, furnish all the advantage of mountains and vales, woods and water. By the judicious management of these assemblages, the late owner performed wonders. Consulting the genius of the place, he called in, to aid his plan, and harmonized to this little spot, the features of a country vast in extent, and by nature highly picturesque [1], whose distant parts agreeing with what was immediately near him, form a most magnificent whole. For, besides the ornamental grounds, the views from the house are both pleasing and surprising. They are at once grand and ele-

Conishead Priory garden, Conishead Priory station, Conishead

The note intended for this place proving too long, it is inserted in the Addenda, and makes Article VIII. X.

Cockin, William : 1780=1784

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stations, Conishead [ele]gant, rural and marine. On the eastern side, you have a fine aestuary, spotted with rocks, isles, and peninsulas, a variety of shore, deeply indented in some places, in others composed of noble arched rocks, craggy, broken, and fringed with wood; over these, hanging woods, intermixed with cultivated inclosures, covered with a back ground of stupendous mountains. As a contrast to this view, from the other end of the gravel walk (between two culminating hills, covered with tall wood) is seen, in fine perspective, a rich cultivated dale, divided by hedge-row trees; beyond these, hanging grounds cut into inclosures, with scattered farms, and above them all, a long range of waving pasture ground and sheep walks, shining in variety of vegetation. This sweet pastoral picture is much heightened by the deep shade of the towering wooded hills, between which it is viewed. Turn to the left, the scenery is all reversed. Under a range of tall sycamores, an expanse of water bursts upon the eye, and beyond it, land just visible through the azure mist. Vessels traversing this bay are also seen in a most picturesque manner, and, from the lower part of the house, appear sailing through the trees, and approaching it till they drop anchor just under the windows. The range of sycamores has a fine effect in this sea view, by breaking the line in the

Conishead Priory Ulverston Bay station, Conishead

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watery plain, and forming an elegant frame to a very excellent picture. By turning a little to the right, the prospect changes. At the head of a sloping inclosure, and under the skirts of a steep wood, a sequestered cottage stands in the nicest point of beauty.

There is a great variety of pleasing views from the different meandering walks and seats in the wood: one at the hermitage, and another at the seat in the bottom of the wood, where Ulverston and the environs make a pretty picture. From under the shrubbery (on the eastern side of the house, and from the gate at the north end of the walk, behind a swell of green hills) if the afternoon sun shine, the conical summits of distant mountains are seen glistening like burnished gold, and pointing to the heavens in a noble style. But as this sweet spot is injured by description, I shall only add, that it is a great omission in the curious traveller, to be in Furness and not see so wonderfully pretty place a place, to which nature has been so profuse in noble gifts, and where art has lent its best assistance, under the regulation of an elegant fancy, and a refined taste [1].

Ulverston Bay Ulverston garden, Conishead Priory station, Conishead

And where it is not too much to go on in a language of a still higher kind,-

Here hills and vales, the woodland and the plain, Here earth and water seem to strive again; Not chaos-like, together crush'd and bruis'd, But, as the world, harmoniously confus'd.

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Ulverston to Lowick Greenodd to Coniston station, Coniston road CONISTON.

From Ulverston to Coniston-water is eight miles, either by Penny-bridge or by Lowick, both excellent carriage roads. [1] By Lowick the road is along a narrow vale, beautifully divided by hanging inclosures and scattered farms, half way up the mountains' sides, whose various heads are covered with heath and brown vegetation. About three miles from Ulverston, observe a farm house on the left, and a group of houses before you on the right. - Stop at the gate on the brow of the hill, and have a distant view of the lake, finely intersected with high crowned peninsulas. At the upper end, a snow white house is seen, under a hanging wood, and to the north east, the lake seems to wind round the mountains' feet. The whole range of Coniston-fells is now in sight, and under them a lower sweep of dark rocks frown over the crystal surface of the lake. Advancing on the left see Lowick-hall, once the seat of a family of that name. Behind this a dismal scene of barrenness presents itself; clustered

Coniston Water Penny Bridge Lowick road, Ulverston to Lowick Ulverston to Lowick station, Coniston road Lowick Family road, Greenodd to Coniston Greenodd to Coniston

Company that return to Ulverston the same day should turn off to the left near Lowick bridge, to Penny-bridge, and have a charming view of a most beautiful bay, especially if the tide be up. It opens a little short of Penny-bridge, and continues to Greenodd, at the meeting of the rivers Leven and Crake, where this country slate is laid up for exportation.

Penny Bridge Lowick Bridge station, Penny Bridge Leven, River Crake, River Greenodd slate

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grey rocky mountains, variegated with some few stripes of heath. After crossing the outlet of the lake, at Lowick-bridge, these dreary objects are found often intersepted by pieces of arable ground, hanging sweetly to the east, and prettily situated under ancient oaks, or venerable yews. The white houses in these parts, covered with blue slate, have a neat appearance. The thatched cot is esteemed a more picturesque object; and yet the other kind, seen under a deep green wood, or covered with a purple back-ground of heath, has a pleasing effect.

Coniston Water Reach the south end of the lake. Here it is narrowed by the rocky prominences from both, sides, forming between their curvatures a variety of pretty bays. The whole length of the lake is about six measured miles; and the greatest breadth about three quarters of a mile. The greatest depth, by report, exceeds not forty fathoms. A little higher the broadest part commences, and stretches, with small curvatures, to Water-head. The shores are frequently indented; and one pretty bay opens after another in a variety of forms.

station, Water Park STATION I. - A little above the village of Nibthwaite, the lake opens in full view. From the rock, on the left of the road, you have a general prospect of the lake, upwards.

Lowick Bridge Coniston Water station, Water Park Water Head Waterhead, Coniston Nibthwaite station, Coniston 1

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This station is found by observing where you have a hanging rock over the road on the east, and an ash tree on the west side of the road. On the opposite shore, to the left, and close by the water's edge, are some stripes of meadow and green ground, cut into small inclosures, with some dark-coloured houses under aged yew trees. Two promontories project a great way into the lake; the broadest is finely terminated by steep rocks, and crowned with wood; and both are insulated when the lake is high. Upwards, over a fine sheet of water, the lake is again intersected by a far-projecting promontory, that swells into two eminences, and betwixt them the lake is again caught, with some white houses at the feet of the mountains. And more to the right, over another headland, you catch a fourth view of the lake, twisting to the north east. Almost opposite to this station, stands a house on the crown of a rock, covered with ancient trees, that has a most romantic appearance.

along Coniston Water The noble scenery increases as you ride along the banks. In some places, bold rocks (lately covered with wood) conceal the lake entirely, and when the winds blow, the beating of surges is heard just under you. In other places, abrupt openings show the lake a-new, and there, when calm, its limpid sur-

station, Water Park Coniston Water

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[sur]face, shining like a crystal mirror reflects the azure sky, or its dappled clouds, in the finest mixture of nature's clare-obscure. On the western side, the shore is more variegated with small inclosures, scattered cots, groves and meadows.

The road continues along the eastern banks of the lake; here bare, there sweetly fringed with a few tall trees, the small remains of its ancient woods that till lately clothed the whole.

station, Peel Ness STATION II. When you are opposite to the peninsula last described proceed through a gate on the left hand, and from the rocky eminence you have a general view of the lake, both ways. To the south, a sweet bay is formed between the horns of two peninsulas, and beyond that a fine sheet of water appears, terminated by the promontories which form the straits, through which the lake has its outlet. From thence the coast is beautifully diversified by a number of green eminences crowned with wood, and sequestered cottages interspersed among them half concealed by yew trees; and, above them, a wave of rocky, spiral mountains, dressed in brown vegetation, form the most romantic scenes. Between this and a wooded eminence, a green hill, cut into inclosures to

Coniston Water station, Peel Ness station, Coniston 2

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the very top, in some parts patched with rock and little groves, has a beautiful appearance; especially when contrasted with the barren scenes on one hand, and the deep shade of a waving wood on the other. At the foot of this cultivated tract, and on the margin of the lake, a few white houses, partly concealed by a grove, look like enchanted seats on a fairy ground. Behind these a barren bleak mountain frowns in sullen majesty, and down his furrowed side the Black-beck of Torver rolls its fretted torrent. Just at your feet lies the oblong rocky isle of Peel; and near it the dark points of half-immersed rocks just show themselves by turns. Here is the finest picture of the lake, and when it is smooth the whole is seen reflected on the shining surface of the watery mirror. On the western side the coast is steep rocks. The eastern side is much embayed. The high end of the lake is here in view, yet it seems to wind both ways behind the opposite promontories. The range of naked rocks that cross the head of the lake appear now awful, from their sable hue, and behind them, the immense mass of Cove, Rydal-head, and many nameless mountains, have a most stupendous appearance, and seeming inaccessible height. A succession of pretty bays open to the traveller as he advances; the banks become more wooded,

Coniston Water Black Beck of Torver Peel Island Cove Rydal Head station, Peel Ness

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and more cultivation appears. On the western margin stands the lady of the lake, Coniston-hall, concealed in a grove of tall trees, and above it, the village of the same name. The hall has only changed masters twice since the conquest, and has belonged to the family of Fleming most of time.

station, Beck Leven Foot STATION III. After crossing the common where grows a picturesque yew tree on the right hand, and a small peninsula rushes into the lake on the left, crowned with a single tree, enter the grove, and pass a gate, and bridge that crosses a small rivulet. Look for a fragment of dark-colored rock on the margin of the water, and near it will be found the best stand for the artist to take the finest view on the lake. Looking across the lake, by the south end of the grove that conceals Coniston-hall, and over the cultivated tract that rises behind it, between two swells of rocks, a cataract will meet the eye, issuing from the bosom of the mountains. The side ground on the right is a wooded, sloping rock, and over it the road is catched slanting along. The near foreground is the greatest extent of the lake; and behind the immediate mountains, the Westmorland fells are seen towering to the clouds. This station will be found, by company coming down the lake, at the

Coniston Water Coniston Hall Fleming Family station, Beck Leven Foot Coniston artist station, Coniston 3

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circular bay; where the road first joins the level of the water.

Coniston Water by boat The next grand view is had in the boat, and from the centre of the lake, opposite to Coniston-hall. Looking towards the mountains, the lake spreads itself into a noble expanse of transparent water, and burst into a bay on each side, bordered with verdant meadows, and inclosed with a variety of grounds, rising in an exceedingly bold manner. The objects are beautifully diversified amongst themselves, and contrasted by the finest exhibition of rural elegance (cultivation, and pasturage, waving woods, and sloping inclosures, adorned by nature, and improved by art) under the bold sides of stupendous mountains, whose airy summits the elevated eye cannot now reach, and which almost deny access to human kind.

Following the line of shore from Coniston-hall, to the upper end of the lake, the village of Coniston is in full view, and consists of seats, groups of houses, farms, and cots, scattered in a picturesque manner over the cultivated slope. Some are snow-white, others gray; some stand forth on bold eminences at the head of green inclosures; backed with steep woods; others are pitched on sweet declivities, and seem hanging in the

Coniston Water Coniston Hall station, Coniston Water by boat

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air; some again are on a level with the lake; and all are neatly covered with blue slate, the produce of the mountains, and beautified with ornamental yews, hollies, and tall pines, or firs. This is a charming scene, when the morning sun tinges the whole with a variety of tints. In the point of beauty and centre of perspective, a white house, under a hanging wood, gives life to this picture. Here a range of dark rugged rocks rise abruptly, and deeply contrast the transparent surface of the lake, and the stripe of verdure that skirts their feet. The eastern shore is not less bold and embayed[1].

Coniston Water It will be allowed, that the views on this lake are beautiful and picturesque, yet they please more than surprise. The hills that immediately inclose the lake, are ornamental, but humble. The mountains at the head of the lake are great, noble, and sublime, without any thing that is horrid or terrible. They are bold and steep, without the projecting precipice, the overhanging rock, or pendant cliff. The hanging woods, waving inclosures, and airy sites, are elegant, beautiful, and picturesque; and the whole may be seen with ease and pleasure. In a fine morning, there is not a more plea-

Coniston Water station, Coniston Water by boat

The slate brought down from the mountains is laid up here, till put on board boats that transport it to Water-foot.

slate Waterfoot, Coniston

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[pleas]ant rural ride; and then the beauties of the lake are seen to the most advantage. In the afternoon, if the sun shines, much of the effect is lost by the change of light; and such as visit it from the north, lose all the charm arising from the swell of the mountains, by turning their backs upon them.

The feeder of this lake, besides the Black-beck of Torver, is Coniston-beck. It decends (sic) from the mountains, or rather is precipitated, in a short course to the lake, which it enters on the western canton in a clear stream, concealed by its banks. The lake bends away to the east, and its intermediate shore is a beach of pebble and sand. This beach is adorned with a cot, set under a full topt tree.

The char here are said to be the finest in England. They are taken later than on Windermere-water, and continue longer in the spring.

Coniston to Hawkshead station, Hollin Bank S At Water-head [1], the road to the east leads to Ambleside, eight miles; to Hawkshead, three. Ascend a steep hill surronded (sic) with

Coniston Water Black Beck of Torver Coniston Beck fish char Water Head Waterhead, Coniston

A little to the west, and at the north end of the lake, stands the house of Michael Knott, Esq. who has made many handsome improvements on his estate here, which, with contrasted with the native rudeness of the surrounding hills, have a pleasing effect.

Knott, Michael

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wood, and have a back view of the lake. To the north is a most awful scene of mountains, in every variety of horrid shape. Amongst them sweeps to the north a deep winding chasm, darkened by overhanging rocks, that the eye cannot pierce, nor the imagination fathom; from which turn your face to the east, and you have a view of some part of Windermere-water. The road soon divides; the left leads to Ambleside, the right to Hawkshead, which stands under a mountain, at the upper end of a narrow valley. The church is seated on the front of an eminence that commands the vale, which is floated with

Esthwaite Water ESTHWAITE-WATER,

Two miles in length, and half a mile in breadth, intersected by a peninsula from each side, jutting far into the lake, finely elevated, crowned with cultivation, and bordered with fringed trees and coppice wood. The lake is encompassed with a good carriage road, and over its outlet is a narrow stone bridge. On the banks are villages and scattered houses, sweetly situated under woods and hanging grounds, enamelled with delightful verdure and soft vegetation; all which is heightened by the deep shade of the woods, and the strong back-ground of

station, Hollin Bank S Windermere lake Hawkshead Esthwaite Water

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rocky mountains. At the head of a gentle slope, with a just elevation, a handsome modern house, Belmount, is charmingly situated, and commands a delightful view of the lake with all its environs. The house of Thomas Alcock Beck, Esq. is most delightfully situated on the margin of the lake.

The fish here are perch, pike, eel, and trout. No char are found in this lake, though it is connected with Windermere-water.

Hawkshead to Windermere From Hawkshead to Ambleside, five miles: to the horse-ferry on Windermere-water, four miles. On horseback, this latter is the more eligible rout (sic), as it leads immediately to the centre of the lake, where all its beauties are seen to the greatest advantage.

Windermere WINDERMERE.

Windermere-water, like that of Coniston, is viewed to the greatest advantage by facing the mountains, which rise in grandeur on the eye, and swell upon the imagination as they are approached.

The road to the ferry is round the head of Esthwaite-water, through the villages of Colthouse and Sawreys. Ascend a steep

Belmount station, Belmount Beck, Thomas Alcock perch pike eel trout char road, Hawkshead to Ambleside Hawkshead to Ambleside Windermere Ferry ferry, Windermere Windermere lake Colthouse Far Sawrey Near Sawrey

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hill, and from its summit, have a view of a long reach of Windermere-water, stretching far to the south, till lost between two high promontories. The road serpentizes round a rocky mountain, till you come under a broken scar, that in some places hangs over the way, and where ancient yews and hollies grow fantastically amongst the fallen rocks. This brings you soon to

Station, Claife STATION I, near the isthmus of the ferry point [1]. In front, Rampsholme, or Berkshire-island [2], presents itself in all its length, clothed in wood. To the left, the ferry point closing with Crow-holme, a wooded island, forms a fine promontory. Just behind this, the mountain retiring inward, makes a semi-circular bay, surrounded by a few acres of the most elegant verdure, sloping upwards from the water's edge, graced with a cottage in the finest point of view. Above it, the mountain rises in an agreeable wildness, variegated with scattered trees, and silver-grey rocks. An extent of water of twelve miles in circum-

Windermere lake Station, Claife ferry, Windermere Windermere Ferry Ramp Holme, Windermere Berkshire Island Crow Holme

This station is now sufficiently pointed out by the elegant building lately erected thereon, belonging to John Christian Curwen, Esq. and called THE STATION, which, with the improvements made in the Ferry-house Inn, and grounds adjoining, render it one of the most delightful places near the lakes.

Station, Claife Station, The Curwen, John Christian Ferry House Inn station, Windermere 1

This little island has descended with the Levens estates time immemorial, and is now the property of the Hon. Fulk Greville Howard.

Ramp Holme, Windermere Levens Family Howard, Fulk Greville

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[circum]ference, spreads itself to the north, frequently intersected with promontories, or spotted with islands. Amongst them, the Holme, or Great Island, an oblong tract of thirty acres, traverses the lake in an oblique line, surrounded by a number of inferior isles, finely formed and dressed in wood. The pointed dark rocks of Curlew-craggs appear above the water, and others just concealed, give a sable hue to that part of the lake. Rough-holme, is a circular isle, covered with trees. Lady-holme, where in ancient times stood an oratory, is an isle of an oval form, vested with coppice-wood. Hen-holme is a rock covered with shrubs. Grass-holme is shaded with a grove of oaks. And two smaller islets borrow their names form the lilies of the valley, which decorate them. These with Crow-holme and Berkshire island, form this Archipelago.

To the north of this magnificent scene, a glorious sheet of water expands itself to the right and left, in curves bearing from the eye; bounded on the west by the continuation of the mountain where you stand, whose bold lofty side is embellished with growing trees, shrubs, and coarse vegetation, intermixed with grey rocks, that group finely with the deep green of yews and hollies. The eastern view is a noble contrast to this, adorned with

Windermere lake Holme Great Island Belle Isle Curlew Craggs Rough Holme Lady Holme oratory, Lady Holme Hen Holme Grass Holme Crow Holme Berkshire Island Ramp Holme Lilies of the Valley Islands

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all that is beautiful, grand and sublime.- The immediate space is much cultivated, (sic) The variety of hanging grounds are immense, consisting of woods, groves, and inclosures, all terminated in rocky woodlands of various forms. It spreads above in a beautiful variety of waving inclosures, intermixed with hanging woods, and shrubby circular spots, over-topped with wild grounds and rocky ridges of broken mountains. In some places it swells into spacious bays, fringed with trees, whose bushy heads wave beautifully over the crystal waters. The parsonage-house is seen sweetly seated under a range of tall firs. Following the same line of shore, above the east, ferry point, and on the banks of the bay, the tops of the houses and the church of Bowness are just seen. Above that, Bannerigg and Orresthead rise gradually into points, cultivated to the top, and cut into inclosures. These are contrasted by the rugged craggs of Biscot-how. Troutbeck-park comes next in view, and over that, Hill-bell rears its conic top, and Fair-field swells in Alpine pride, rivalled only by Rydal's loftier head.

The eastern coast, to the south of what has been described, is still more pleasing in variety of little groves, interposed inclosures, and scattered houses, sweetly secreted. To

Windermere lake parsonage, Windermere Ferry Point St Martin, Bowness-on-Windermere Bannerigg Orrest Head Biscot How Troutbeck Park Hill Bell Ill Bell Fairfield Rydal Head

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the south, and from the western coast, at three miles distance, Rawlinson's nab, a high-crowned promontory, shoots far into the lake; and from the opposite shore, you see the Storrs, another wooded promontory, stretching far into the water, pointing at the rocky isle of Ling-holme. Over Rawlinson's nab, the lake spreads out in a magnificent sheet of water; and following the winding shore far to the south, it seems lost hehind (sic) a promontory on the eastern side. Over two woody mountains, Park and Landen-nab, the blue summits of other distant mountains in various forms, close the scene.

station, Harrow Farm Return to the road, and at the gate leading to the ferry-house, follow the path to the left, having a stone-wall on the right, until you approach the farm-house called Harrow. Here a charming picture will present itself in an elegant style. The island, from this stand, appears with much variety of shore; indented and embayed; almost surrounded with islets; adorned with ancient oaks and scattered trees [1]. Here the lake is caught a second time over the island; and the village and church of Bowness hang on its banks. A sweeter picture than this, the lake does not

Windermere lake Rawlinson's Nab Storrs Ling Holme Park Landen Nab Harrow Farm St Martin, Bowness-on-Windermere station, Harrow Farm

In the collection of Views of the Lakes, engraved by Messrs. Byrne &c. Mr. Farrington's view from the hill above the ferry-house, represents this scene.

Byrne, Mr Farrington, Mr print, Farrington

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furnish.- The artist will find a proper stand on the inside of the stone-wall.

Having from this station enjoyed these charming views, descend to the ferry-house, and proceed to the Great Island, where you will again see all that is charming on the lake, or magnificent and sublime in the environs, in a new point of view.

The island was long the property of the Philipsons, once a family of consequence in these parts [1].

station, Belle Isle S STATION II. The views from this delicious spot are many and charming.- From the south side of the island you look over a noble extent of water, bounded in front by waves of distant mountains, that rise from the water's edge. The two ferry-points form a picturesque strait; and beyond that, the Storrs on one side, and Rawlinson's nab on the other, shooting far into the lake, form a grand sinuosity, while the intermediate shores are beautifully indented with wooded promontories, or ornamented with elegant edgings of luxurious trees. Berkshire and Crow-

Windermere lake station, Harrow Farm Great Island Belle Isle Philipson Family station, Belle Isle S Storrs Rawlinson's Nab Berkshire Island Ramp Holme Crow Holme artist station, Windermere 2

This island is now the property of Mr. Curwen, who finished the large mansion-house begun by Mr. English, laid the whole out in pleasure-grounds, in the modern style, suitable to the place, and made it one of the sweetest places that can be imagined.

Great Island Belle Isle Curwen, Mr English, Mr

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[Crow]holme islands break the line in this noble expanse of water. The eastern shore discovers much cultivation; and the succeeding hills are much diversified, and strangely tumbled about. Some are laid out in grass inclosures, other cut with hedges, and fringed with trees; one is crowned with wood, and skirted with the sweetest verdure; another waves with corn; and the whole is a mixture of objects that constitute the most pleasing of rural scenes.- The upper grounds are wild, and pastured with flocks.

station, Belle Isle N STATION III. From the north side of the island, the views are more sublime and vast. The lake is here seen both ways.- To the south, an expanse of water spreads on both hands, and behind you, you see a succession of promontories, with variety of shore, patched with islands, and the whole encircled by an amphitheatre of distant hills, rising in noble style. Turning to the north, the view is over a reach of lake, six miles in length, and above one in breadth, interrupted with scattered islands of different figures and dress; which, on a calm day, may be seen distinctly reflected from the limpid surface of the water that surrounds them. The environs exhibit all the grandeur of Alpine scenes. The conic summits of Langdale-pikes and Hill-bell; the broken ridge of

Windermere lake station, Belle Isle S Crow Holme station, Belle Isle N Langdale Pikes Hill Bell Ill Bell Wrynose station, Windermere 3

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Wrynose, and the rocky point of Kirkstone; the overhanging cliff of Hardknot [1], uniform mass of Fairfield and Rydal-head, with the far-extended mountains of Troutbeck and Kentmere,- form as magnificent an amphitheatre, and as grand an assemblage of mountains, dells, and chasms, as ever the fancy of Poussin suggested, or the genius of Rosa invented. The island is the centre of this amphitheatre, and in the opposite point, directly over the extremity of the lake, is Rydal-hall, sweetly situated for the enjoyment of these scenes, and animating the whole in return. The immediate borders of the lake are adorned with villages and scattered cots. Calgarth-park [2] and Rayrigg grace its banks.

Windermere by boat After enjoying these internal views from the bosom of the lake, I recommend sailing

Windermere lake station, Belle Isle N Wrynose Kirkstone Hardknot Fairfield Rydal Head Kentmere Pike Poussin Dughet, Gaspard Rosa, Salvator Rydal Hall Calgarth Park Rayrigg sailing

Langdale-pikes, Wrynose, and Hardknot, are named as being in the environs, and in the western canton of this amphitheatre, yet in reality are not seen from this island, being intercepted by a process of Furness-fells.

Wrynose Langdale Pikes Hardknot Furness Fells

The old mansion here is built much in the style of Levens and Sizergh. Some of the rooms have been elegantly finished; but having been a long time in the possession of farmers, who occupy but a part of it, it is much gone out of repair, and has on the whole but a melancholy appearance. This circumstance, in concurrence with the superstitous notions which have ever been common in country places, and the particulars mentioned below, have probably given rise to a report, which has long prevailed, that the house is haunted. And many are the stories of frightful visions, and mischievous deeds, which the goblins of the place are said to have performed to terrify and distress the harmless neighbourhood. These fables are not yet entirely disbelieved. Spectres are still seen, and there are two human skulls, which have lain in the window of a large room as long as can be remembered, whose history and reputed properties are far too singular not to contribute something to this story of the haunted house, and to let them pass over in this note.

It has been a popular tale in these parts, of immemorial standing, that these skulls formerly belonged to two poor old people, who were unjustly executed for a robbery; that, to perpetuate their innocence, some ghost brought them there, and that they are for that end indestructible, and, in effect, immoveable. For, it is said, to what place soever they were taken, or however used, they were still presently seen again in their old dormitory, the window. As the report goes, they have been buried, burnt, powdered, and dispersed in the wind, and upon the lake, several times to no purpose, as to their removal or destruction. So far says common fame. Certain it is human remains still exist. And it would be thought an impeachment of the taste and curiosity of the nymphs and swains of the neighbouring villages, if they could not say they had once seen the skulls of Calgarth.

As a more rational account of the matter, (though still lame and unsatisfactory,) is told by some, that there formerly lived in the house a famous doctress who had two skeletons by her, for the usual purposes of her profession; and the skulls happening to meet with better preservation than the rest of the bones, they were accidentally honoured with singular notice. But be their origin what it may, their legend is too whimsical and improbable to deserve being recorded, otherwise than as an instance of the never-failing credulity of ignorance and superstition.

Calgarth-park was purchased by Dr. Watson, the late bishop of Llandaff, who built an elegant mansion thereon, which, with the other improvements in that fine situation, makes it one of the most elegant places of residence in this country.

Calgarth haunted house skulls, Calgarth Watson, Dr Llandaff, Bishop of

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down to Rawlinson's-nab. On the south side of it, a pretty bay opens for landing. In the course of the voyage, you should touch at the different islands in the way, where every

Windermere lake sailing

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object is varied by a change of features, in such a manner as renders them wholly new. The great island changes its appearance, and, joined with the ferry points, cuts the lake in two. The house thereon becomes an important to object. The ferry-house, seen under the sycamore grove, has a fine effect; and the broken cliff over it, constitutes a most agreeable picture. The greatest beauty of the shore, and the finest rural scenes in nature, are found by traversing the lake; and viewing each in turn. they receive improvement from contrast.- The western side is spread with enchanting sylvan scenes; the eastern waves with all the improved glory of rural magnificence.

station, Rawlinson Nab STATION IV. Rawlinson's-nab is a peninsular-rock, of a circular figure, swelling to a crown in the centre, covered with a low wood; there are two of them, but it is from the crown of the interior nab, you have the present surprising view of two fine sheets of water, that bend different ways.

The view to the south, is bounded on both sides by a bold and various shore. The hills are wooded and rough, but spotted in parts with small inclosures, and their tops burst into rocks of various shapes.

Windermere lake sailing Great Island Belle Isle station, Rawlinson Nab Rawlinson's Nab station, Windermere by boat station, Windermere 4

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The view to the north is more beautiful: an extent of three miles of the lake is broken into by the bold promontory, the Storrs, and above that, Berkshire-island is charmingly placed. Bannerigg and Orrest-head, rising inward from the shore in magnificent slopes, are seen from hence to great advantage. This beautiful scene is well contrasted on the opposite side, by a ridge of hanging woods, spread over wild romantic grounds, that shoot abruptly into bold and spirited projections [1].

station, Brant Fell Return to Bowness, and conclude the survey by taking Mr. Young's general view of the lake, where at one glance, you command all its striking beauties. No station can better answer the purpose, and it would be here an injustice done to the discoverer, to deviate one tittle from his description.

STATION V. 'Thus having viewed the most pleasing objects from these points, let me next conduct you to a spot, where at one glance, you command them all in fresh situations, and all assuming a new appearance. For this purpose, you return to the village, and taking the bye-road to the turnpike, mount the hill without turning your head (if I was your guide, I would conduct you be-

Windermere lake station, Rawlinson Nab Storrs Berkshire Island Belle Isle Orrest Head Bannerigg station, Brant Fell Young, Mr station, Windermere 5

As it commanded more of the mountains at the head of the lake, Mr. Farrington has given the view from Gillhead.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 14 Gillhead

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[be]hind a small hill, that you might come at once upon the view) till you almost gain the top, when you will be struck with astonishment at the prospect spread at your feet, which, if not the most superlative view that nature can exhibit, she is more fertile in beauties than the reach of my imagination will allow me to conceive. It would be mere vanity to attempt to describe a scene which beggars all description; but that you may have some faint idea of the outlines of this wonderful picture, I will just give the particulars of which it consists.

'The point on which you stand is the side of a large ridge of hills that form the eastern boundary of the lake, and the situation high enough to look down upon all the objects; a circumstance of great importance, which painting cannot imitate. In landscapes, you are either on a level with the objects, or look up to them; the painter cannot give the declivity at your feet, which lessens the object as much in the perpendicular line, as in the horizontal one. You look down upon a noble winding valley, of about twelve miles long, every where inclosed with grounds, which rise in a very bold and various manner; in some places bulging into mountains, abrupt, wild, and cultivated; in others breaking into rocks, craggy, pointed, and

station, Brant Fell Young, Mr Windermere lake painting

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irregular; here rising into hills covered with the noblest woods, presenting a gloomy brownness of shade, almost from the clouds to the reflection of the trees in the limpid water of the lake they so beautifully skirt; there waving in glorious slopes of cultivated inclosures, adorned in the sweetest manner with every object that can give variety to art, or elegance to nature; trees, woods, villages, houses, farms, scattered with picturesque confusion, and waving to the eye in the most romantic landscapes that nature can exhibit.

'This valley, so beautifully inclosed, is floated by the lake, which spreads forth to right and left, in one vast, but irregular expanse of transparent water; a more noble object can hardly be imagined. Its immediate shore is traced in every variety of line that fancy can imagine; sometimes contracting the lake into the appearance of a noble winding river; at others retiring from it and opening into large bays, as if for navies to anchor in: promontories spread with woods, or scattered with trees and inclosures, projecting into the water in the most picturesque style imaginable; rocky points breaking the shore, and rearing their bold heads above the water; in a word, a variety that amazes the beholder.

station, Brant Fell Windermere lake Young, Mr

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'But what finishes the scene, with an elegance too delicious to be imagined, is, this beautiful sheet of water being dotted with no less than ten islands, distinctly comprehended by the eye, all of the most bewitching beauty. The large one presents a waving various line, which rises from the water in the most picturesque inequalities of surface: high land in one place, low in another, clumps of trees in this spot, scattered ones in that, adorned by a farm-house on the water's edge, and backed with a little wood, vying in simple elegance with Baromean palaces; some of the smaller islets rising from the lake, like little hills of wood; some only scattered with trees, and others of grass of the finest verdure; a more beautiful variety is no where to be seen.

'Strain your imagination to command the idea of so noble an expanse of water, thus gloriously environed, spotted with islands, more beautiful than would have issued from the happiest painter. Picture the mountains rearing their majestic heads with native sublimity; the vast rocks boldly projecting their terrible craggy points, and, in the path of beauty, the variegated inclosures of the most charming verdure, hanging to the eye in every picturesque form that can grace landscape, with the most exquisite touches of la belle nature. If you raise your fancy to some-

station, Brant Fell Windermere lake Young, Mr

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[some]thing infinitely beyond this assemblage of rural elegancies, you may have a faint notion of the unexampled beauties of this ravishing landscape.'

Windermere If the sun shines, this view of Mr. Young's can only be enjoyed early in the morning; as that on the opposite shore, behind the two oak trees, is, from a parity of circumstances, an afternoon prospect. These are the finest stations on the lake for pleasing the eye, but are much too elevated for the purpose of the artist, who will find the picturesque points on the great island well suited for his intention of morning and evening landscape, having command of fore-ground, the objects well ascertained, grouped, and disposed in the finest order of nature. A picture of the north end of the lake, taken from this island, will far exceed the fanciful production of the happiest pencil.- This may easily be verified by the use of the concave reflecting glass.

Rawlinson's-nab is a picturesque point, either for the eye or for the pencil. You are there advanced a great way into the lake, in the midst of the finest scenes, and with a charming fore-ground.

From the low Cat-crag, which is a little to the south of the Nab, you have a view of the south end of the lake, and as far north

station, Brant Fell Windermere lake Young, Mr artist landscape mirror Low Cat Crag

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as the great island. The ferry points, the Storrs, the Nab, and the lesser islands, are distinctly viewed in a fine order. The house on the island is a good object; and the beauties of the western shore to the south of the Cragg are only seen from thence.

To sum up the peculiar beauties of Windermere, its great variety of landscapes, and enchanting views, after what Mr. Young has said of it is unnecessary. He allowed himself time to examine this lake, and the lakes in Cumberland, and he describes each of them with much taste and judgement, and it is evident he gives the preference to Windermere [1]. Yet this ought not to prejudice the minds of those who have the tour to make, against such as prefer Derwent-water, or

Windermere lake Storrs Rawlinson's Nab Young, Mr

Mr. Pennant compares it to the chief of the Scotch Lakes and concludes it to be here what Loch Lomond is there.

On the banks of Windermere-water, have been lately built many elegant villas; by Mr. Law, at Brathay; Miss Pritchard, Croft-Lodge, Clappersgate; Mr. Harrison, above Ambleside; Mrs. Taylor, Cottage, Ambleside; the late Bishop of Llandaff, Calgarth; Mr. North, Ambleside; Mrs. Taylor, Bellfield, near Bowness; Mr. Crump, Ferney-Green; Mr. Bellasis, Holly-Hill; Mr. Greaves, Old England; John Bolton, Esq. Storrs; Mr. Taylor, Townhead; Mr. Dixon, Fell-foot; Mr. Machel, Newby-bridge; &c. These objects, as works of art, most of which are done in styles suitable to their situation, give an air of consequence to the country, and, with the surrounding natural beauties, have lately made this neighbourhood, and particularly about Ambleside, a place of the greatest celebrity.

Pennant, Thomas Loch Lomond Windermere lake Law, Mr Brathay Pritchard, Miss Croft Lodge, Clappersgate Harrison, Mr Ambleside Taylor, Mrs Cottage, Ambleside Llandaff, Bishop of Calgarth North, Mr Bellfield Bowness-on-Windermere Crump, Mr Ferney Green Bellasis, Mr Holly Hill Greaves, Mr Old England Bolton, John Storrs Taylor, Mr Townhead Dixon, Mr Fell Foot Machel, Mr Newby Bridge development

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Ullswater. The styles are all different, and therefore the sensations they excite will also be different; and the idea that gives pleasure or pain in the highest degree, will be the rule of comparative judgement. It will, however, perhaps be allowed by all, that the greatest variety of fine landscape is found at this lake [1].

These stations will furnish much amusement to those who visit them; and others may perhaps be occasionally found, equally pleasing. And whoever is delighted with water expeditions and entertainments, such as rowing, sailing, fishing, &c., may enjoy them here in the highest perfection.

The principal feeders of Windermere-water, are the rivers Rothay and Brathay.- They unite their streams at the western corner of the head of the lake, below Clappersgate, at a place called the Three-foot-brander, and after a short course boldly enter the lake.

Windermere lake stations, Windermere rowing sailing fishing Rothay, River Brathay, River Clappersgate Three Foot Brander

Not one bulrush, or swampy reed defiles the margin of this imperial Lake. No Lake has its border so well ascertained, and of such easy access. Not one, after Lomond, can boast of so vast a guard of mountains, with such variety and diversity of shore.

In Navigating the Lake upwards from the great Island, the extremity appears singularly noble; its parts great and picturesque. The view of the surrounding mountains, from Cove to Kirkstone is astonishing.

bulrush reed Great Island Belle Isle Cove Kirkstone

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The fish of this lake are char, trout, perch, pike, and eel. Of the char there are two varieties, the case char, and the gelt char.

The greatest depth of the lake is, opposite to Ecclerigg-cragg, 222 feet. The fall from Newby-bridge, where the current of the lake becomes visible, to the high water-mark of the tide at Low-wood (distant two miles) is 105 feet. The bottom of the lake is therefore 117 feet below the high water-mark of the sea.

Bowness-on-Windermere In Bowness there is nothing so remarkable as some remains of painted glass, in the east window of the church, that were brought from the abbey of Furness [1].

Bowness to Ambleside station, Rayrigg From Bowness to Ambleside is six miles, along the side of the lake [2]. On the top of

fish trout perch pike char gelt char case char Windermere lake, depth Windermere lake Ecclerigg Crag Newby Bridge current Low Wood, Lakes sea Windermere lake, altitude St Martin, Bowness-on-Windermere Bowness-on-Windermere stained glass Furness Abbey

'The present remains of this window show that it has contained very fine colouring in its former state. The arms of France and England quartered, are well preserved at the top of the window. The design is a Crucifixion, in figures as large as life. By the hands, feet, and parts remaining, it seems to have been of singular beauty. On the dexter side of the crucifixion, is St. George slaying the Dragon; on the sinister, the Virgin Mary;- an uncouth assemblage. Beneath, are the figures of a knight and his lady kneeling, before whom are a group of kneeling monks, over whose heads are wrote W. Hartley, Tho. Honton, and other names, by the breaking of the glass rendered not legible.'- Hutchinson's Excursion.

Furness Abbey stained glass coat of arms, royal Crucifixion St George dragon Virgin Mary Hartley, W Hinton, Thomas Hutchinson's Excursion

The Low-Wood Inn, about two miles short of Ambleside, will attract the Tourist's notice. No other Inn in his route has so fine a view of a Lake, and the natural beauties of which he is in quest. A small cannon is kept here to gratify the curious with those remarkable reverberations of sound, which follow the report of a gun, &c. in these singular vales, and of which, a general description is given in the subsequent lines:-

... The cannon's roar Bursts from the bosom of the hollow shore. The dire explosion the whole concave fills, And shakes the firm foundation of the hills, Now pausing deep, now bellowing from afar, Now rages near the elemental war; Affrighted echo opens all her cells, With gather'd strength the posting clamour swells, Check'd or impell'd, and varying in its course, It slumbers, now awakes with double force, Searching the strait, the crooked hill and dale, Sinks in the breeze, or rises in the gale; Chorus of earth and sky! the mountains sing, And heaven's own thunders thro' the valleys ring.

Killarney. X.

Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Low Wood Hotel, Lakes station, Low Wood Hotel, Lakes Cockin, William cannon echoes Killarney, poem

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an eminence, a little behind Rayrig [1], there is a fine view of the northern extremity of the lake. As you proceed along the banks, every step has importance, and the prospect becomes more and more august, exhibiting much variety of Appenine grandeur. Langdale-pikes, that guard the pass into Borrowdale on this side of the Yoak, and spiral Hill-bell; the overhanging crags of lofty Rainsbarrow; the broken ridge of Redscrees, Fairfield, and Scrubby-crag (on whose precipitous front the eagle builds his nest, secure from the envious shepherds of the vale) with a chaos of other nameless mountains, are all in sight.

Rayrigg Windermere lake Langdale Pikes Borrowdale Yoak Yoke Hill Bell Ill Bell Rainsborrow Redscrees Fairfield Scrubby Crag eagle shepherd

This place is said to have some resemblance to Ferney, on the lake of Geneva, the seat of the late celebrated Voltaire.

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roman fort, Ambleside Just at the head of Windermere, and a little short of Ambleside, turn down a bye-road to the left, and see the vestige of a Roman station. It lies in a meadow, on a level with the lake, and, as supposed, was called the Dictis, where a part of the cohort Nerviorum Dictentium was stationed. It is placed near the meetings of all the roads from Penrith, Keswick, Ravenglass, Furness, and Kendal, which it commanded, and was accessible only on one side.

Ambleside AMBLESIDE [1].

Here nothing at present is found of all that Camden mentions of this place. So swift is

Windermere lake roman fort, Waterhead Dictis Nerviorum Dictenium roman road Penrith Keswick Ravenglass Furness Kendal Ambleside Camden, William

(Amboglana, Notit. Imper. Dictis. Horsley).- Though the author has not mentioned the circumstance, it is supposed that the natural beauties of this part of the country are equal in variety and perfection to any to be seen in the tour, and that the lover of landscape in viewing many an undescribed scene, would be highly gratified and delighted. But it is judged best not to descend into particulars. Let the admirer of rural nature please himself in their discovery as well as examination.

Also, if the tourist love mountainous prospects, he may meet with one, in about a three hour's ride from this place, that will not fail to please him. It is on Low-pike, in Rydal-park, from whence may be seen many of the lakes, as Rydal-water, Grasmere-water, Windermere-water, Blencow-tarn, Elter-water, Esthwaite-water, and Coniston-water, also the Isle of Walney, Pile of Foudry, the whole of Duddon, Ulverston, Lancaster, and Millthorp Sands; the mountain Ingleborough, and at an opening between two hills, the hideous rocks of Borrowdale. A further walk of about an hour will give view of Skiddaw, Helvellyn, Ulls-water, the Vale of St. John, and other parts of Cumberland.- This mountainous excursion over, the following lines may not unaptly be introduced to the reader's notice.-

Descending now from AEther's pure domain, By fancy borne to roam the nether plain, Behold all-winning novelty display'd Along the vale, the mountain, and the shade, The scenes but late diminutive, resume Their native grandeur, and their wonted bloom. The woods expand their umbrage o'er the deep And with ambitious aim ascend the steep, Stage above stage, their vig'rous arms invade, The tallest cliffs, and wrap them in the shade. Each in its own pre-eminence regains The high dominion of the subject plains Smiling beneath, such smiles the people wear, Happy in some paternal monarch's care.



Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Ambleside Amboglana Dictis Notitia Dignitatum Horsley, Mr station, Low Pike Low Pike Rydal Park Rydal Water Grasmere lake Windermere lake Blencow Tarn Elter Water Esthwaite Water Coniston Water Isle of Walney Pile of Foudry Duddon Sands Ulverston Sands Cartmel Sands Lancaster Sands Millthorp Sands Ingleborough Borrowdale Skiddaw Helvellyn Ullswater Vale of St John Killarney, poem

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time in destroying the last remains of ancient magnificence! Roman coins and arms have been frequently found here; and, in forming the turnpike-road through Rydal, an urn was lately taken up, which contained ashes and other Roman remains, and serves to prove that the tract of the ancient road laid that way.

Stockghyll Force In mountainous countries, cascades, water-falls, and cataracts, are frequent, but only to be seen in high perfection when in full torrent, and that is in wet weather, or soon after it. About a mile above Ambleside, there is, in a place called the Groves, a cascade, that, though the season should be dry,

roman fort, Waterhead coin, roman roman coin turnpike Rydal urn roman road Groves Stockghyll Force weather

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merits a visit, on account of its singular, and distinguished features [1]. It is the most curious you will see in the course of the tour. The stream here, though the water be low, is much divided, and broken by a variety of pointed dark rocks; after this, collecting itself into one torrent, it is precipitated with a horrid rushing noise, into a dark gulph, unfathomable to the eye; and then, after rising in foam, it is once more dashed with a thundering noise headlong down a steep craggy channel till it joins the Rothay, below Ambleside. The parts of this cataract are noble. The deep dark hue of the rocks, in the gloomy bosom of a narrow glen, just visible by day, and the foaming water, tinged with a hue of green caught from the trees and shrubs that wave over the fall, render this scene highly awful and picturesque.

Ambleside to Keswick From Ambleside to Keswick, sixteen miles of excellent mountain road, furnishes much amusement to the traveller. If the season be rainy, or immediately after rain, all the possible variety of cascades, water-falls, and cataracts, are seen in this ride; some precipitating themselves from immense heights, others leaping and bounding from rock to

Stockghyll Force waterfall Rothay, River road, Ambleside to Keswick

This cascade is called Stock Gill Force.

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Rydal waterfalls rock, in foaming torrent, hurling huge fragments of them to the vale, that make the mountains tremble to their fall. The hollow noise swells and dies upon the ear by turns. The scenes are astonishing, and the succession of them matchless. At Rydal-hall are two cascades worthy of notice. One is a little above the house, to which Sir Michael le Fleming made a convenient path, that brings you upon it all at once. This is a mighty torrent tumbling headlong, and uninterruptedly, from an immense height of rock, into the rocky bason below, shaking the mountain under you with its fall, and the air above with the rebound. It is a surprising scene. This gentleman's example, in opening a road to the fall, recommends itself strongly to others of this country, which abounds with so many noble objects of curiosity, and which all travellers of the least taste would visit with pleasure, could they do it with convenience and safety.

The other cascade is a smaller fall of water, seen through the window of the summer-house, in Sir Michael's orchard [1]. The first who brought this sweet scene to light, is the elegant and learned editor of Mr. Gray's letters. And as no one described these views

road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick Rydal Hall High Fall, Rydal Low Fall, Rydal Fleming, Michael le, Sir Mason, Mr access

No.13, of the views of the lakes, by Mr. Farrington.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 13

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better than Mr. Mason, the reader shall have the account of it in his own words. 'Here nature has performed every thing in little, that she usually executes in her larger scale; and, on that account, like the miniature painter, seems to have finished every part of it in a studied manner. Not a little fragment of a rock is thrown into the bason, not a single stem of brush-wood that starts from its craggy sides, but has a picturesque meaning; and the little central current dashing down a cleft of the darkest-coloured stone, produces an effect of light and shadow beautiful beyond description. This little theatrical scene might be painted as large as the original, on a canvas not bigger than those usually dropped in the opera-house [1].'

Rydal Hall station, Rydal Hall Rydal-hall [2] has a grand situation, at the feet of stupendous mountains (opening to

Mason, Mr Low Fall, Rydal Rydal Hall station, Rydal Hall

There is a cascade at Nunnery, near Kirkoswald, in Cumberland, much in the same style as this. The accompaniments are as beautiful, the bason larger, and the perpendicular fall 18 feet. But it is only one of a series of romantic scenes which abound at Nunnery, and are equal if not superior in their kind to any we have found in our tour: nor can we forbear to recommend this interesting spot to the notice of every traveller of taste: it is situated about ten miles from Penrith, on the right of the road to Carlisle.

Nunnery Kirkoswald waterfall, Nunnery

Sir Michael le Fleming lately made a new front to Rydal-hall, in good style, which gives it a very interesting appearance.

Rydal Hall Fleming, Michael le, Sir

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the south, at the entrance of the vale, over a noble fore-ground), and commands a charming view of Windermere-water [1]. The river Rothay winds through the vale, amidst lofty rocks and hanging woods, to join the lake. The road serpentizes upwards, round a bulging rock, fringed with trees, and brings you soon in sight of

Rydal Water Grasmere RYDAL-WATER,

A lake about a mile in length, spotted with little isles, and which communicates, by a narrow channel, with


The river Rothay is their common outlet.

station, Grasmere Hill Mount Grasmere hill, and from the top, have a view of as sweet a scene as travelled eye ever beheld [2]. Mr. Gray's description of this peaceful, happy vale, will raise a wish in every reader to see so primaeval a place.

'The bosom of the mountains, spreading

station, Rydal Hall Windermere lake Rothay, River Rydal Water Grasmere lake Grasmere Hill Gray, Thomas station, Grasmere Hill station, Dunmail Raise

The style of this landscape will be seen in No.15, of Mr. Farrington's views.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 15

A little to the left of the road, is No.5, of Mr. Farrington's views.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 5

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here into a broad bason, discover in the midst Grasmere water, its margin is hollowed into small bays, with eminences; some of rock, some of soft turf, that half conceal and vary the figure of the little lake they command: from the shore, a low promontory pushes itself far into the water, and on it stands a white village, with a parish church rising in the midst of it; hanging inclosures, corn fields, and meadows, green as an emerald, with their trees, and hedges, and cattle, fill up the whole space from the edge of the water; and just opposite you, is a large farm house, at the bottom of a steep smooth lawn, embosomed in old woods, which climb half way up the mountains' sides, and discover above, a broken line of crags, that crown the scene. Not a single red tile, no staring gentleman's house, break in upon the repose of this little unsuspected paradice (sic); but all is peace, rusticity and happy poverty, in its neatest, most becoming attire [1].'

station, Loughrig Fell Mr. Gray's description is taken from the road descending from Dunmail-raise. But the more advantageous station, to view this romantic vale from, is on the south end of the western side. Proceed from Ambleside

station, Dunmail Raise Grasmere lake Gray, Thomas development

The whole of Mr. Gray's journal is given in the Addenda, Article III.

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to Clappersgate, and along the banks of the river Brathay, and at Scalewith-bridge ascend a steep hill called Loughrig, that leads to Grasmere, and a little behind its summit you come into sight of the valley and lake, lying in the sweetest order. Observe a few steps leading to a soft green knoll, and from its crown you have the finest view of the vale, the lake, and the environs. The island is near the centre, unless the water be very low. Its margin is graced with a few scattered trees, and an embowered hut. The church stands at a small distance from the lake, on the side of the Rothay, its principal feeder. On each hand spread cultivated tracts, up the steep sides of the surrounding mountains, guarded by Steel-fell and Seat-sandle, which, advancing towards each other, close the view at Dunmail-raise. The broken head of Helm-crag has a fine effect, seen from this point. Descend the hill, leave the church on the right hand, and you will presently arrive at the great road between Ambleside and Keswick. Here you have Mr. Gray's view, and will see the difference. Mr. Gray has omitted the island in his description, which is a principal feature in this scene.

This vale of peace is about four miles in circumference, and guarded at the upper end by Helm-crag, a broken pyramidal moun-

station, Loughrigg Fell Scalewith Bridge Skelwith Bridge Loughrigg Fell Grasmere lake Rothay, River Steel Fell Seat Sandle Seat Sandal Dunmail Raise Helm Crag Gray, Thomas road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick

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[moun]tain, that exhibits an immense mass of antediluvian ruins. After this roads ascends Dunmail-raise, where lie the historical stones, that perpetuate the name and fall of the last king of Cumberland, defeated there by the Saxon monarch Edmund, who put out the eyes of the two sons of his adversary, and for his confederating with Leolin, king of Wales, first wasted his kingdom, and then gave it to Malcolm, king of Scots, who held it in fee of Edmund, A.D. 944, or 945. The stones are a heap, that have the appearance of a karn, or barrow. The wall that divides the counties is built over them; which proves their priority of time in that form.

From Dunmail-raise the road is an easy descent of nine miles to Keswick, except on Castle-rig, which is somewhat quick. Leaving the vale of Grasmere behind, you soon come in sight of

Leathes Water LEATHES-WATER,

Called also WYTHBURN or THIRLEMERE. It begins at the foot of Helvellyn, and skirts its base for the space of four miles, encreased by a variety of pastoral torrents, that pour their silvery streams down the mountains' sides, and then, warbling, join the lake. The range of mountains, on the right, are tre-

Helm Crag Dunmail Edmund Leolin Malcolm cairn Dunmail Raise county boundary road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick Castle Rig Castlerigg Leathes Water Thirlmere Wythburn Water Helvellyn

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[tre]mendously great. Helvellyn and Cachidecam are the chief; and, according to Wythburn shepherds, much higher than Skiddaw. It is, however, certain that these mountains retain snow many weeks after Skiddaw; but that may be owing to the steepness of Skiddaw's northern side, and shivery surface, that attracts more forcibly the solar rays, than the verdant front of Helvellyn, and so sooner looses its winter covering. A thousand huge rocks hang on Helvellyn's brow, which have been once in motion, and are now seemingly prepared to start anew. Many have already reached the lake, and are at rest. The road sweeps through them, along the naked margin of the lake. The opposite shore is beautified with a variety of crown-topt rocks, some rent, some wooded, others not, rising immediately from, or hanging towards the water; and all set off with a back ground of verdant mountains, rising in the noblest pastoral style. Its singular beauty is its being almost intersected in the middle by two peninsulas, that are joined by a bridge, in a taste suitable to the genius of the place, which serves for an easy communication among the shepherds that dwell on the opposite banks.

Station, Dalehead Hall At the sixth mile-post, from the top of an eminence on the left, there is a good general view of the lake and vale; but the most pic-

Helvellyn Cachidecam shepherd Skiddaw erosion road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick Leathes Water Thirlmere station, Dalehead Hall

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[pic]turesque point is from an eminence behind Dale-head house. This end is beautifully decorated with two small islands, dressed with wood, and charmingly placed. The lake terminates sweetly with a pyramidal rock, wooded to the top; and, opposite to it, a silvery grey rock hanging over its base, towards the lake, has a fine effect.

The road, after this, leads through the narrow green vale of Legberthwaite, divided into small inclosures, peopled with a few cots, and nobly terminated by the castle-like rock of St. John. Below this, the vale contracts into a deep craggy dell, through which Leathes-water rolls, till it joins the Greta, at New-bridge, under the foot of Threlkeld-fell, a gloomy mountain of dark dun rocks, that shuts up the view of the wide spreading vale of St. John.

The road now winds to the left, by Smalthwaite-bridge, and ascends Naddle-fell, by Causeway-foot to Castle-rigg. At the turn of the hill, and within about a mile of Keswick, you come at once in sight of its glorious vale, with all its noble environs, and enchanting scenes, which, when Mr. Gray beheld, it almost determined him to return to Keswick again, and repeat his tour.

Leathes Water Thirlmere station, Thirlmere road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick Legberthwaite St John's in the Vale St John's Beck Greta, River Newbridge Threlkeld Fell Smalthwaite Bridge Smaithwaite Bridge Naddle Fell Causewayfoot Causeway Foot Keswick Gray, Thomas

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'I left Keswick,' says he, 'and took the Ambleside road, in a gloomy morning, and about two miles (or rather about a mile) from the town, mounted an eminence called Castle-rig, and, the sun breaking out, discovered the most enchanting view I have yet seen, of the whole valley behind me; the two lakes, the river, the mountains in all their glory; so that I had almost a mind to have gone back again.' This is certainly a most ravishing morning view, of the bird's eye kind. For here we have, seen in all their beauty, a circuit of twenty miles; two Lakes, Derwent and Bassenthwaite, and the river serpentizing between them; the town of Keswick and the church of Crosthwaite in the central points; an extensive fertile plain, and all the stupendous mountains that surround this delicious spot.

The druid-temple, delineated in Pennant's tour, lies about half a mile to the right, but will be more conveniently seen from the Penrith road. Descend to

Keswick KESWICK [1].

This small neat town is at present renowned for nothing so much as the lake it stands near, and which is sometimes called, from the town,

Gray, Thomas Keswick station, Castlerigg Castlerigg Derwent Water Bassenthwaite Lake Crosthwaite St Kentigern, Crosthwaite stone circle, Castlerigg Castlerigg Stone Circle druids road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick

(Derventione Raven. Chor.)

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the lake of KESWICK, but more properly the lake of DERWENT; and I am inclined to think, and hope to make it appear, that the ancient name of KESWICK is the DERWENT-TOWN, or the town of DERWENT-WATER. But first of the lake itself [1].

Derwent Water The whole extent of the lake is about three miles, from north to south; the form is irregular, and its greatest breadth exceeds not a mile and a half. The best method of viewing this enchanting water, is in a boat, and from the banks. Mr. Gray viewed it from the banks only, and Mr. Mason, after trying both, prefers Mr. Gray's choice; and, where the pleasure of rowing and sailing is out of the question, it will, in general, be found the best, on account of the fore-ground, which the boat does not furnish. Every dimension of the lake, however, appears more extended from its bosom, than from its banks. I shall, therefore, point out the favourite stations round the lake, that have often been verified.

station, Cockshot Wood STATION I. Cockshut-hill is remarkable for a general view. It is covered with a motley mixture of young wood; has an easy ascent to the top, and from it the lake appears in great beauty. On the floor of a

Keswick Lake Derwent Water Keswick Gray, Thomas Mason, Mr rowing sailing station, Derwent Water by boat station, Cockshot Wood Cockshut Hill Cockshot Hill placename, Keswick placename, Derwent Water station, Derwent Water 1

Some agreeable lines descriptive of this Lake, by Dr. Dalton, may be seen in the Addenda, Article II.

Derwent Water Dalton, Dr

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spacious amphitheatre of the most picturesque mountains imaginable, an elegant sheet of water is spread out before you, shining like a mirror, and transparent as crystal; variegated with islands, adorned with wood, or clothed with the sweetest verdure, that rise in the most pleasing forms above the watery plain. The effects all around are amazingly great; but no words can describe the surprising pleasure of this scene on a fine day, when the sun plays upon the bosom of the lake, and the surrounding mountains are illuminated by his refulgent rays, and their rocky broken summits invertedly reflected by the surface of the water.

station, Crow Park STATION II. The next celebrated station is at a small distance, named Crow-park, which formerly contained a grove of oaks of immemorial growth, whose fall the bard of Lowes-water thus bemoans, in humble plaintive numbers:

- That ancient wood where beasts did safely rest, And where the crow long time had built her nest, Now falls a destin'd prey to savage hands, Being doom'd, alas! to visit distant lands. Ah! what avails they boasted strength at last! That brav'd the rage of many a furious blast; When now the body's spent with many a wound, Load groans its last, and thunders on the ground, While hills, and dales, and woods, and rocks resound,

This now shadeless pasture, is a gentle eminence, not too high, on the very margin

Derwent Water station, Cockshot Wood station, Crow Park Crow Park Bard of Loweswater station, Derwent Water 2

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of the lake, which it commands in all its extent, and looks full into the craggy pass of Borrowdale. Of this station, Mr. Gray speaks thus,- 'October 4, I walked to Crow-park, now a rough pasture, once a glade of ancient oaks, whose large roots still remain in the ground, but nothing has sprung from them. If one single tree had remained, this would have been an unparalleled spot; and Smith judged right when he took his print of the lake from hence, for it is a gentle eminence, not too high, on the very margin of the water, and commands it from end to end, looking full into the gorge of Borrowdale. I prefer it even to Cockshut-hill, which lies beside it, and to which I walked in the afternoon; it is covered with young trees, both sown and planted, oak, spruce, Scotch fir, &c. all which thrive wonderfully. There is an easy ascent to the top, and the view is far preferable to that on Castle-hill, because this is lower and nearer the lake; for I find all points that are much elevated, spoil the beauty of the valley, and make its parts, which are not large, look poor and diminutive.'

station, Walla Crag STATION III. A third station on this side, will be found by keeping along the line of shore, till Stable-hills be on the right, and Wallow-crag directly over you on the left; then, without the gate, on the edge of the

Derwent Water station, Crow Park station, Walla Crag Stable Hills Walla Crag Wallow Crag Smith print, Smith station, Derwent Water 3

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common, observe two huge fragments of ferruginous coloured rock, pitched into the side of the mountain by their descent. Here all that is great or pleasing on the lake, all that is grand or sublime in the environs, lie before you in a beautiful order, and natural disposition. Looking down upon the water, the four large islands appear distinctly over the peninsula of Stable-hills. Lords-island, richly dressed in wood. A little to the left, Vicar's-isle rises in beautiful and circular form; Rampsholme is catched in a line between that and St. Herbert's-island, which traverses the lake in an oblique direction, and has a fine effect. These are the four most considerable islands on the lake. Under Foe-park, a round hill completely clothed in wood [1], two small islets interrupt the line of

Derwent Water station, Walla Crag Stable Hills Lord's Island Vicar's Island Derwent Island Rampsholme Island, Derwent Water St Herbert's Island Foe Park

As one province of the Guide, is to point out the characteristic features, and distinguished parts of this lake, in order to exhibit the best landscape picture to the artist, and to give the most pleasure and entertainment to the company who make the tour, the author has taken all possible care to secure these ends in his choice of stations. Yet, there is one impediment attends his descriptions, which will, in part, prevent their permanency, and that is, the annual fall of timber and coppice wood, and the frequent removal of the picturesque trees which take place on the borders of the lakes. These accidents, however, as they cannot be prevented, must be allowed for by the candid traveller, where he finds the original differing in these respects from the account given of it in the book.

The fall of Crow park, on Derwent-water, has long been regretted. And Mr. Gray's beautiful description of Foe-park, above mentioned, is not now to be verified.

It is true that the painter, by the creative power of his pencil, can supply such deficiencies in the features of his landscape, but the plastic power of nature, or the careful hand of industry, directed by taste and judgement, can only make up such losses to the visitors of the lakes.

Thus much was thought proper to be subjoined in this place, as an apology, once for all, for the casual differences of this kind, that may be found between the descriptions given of these lakes in this manual, and their real appearance at any future time.

guidebook stations Crow Park Derwent Water Gray, Thomas artist painter description, errors forestry

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shore, and charm the eye in the passage from Vicar's-isle to Ramps-holme. Another islet, above St. Herberts-island, has a similar effect. All idea of river or outlet is here excluded; but, over a neck of undulated land, finely scattered with trees, distant water is just seen, behind Lord's-island. The white church of Crosthwaite is here visible, under Skiddaw, which forms the strongest back-ground. The opposite shore is bounded by a range of hills, down to the entrance of Newland vale, where Cawsey-pike, and Thornthwaite rise in Alpine pride, out-done only by their supreme lord, Skiddaw. Their skirts descend in gentle slopes, and ends (sic) in cultivated grounds. The whole of the western coast is beautiful beyond what words can express, and the north end exhibits what is most gentle and pleasing in landscape. The southern extremity of the lake is a violent contrast to all this. Falcon-crag, an immense rock, hangs over your head, and upwards,a forest of broken pointed rocks, in a semicircular sweep, towering in-

Derwent Water Vicar's Island Derwent Island Rampsholme Island Lord's Island St Kentigern, Crosthwaite Skiddaw Newlands Valley Cawsey Pike Causey Pike Thornthwaite Falcon Crag

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[in]ward, form the most horrid amphitheatre that ever eye beheld in the wild forms of convulsed nature. The immediate margin of the lake is, however, a sweet variegated shore of meadow and pasture, up to the foot of the rocks. Over a border of hedge-row trees, Lowdore-house is seen, under Hallow-stone-crag, a sloping rock, whose back is covered with soft vegetation. Beyond it, appear the awful craggy rocks, that conceal the pass into Borrowdale, and at their feet a stripe of verdant meadow, through which the Derwent serpentizes to the lake in silence.

along Derwent Water The road is along Barrowside, on the margin of the lake, narrow, yet safe. It soon enters a glade, through which the lake is sweetly seen by turns. In approaching the ruins of Gowdar-crag, which hangs towering forward, the mind recoils at the huge fragments of crags, piled up on both sides, which are seen through a thicket of rocks and wood. But there is nothing of the danger remaining that Mr. Gray apprehended here; the road being carefully kept open. Proceed by the bridge of one arch, over Park-gill, and another over Barrow-beck. Here Gowdar-crag presents itself in all its terrible majesty of rock, trimmed with trees that hang from its numerous fissures. Above this is seen a towering grey rock, rising ma-

Derwent Water Lowdore House Lodore House Hallow Stone Crag Borrowdale Derwent, River Barrow Side Gowdar Crag Gowder Crag Gray, Thomas Park Gill Barrow Beck

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[ma]jestically rude, and near it, Shuttenoer, a spiral rock not less in height, hanging more forward over its base. Betwixt these, an awful chasm is formed, through which the waters of Watanlath are hurled. This is the Niagara of the lake, the renowned cataract of Lowdore [1]. To see this, ascend to an opening in the grove, directly over the mill. It is the misfortune of this celebrated water-fall to fail entirely in a dry season. The wonderful scenes, peculiar to this part, continue to the gorge of Borrowdale [2], and higher; and Castle-crag may be seen, in the centre of the amphitheatre, threatening to block up the pass it once defended. The village of Grange is under it, celebrated as well for its hospitality to Mr. Gray, as for its sweet romantic site. And to affirm that all that Mr. Gray says of the young farmer at Grange, is strictly applicable to the inhabitants of these mountainous regions in general, is but common justice done to the memory of repeated favours.

- Hail sacred flood! May still thy hospitable swains be blest In rural innocence; thy mountains still Teem with the fleecy race; thy tuneful woods For ever flourish: and thy vales look gay. Armstrong on Health.

Shuttenoer Watanlath Watendlath Lowdor Falls Lodore Falls Borrowdale Castle Crag Grange Gray, Thomas hospitality Armstrong on Health

I do not know that the height of this cataract has been ascertained, but when viewing it, the reader may like to have it recalled to his mind, that Carver says, the fall of Niagara does not exceed 140 feet.

This scene is the subject of No.2, of Mr. Farrington's views.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 2

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On the summit of Castle-crag are the remains of a fort; and much freestone, both red and white, has been quarried out of the ruins. Not long since, a lead pan with an iron bow was taken out of them, and two masses of smelted iron, which probably were from the bloomery at the foot of the Stake in Borrowdale. The fort has most likely been of Roman origin, to guard the pass, and secure the treasure contained in the bosom of these mountains. The Saxons, and after them, the Furness monks, maintained this fort for the same purpose. All Borrowdale was give (sic) to the monks of Furness, probably by one of the Derwent family, and Adam de Derwentwater gave them free ingress and egress through all his lands [1]. The Grange was the place where they laid up their grain and their tithe, and also the salt they made at the salt spring, of which works there are still some vestiges remaining, below Grange. The length of the castellum from east to west is about 70 yards, from south to north about 40 yards.

station, Castle Crag STATION IV. From the top of Castle-crag in Borrowdale, there is a most astonishing view of the lake and vale of Keswick, spread out to the north in the most picturesque manner. Every bend of the river is distinctly

Castle Crag roman fort, Castle Crag iron bloomery Saxons Furness Abbey Borrowdale Derwent Family Derwentwater, Adam de Grange salt salt spring spa station, Castle Crag Castle Crag Derwent Water Derwent, River station, Derwent Water 4

Antiquities of Furness, page 106.

Antiquities of Furness

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seen, from the pass of Borrowdale, till it joins the lake; the lake itself spotted with islands; the most extraordinary line of shore, varied with all the surprising accompaniments of rock and wood; the village of Grange at the foot of the crag, and the white houses of Keswick with Crosthwaite church at the lower end of the lake; behind these, much cultivation, with a beautiful mixture of villages, houses, cots, and farms, standing round the skirts of Skiddaw, which rises in the grandest manner, from a verdant base, and closes this prospect in the noblest style of nature's true sublime. From the summit of this rock, the views are so singularly great and pleasing, that they ought never to be omitted. The ascent is by one of the narrow paths, cut in the side of the mountain, for carrying down the slate that is quarried on its top.

The view to the north, or the vale of Keswick, is already described; that to the south lies in Borrowdale. The river is seen winding upward from the lake, through the rugged pass, to where it divides, and embraces a triangular vale, completely cut into inclosures of meadow, enamelled with the softest verdure, and fields waving with fruitful crops. This truly secreted spot, is completely surrounded by the most horrid, romantic moun-

station, Castle Crag Derwent, River Derwent Water Grange Keswick St Kentigern, Crosthwaite Skiddaw slate quarry slate Borrowdale

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[moun]tains that are in this region of wonders; and whoever omits this coup d' oeil, hath probably seen nothing equal to it.

The views here, taken in the glass, when the sun shines, are amazingly fine.

This picture is reversed from the summit of Latrig.

Keswick to Borrowdale Mr. Gray was so much intimidated with the accounts of Borrowdale, that he proceeded no farther than Grange. But no such difficulties as he feared are now to be met with. The road into Borrowdale is improved since his time, at least as far as is necessary for any one to proceed to see what is curious. It serpentizes through the pass above Grange; and though upon the edge of a precipice that hangs over the river, it is, nevertheless, safe. This river brings no mixture of mud from the mountains of naked rock, and runs in a channel of slate and granite, as clear as crystal. The water of all the lakes in these parts is clear; but the Derwent only is pelucid. In it the smallest pebble is seen at a great depth, nearly as in the open air.

The rocky scenes in Borrowdale are most fantastic, and the entrance rugged. One

station, Castle Crag landscape mirror Latrigg Gray, Thomas Borrowdale road, Keswick to Borrowdale Keswick to Borrowdale Grange water

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rock elbows out, and turns the road directly against another. Bowder-stone, on the right, in the very pass, is a mountain of itself, and the road winds round its base [1]. Here rock riots over rock, and mountain intersecting mountain, form one grand semicircular sweep. Extensive woods deck their steep sides; trees grow from pointed rocks, and rocks appear like trees. Here the Derwent, rapid as the Rhone, rolls his crystal streams through all the labyrinth of embattled obstacles. Indeed, the scenes here are sublimely terrible, the assemblage of magnificent objects so stupendously great, and the arrangement so extraordinary curious, that they must excite the most sensible feelings of wonder and surprise, and at once impress the mind with reverential awe and admiration.

The most gigantic mountains that form the outline of this tremendous landscape, and inclose Borrowdale, are Eagle-crag, Glaramara, Bull-crag, and Serjeant-crag. On the front of the first, the bird of Jove has his annual nest [2], which the dalesmen are careful to rob,

Borrowdale Bowder Stone Derwent, River Rhone, River Eagle Crag Glaramara Bull Crag, Borrowdale Serjeant Crag eagle Jove, bird of road, Keswick to Borrowdale Keswick to Borrowdale

This loose stone is of prodigious bulk. It lies like a ship on its keel.- Its length is 62 feet; its circumference 184. Its solidity is about 23090 feet, and its weight about 1771 tons.

Bowder Stone

Or in more poetical terms,

Here his dread seat the royal bird hath made, To awe th'inferior subjects of the shade, Secure he built it for a length of days Imprevious, but to Phoebus' piercing rays; His young he trains to eye the solar light, And soar beyond the fam'd Icarian flight. - Killarney.

eagle Killarney, poem

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but not without hazard to the assailant, who is let down from the summit of this dreadful rock, by a rope of twenty fathoms, or more, and who is obliged to defend himself from the attacks of the parent bird during his descent. The devastation made on the fold in the breeding season, by one eyrie, is computed at a lamb a day, besides the carnage made on the ferae natura. Glaramara is a mountain of perpendicular rock, immense in height and much broken. It appears on the western canton, and outline of the picture. Bull-crag and Serjeant-crag are in the centre, and their ruggid (sic) sides concealed with hanging woods.

The road continues good to Rosthwaite, the first village in this romantic region, where it divides. That on the right leads to the wad-mines, and to Ravenglass; that on the left, to Hawkshead. Amidst these tremendous scenes of rocks and mountains, there is a peculiar circumstance, of consolation to the traveller, that distinguishes this from other mountainous tracts, where the hills are divided by bogs and mosses often difficult to pass, which is, that the mosses here, are on

eagle sheep Glaramara Bull Crag, Borrowdale Serjeant Crag Rosthwaite road, Keswick to Borrowdale Keswick to Borrowdale black lead mine Ravenglass Hawkshead

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the tops of the mountains, and a way over, or round them, is never very difficult to find. The inhabitants of the dales are served with turf-fuel from these mosses, and the manner of procuring it is very singular: a man carries on his back a sledge to the top of the mountain, and conducts it down the most awful descents, by placing himself before it to prevent its running amain. For this purpose a narrow furrow is cut in the mountain's side, which serves for a road to direct the sledge, and to pitch the conductor's heel in.- A sledge holds one-half of what a horse can draw on good road.

The mountains here are separated by wooded glens, verdant dells, and fertile vales, which, besides forming a pleasing contrast, relieve the imagination with delighted ideas, that the inhabitants of these rude regions are far removed from the want of the necessaries of life, for themselves, their herds, and flocks, during the exclusion-months from the rest of the community, by the winter snows. About Rosthwaite, in the centre of the dale, fields wave with crops, and meadows are enamelled with flowery grass. This little delightful Eden is marked with every degree of industry by the laborious inhabitants, who partake of the character of the country they live in, for they are hospitable, civil, and communicative,

turf turf digging sledge, turf turf sledge Borrowdale Rosthwaite hospitality

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and readily and chearfully give assistance to strangers who visit their regions. On missing a tract I was directed to observe, I have been surprised by the dale-lander from the top of a rock, waving me back, and offering me a safe conduct through all the difficult parts, and who blushed at the mention of a reward. Such is the extensive influence of virtue in the minds of those that are least acquainted with society [1].

The shepherds only are conversant in the traditional annals of the mountains, and with all the secrets of the mysterious reign of chaos and old night; and they only can give proper information concerning their arcana: for others who live almost within the shadow of these mountains, are often ignorant of their names.

return to Keswick Return to Keswick, by Grange, and if the sun shines in the evening, the display of rocks on the opposite shore, from Castle-rock to Wallow-crag, is amazingly grand. The parts are the same as in the morning ride, but the

Borrowdale hospitality shepherd Keswick Grange Castle Rock Wallow Crag Derwent Water

In parts so sequestered from the world, the vulgar language (as well as manners) may be supposed to continue very little altered from what it has been for many ages, and to be what was once generally used through the country. And in order a little to gratify the curiosity of the reader, in Article X. of the Addenda may be seen a specimen of the common Cumberland dialect.

dialect, Cumberland Cumberland dialect

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dispositions are entirely new. The crystal surface of the Lake reflecting waving woods and rocks, backed by the finest arrangement of lofty mountains, intersecting and rising above each other, in great variety of forms, is a scene not to be equalled elsewhere. The whole ride down the western side is pleasant, though the road is but indifferent.

Borrowdale to Ambleside Whoever chooses an Alpine journey of a very extraordinary nature, may return thro' Borrowdale to Ambleside, or Hawkshead.- A guide will be necessary from Rosthwaite, over the Stake of Borrowdale (a steep mountain so called) to Langdale Chapel. This ride is the wildest that can be imagined, for the space of eight miles [1]. Above the culti-

Derwent Water Rosthwaite Stake of Borrowdale Langdale Chapel track, Borrowdale to Langdale

Every part of nature has something to recommend it to the observation of the susceptible and ingenious. A walk or ride, on the summits of mountains, will afford a species of ideas, which, though often neither of the social or luxuriant kind, will, nevertheless, greatly affect and entertain. The large unvariegated features of these hills, their elevation, and even their desolate appearance, are all sources of the sublime. And, in a publication of this kind, a word or two respecting their nature and characteristic properties, seems as requisite as on several other subjects which are here discussed at some length.

The mountains, among which these lakes are situated, are formed in general of two sorts of rock, or stone. The most prevailing kind is a blue rag, and where it appears, the pasturage which is found among it is generally inclined to be mossy, lingy, and wet. These particulars, and a number of swampy patches, or pits of turbary, give the face of these mountains a rather savage and depressing look; and the indisposition of their soils readily to imbibe the waters which fall in rains is the occasion of the number of temporary cataracts which channel their sides.

The other kind of hills consist of limestone: and though generally of inferior height, their surface is infinitely more pleasing. They are perfectly dry, and the bent, or grass, which covers their glades, is peculiarly fine. Where this is not found, the bare rocks take place, and appear in every fantastic form, which may be supposed to have arisen from some violent concussion, to which the earth has heretofore been subject. But, the whiteness and neatness of these rocks take off every idea of horror that might be suggested by their bulk or form. From the nature of the soil, and the number of communicating clefts in the rock underground, they become dry soon after the heaviest rains; and though they discover no streams of water issuing from their sides, a number of the most pellucid ones imaginable are seen bubbling out among the inclosures round their bases. On these accounts, the face of such hills always appear singularly lightsome and cheerful. And, on a fine summer day, there is little doubt but that the curious stranger would find a walk or ride on the summits (though consisting of nothing but stone and turf, attended with uncommon pleasure. If he be of a poetical turn, he will see some of the serenest haunts for the shepherd, that ever fancy formed; if of a philosophic turn, he may be equally delighted with contemplating several evident signs of the Mosaic deluge, and of the once-soft slate of the calcarious matter which is now hardened into rock.- But our limits will not permit us to pursue the subject.

The greatest quantity of limestone hills contained in this tour lie within the district bounded by Kendal, Witherslack, Kellet, and Hutton roof. And the most beautiful of them, as seen at a distance, are Farlton and Arnside knots, Witherslack-scar, and Warton-crag. The two first have their highest parts, which are neatly rounded, covered in a great measure with small fragments of limestone (called shillow) which gives them at all times an uncommon and beautiful appearance. But at the latter end of the year, when the foliage of the copses on their sides, and the grass which is interspersed along their glades near their tops, have gained an olive hue, no objects of the kind can appear more elegantly coloured. Farlton knot, especially at that time of year, as seen from Burton church-yard, exhibits a brightness and harmony of colouring, which could little be expected to result from a mixture of grass, wood, and stone.

A travelling party desirous of being gratified with the pleasure of one of these rides, may have it in perfection by going upon Farlton-knot, from Burton, through Claythorp, or traversing the heights of Warton-crag; both of which mountains, besides the particulars here mentioned, afford very extensive views, including part of the ocean, of a country abounding with agreeable images of rural nature.

rock stone geology blue rag turf digging limestone grass shepherd Deluge, The slate Kendal Witherslack Kellet Hutton Roof Arnside Knot Witherslack Scar Warton Crag shillow Farleton Knott St James, Burton in Kendal Claythorp

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[culti]vated tract the dale narrows, but the skirts of the mountains are covered with the sweetest

Claythorp Warton Crag

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verdure, and have once waved with aged wood. Many large roots still remain, with some scattered trees.

Just where the road begins to ascend the Stake, are said to be the remains of a bloomery, close by the water-fall on the left; but no tradition relates at what time it was last worked. This I could never verify from any visible remains. The mineral was found in the mountain, and the wood used in smelting had covered their steep sides. The masses of iron found on Castle-crag were probably smelted here. Cataracts and water-falls abound on all sides. A succession of water-falls will meet you on the ascent up the Stake, and others will accompany you down the most dreadful descent in Langdale. The scenes on the Borrowdale side are in part sylvan

Claythorp Warton Crag Stake bloomery iron foundry iron ore Castle Crag Langdale Borrowdale

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and pastoral, on the side of Langdale entirely rocky. The Stake exhibits a miniature of very bad Alpine road, across a mountain, just not perpendicular, and about five miles over. The road makes many traverses so close, that at every flexture it seems almost to return into itself, and such as are advancing in different traverses, appear to go different ways. In descending the Stake, on the Langdale side, a cataract accompanies you on the left, with all the horrors of a precipice. Langdale-pike, called Pike-a-Stickle, and Steel-pike, is an accessible pyramidal rock, and commands the whole. Here nature seems to have discharged all her useless load of matter and rock, when form was first impressed on chaos. Pavey-ark is a hanging rock 600 feet in height, and under it is Stickle-tarn, a large bason of water, formed in the bosom of the rock, and which pours down in a cataract at Mill-beck. Below this, White-gill-crag opens to the centre, a dreadful yawning fissure. Beyond Langdale chapel the vale becomes more pleasing, and the road is good to Ambleside or Hawkshead, by Scalewith-bridge.

station, Crow Park Mr. Gray was much pleased with an evening view under Crow-park. 'In the evening,' says he, 'I walked alone down to the lake, by the side of Crow-park, after sun-set, and saw the solemn colouring of the night draw

Borrowdale Langdale Stake Pass Langdale Pikes Pike of Stickle Steel Pike Pavey Ark Stickle Tarn Mill Beck Whitegill Crag Scalewith Bridge Skelwith Bridge Gray, Thomas Crow Park Derwent Water station, Crow Park

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on, the last gleam of sunshine fading away on the hill tops, the deep serene of the waters, and the long shadows of the mountains thrown across them, till they nearly touched the hithermost shore. At a distance were heard the murmurs of many water-falls not audible in day time; I wished for the moon, but she was dark to me and silent,

'Hid in her vacant interlunar cave.'

station, Swinside STATION V. This view is seen to much greater advantage from the side of Swinside, a little before sun-set, where the vale and both the lakes are in full view, with the whole extent of rocky shore at the upper, and the flextures of the lower lake. And when the last beams of the sun rest on the purple summit of Skiddaw, and the deep shade of Wythop's wooded brows is stretched over the lake, the effect is amazingly great.

station, Fawe Park STATION VI. From Swinside continue the walk by Foe-park. This is a sweet evening walk, and had the sun shone out, Mr. Gray would have perceived his mistake in being here in the morning. 'October 5,' he writes, 'I walked through the meadows and corn-fields to the Derwent, and crossing it, went up How-hill; it looks along Bassenthwaite-water, and sees at the same time the

Derwent Water Crow Park Gray, Thomas station, Swinside Swinside Foe Park How Hill Bassenthwaite Lake station, Fawe Park station, Derwent Water 5 station, Derwent Water 6

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course of the river, and part of the upper lake, with a full view of Skiddaw: then I took my way through Portinscale village to the park (Foe-park) a hill so called, covered entirely with wood; it is all a mass of crumbling slate; passed round its foot, between the trees and the edge of the water, and came to a peninsula that juts out into the lake, and looks along it both ways; in front rises Wallow-crag and Castle-hill, the town, the road to Penrith, Skiddaw, and Saddle-back. After dinner walked up Penrith road,' &c.

station, Latrigg STATION VII. Another select station for a morning view, is on Latrig, a soft green hill that interposes between the town and Skiddaw. The ascent is by Monk's-hall, leaving Ormathwaite on the left, and following mountain road about due east till you approach the gate in the stone-wall inclosure; then slant the hill to the right, looking towards Keswick, till you gain the brow of the hill, which exhibits a fine terrace of verdant turf, as smooth as velvet. Below you, rolls the Greta, and, in its course, visits the town before it joins the Derwent, where it issues from the lake, and then their united streams are seen meandering through the vale till they meet the floods of Bassenthwaite, under the verdant skirts of Wythop brows.

Gray, Thomas station, Fawe Park Derwent, River Skiddaw Portinscale Foe Park Wallow Crag Castle Hill Keswick road, Penrith to Keswick Penrith to Keswick Skiddaw Saddleback station, Latrigg Latrigg Monk's Hall Ormathwaite Greta, River Wythop Brows station, Derwent Water 7

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The prospect to the south is the reverse of that from Castle-crag. The view is full into the rocky jaws of Borrowdale, through which the Derwent is seen pouring his crystal stream, and, after winding through some verdant meadows, which skirt the rocky coast, joining the lake at Lowdore. The lake itself is seen in its full extent, on all sides, with variety of shore, and its bosom spotted with diversity of islands. Castle-crag, in Borrowdale, stands first of all the forest of embattled rocks, whose forked heads, reared to the sky, shine in the sun like spears of burnished steel. In the rear, Langdale-pike, advancing to the clouds his cone-like head, overlooks them all. What charms the eye, in wandering over the vale, is, that not one straight line offends. The roads all serpentize round the mountains, and the hedges wave with the inclosures. Every thing is thrown into some path of beauty, or agreeable line of nature. But to describe every picturesque view that this region of landscape presents, would be an endless labour. And, did language furnish expression to convey ideas of inexhaustible variety that is found in the many grand constituent objects of these magnificent scenes, the imagination would be fatigued with the detail, and description weakened by redundancy. It is more pleasing to speculative curiosity to discover of itself the differences

station, Latrigg Latrigg Castle Crag Borrowdale Derwent, River Lowdore Lodore Derwent Water Langdale Pikes description, scenes road

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among such scenes as approach the nearest in likeness, and the agreement between such as appear most discordant, than to be informed of them. This sport of fancy, and exercise of taste, arising from self-information, has the greatest effect on the mind, and the province of the guide is chiefly to point out the station, and leave to the company the enjoyment of reflection, and the pleasures of the imagination.

station, River Greta Return to the gate, and enter the inclosure. Proceed, as soon as you can, to the right, having the wall at some distance, till you arrive at the brink of a green precipice; there you will be entertained with the noise of the rapid Greta (roaring through a craggy channel) that, in a run of two miles, exhibits an uncommon appearance, forming twelve or more of the finest bends and serpentine curves that ever fancy pencilled. The point for viewing this uncommon scene, is directly above the bridge, which hangs gracefully over the river. The town of Keswick appears no where to greater advantage than from this station. Helvellyn, in front, overlooks a vast range of varied hills, whose rocky sides are rent with many fissures, the paths of so many rills and roaring cataracts, that echo through the vales, and swell the general torrent. To the east, Cross-fell is discerned

stations Greta, River station, River Greta Keswick Helvellyn Cross Fell

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like a cloud of blue mist, hanging over the horizon. In the middle space, Mell-fell, a green pyramidal hill, is a singular figure. The eye wandering over Castle-rigg will discover the druid temple on the southern side of the Penrith road. Return to the path that leads down the ridge of the hill to the east, and, arrived at the gate that opens into a cross road, descend to the right, along the precipitous bank of a brawling brook, Glenderaterra-beck, that is heard tumbling from the mountains, and concealed by the woods that hang on its steep banks. In the course of the descent, remark Threlkeld-pike, browned with storms, and rent by a dreadful wedge-like rock, that tends to the centre. There are many pastoral cots, and rural seats, scattered round the cultivated skirts of this side of the mountains of Skiddaw and Saddleback, sweetly placed and picturesque. The northern side is less hospitable, being more precipitous, and much concealed in shade. From the bridge, the road leads to Threlkeld, and falls into the Penrith road, four miles from Keswick. The last mentioned brook, Glenderaterra, divides Skiddaw from Saddleback, called here Threlkeld-fell. From the front of Mr. Wren's house, the eye will be delighted with the vale of St. John, sweetly spread out in rural beauty between two ridges of hills, Lothwaite and Naddle-fells, which,

station, Greta River Cross Fell Mell Fell Castlerigg stone circle, Castlerigg Castlerigg Stone Circle druids road, Penrith to Keswick Penrith to Keswick Glenderaterra Beck Threlkeld Pike Skiddaw Saddleback Threlkeld Threlkeld Fell Wren, Mr Lothwaite Fell Naddle Fell station, Mr Wren's House

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in appearance, join together just behind the Castle-rocks. These, in the centre point of view, have the shew of magnificent ruins. A river is seen on both sides of the vale, lengthening its course in meanders, till it meets Threlkeld-water, or Glenderamackin-beck, at New-bridge, where it takes the name of Greeta. This picture is improved at the brow of the hill, on the western side of the house. Here the Greeta is seen from the bridge, running under the hill where you stand, and on the right, coming forth in a fine deep-channelled stream, between steep wooded banks. In a field on the left, near the second mile-post, stands conspicuous, the above-mentioned wide circus of rude stones; the awful monument of the barbarous superstition which enslaved the minds of ancient times. Mr. Pennant had in his possession an excellent drawing of these druidical remains.

station, Crosthwaite Vicarage STATION VIII. Another station remains, and which ought to be an evening one, in the vicarage garden. Mr. Gray took it in his glass from the horsing-block, and speaks of it thus: 'From hence I got to the parsonage a little before sun-set, and saw in my glass a picture, that if I could transmit it to you, and fix it in all the softness of its living colours, would fairly sell for a thousand pounds. This is the sweetest scene I can yet discover, in

Lothwaite Fell Naddle Fell Castle Rocks Threlkeld Water Glenderamackin Beck New Bridge Greeta, River Greta, River Castlerigg stone circle, Castlerigg Castlerigg Stone Circle Pennant, Thomas station, Crosthwaite Vicarage Gray, Thomas mounting block landscape mirror station, Mr Wren's House druids station, Derwent Water 8

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point of pastoral beauty; the rest are in sublimer style.

The leading parts of this picture, are over a rich cultivated foreground, the town of Keswick seen under a hill, divided by grass inclosures, its summits crowned with wood. More to the east, Castle-rigg is sweetly laid out, and over it sweeps in curves the road to Ambleside. Behind that, are seen the range of vast mountains, descending from Helvellyn. On the western side, the chaos of mountains heaped upon mountains, that secrete the vale of Newland, make their appearance, and over them Cawsey-pike presides. Leaving these, the eye meets a well wooded hill, on the margin of the lake, shining in all the beauties of foliage, set off with every advantage of form. Next a noble expanse of water, broken just in the centre by a large island dressed in wood; another, cultivated and fringed with trees, and a third with a hut upon it, stript of its ornamental trees by the unfeeling hand of avarice [1]. On the eastern side, a bold shore, steep and wooded to the water's edge, is perceived, and above these, rise daring rocks in every horrid shape. Also, a strange mixture of wood

Gray, Thomas Keswick Castlerigg road, Ambleside to Keswick Ambleside to Keswick Helvellyn Vale of Newland Newlands Valley Cawsey Pike Causey Pike Derwent Water oak Vicar's Island Derwent Island station, Crosthwaite Vicarage

This third is Vicar's island, which has since been purchased by a gentleman, who has built a large mansion, and made some other improvements upon it.

Vicar's Island Derwent Island

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and rock succeed one another to the southern extremity of the lake, where the grand pyramidal Castle-crag commands the whole. The western shore is indented with wooded promontories down to Foe-park, the hill first described, on the lower margin of the lake, and the mountains all around rise immediately from its edge, but those that form the outline to the south are very much broken, and hence more picturesque.- These parts of the scene, Mr. Gray says, are the sweetest he ever saw, in point of pastoral beauty. But whoever takes this view from Ormathwaite, in a field on the western side of the house, will be convinced of Mr. Gray's loss in want of information. For the very spot he stood upon there is in the centre of the fore-ground, and makes a principal object in the pastoral part of the picture he praises so highly.

Derwent Water by boat Sailing round the lake opens a new province for Landscape. Mr. Gray neglected it, and Mr. Mason thought he judged well. Messrs. Young and Pennant tried it, and admired it. Dr. Brown prefers sailing, and advises landing on every promontory, and anchoring in every bay [1]. The transparent

Derwent Water Castle Crag Foe Park Gray, Thomas Ormathwaite station, Ormathwaite Derwent Water, by boat Brown, Dr station, Crosthwaite Vicarage station, Derwent Water by boat

The whole of Dr. Brown's descriptive letter is inserted in the Addenda, Article I.

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beauty of the lake is only seen in the boat, and it is very surprising. The bottom resembles a mosaic pavement of party-coloured stone. The fragments of spar at the depth of seven yards either shine like diamonds, or glitter in diversity of colour; and such is the purity of the water, that no mud or ooze defiles its bottom. Mr. Pennant navigated the lake; and as his description is more compressed than any other, and gives a distinct idea of its appearances, I shall here subjoin it.

'The views on every side are very different; here all the possible variety of Alpine scenery is exhibited, with the horror of precipice, broken crag, overhanging rock, or insulated pyramidal hills, contrasted with others, whose smooth and verdant sides, swelling into immense aerial heights, at once please and surprise the eye.

'The two extremities of the lake afford most discordant prospects: the southern is a composition of all that is horrible; an immense chasm opens, whose entrance is divided by a rude conic hill, once topt with a castle, the habitation of the tyrant of the rocks; beyond, a series of broken mountainous crags, now patched with snow, soar one above the other, overshadowing the dark winding deep of Borrowdale. In the recesses are lodged a variety of minerals &c.

Derwent Water Derwent Water, by boat water, quality Pennant, Thomas Borrowdale station, Derwent Water by boat

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'But the opposite, or northern view, is in all respects a strong and beautiful contrast. Skiddaw shows its vast base, and, bounding all that part of the vale, rises gently to a height that sinks the neighbouring hills; opens a pleasing front, smooth and verdant, smiling over the country like a gentle generous lord, while the fells of Borrowdale frown on it like a hardened tyrant.

'Each boundary of the lake seems to take part with the extremities, and emulate their appearance: the southern varies in rocks of different forms, from the tremendous precipice of Lady's-leap, the broken front of Falcon's-nest, to the more distant concave curvature of Lowdore, an extent of precipitous rock, with trees vegetating from their numerous fissures, and the foam of a cataract precipitating amidst.

'The entrance to Borrowdale divides the scene, and the northern side alters into milder forms; a salt-spring, once the property of the monks of Furness, trickles along the shore; hills (the resort of shepherds) with downy fronts, and lofty summits, succeed, with wood clothing their bases to the water's edge.

'Not far from hence the environs appear to the navigator of the lake to the greatest

Derwent Water Pennant, Thomas Skiddaw Borrowdale Lady's Leap Falcon's Nest Lowdore Lodore salt spring spring, salt spa Furness Abbey Derwent Water, by boat station, Derwent Water by boat

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'advantage, for, on every side, mountains close the prospects, and form an amphitheatre almost matchless.

'The isles that decorate this water are finely disposed, and very distinct, rise with gentle and regular curvatures above the surface, consist of verdant turf, or are planted with various trees. The principal is Lord's-island, above five acres, where the Ratcliff family had some time its residence, and, from this lake, took the title of Derwent-water.

'St. Herbert's-isle was noted for the residence of that saint, the bosom friend of St. Cuthbert, who wished, and obtained his desire of departing this life on the same day, hour, and minute, with that holy man [1].

'The water of Derwent-water is subject to violent agitations, and often without any apparent cause, as was the case this day; the weather was calm, yet the waves ran a great height, and the boat was tossed violently, with what is called bottom wind.'

Derwent Water Pennant, Thomas Derwent Water, by boat Lord's Island Ratcliff Family St Herbert's Island St Cuthbert water, agitation station, Derwent Water by boat

In the register of Bishop Appleby, in the year 1374, there is an indulgence of forty days to every of the inhabitants of the parish of Crosthwaite, that should attend the vicar of St. Herbert's-island on the 13th of April, yearly, and there to celebrate mass in memory of St. Herbert.

Nicholson's Cumberland, page 86.

Appleby, Bishop Crosthwaite St Herbert's Island St Herbert Nicholson's Cumberland

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Derwent Water by moonlight Dr. Brown recommends, as a conclusion of the tour of this lake, that it be viewed by moon-light. He says, 'A walk by still moon-light (at which time the distant water-falls are heard in all the variety of sound) among these enchanting dales, opens a scene of such delicate beauty, repose, and solemnity, as exceeds all description.'

An expedition of this kind depends much on the choice of time in making the tour. It is better a little before, than after the full moon. If the evening be still, the voices of the water-falls are re-echoed from every rock and cavern, in a manner truly singular and pleasing. The setting sun tips the mountain's top with the softest refulgence; and the rising moon with her silver rays just continues in vision the glories of its base. The surface of the lake, that in the day reflects the azure sky, the deep green woods, or hoar-coloured rocks, is now a sable mirror, studded with the reflected gems of the starry heavens; a plain on which are pencilled by the moon the fair outlines and shadows of the hills behind which she labours. All now is in faint light, grave shade, or solemn darkness, which apparently increases the vastness of objects, and enwraps them in a solemn horror, that strikes the mind of the be-

Derwent Water Brown, Dr moonlight echoes

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[be]holder with reverential awe, and pleasing melancholy [1].

Derwent Water The characteristic of this lake is, that it retains its form viewed from any point, and never assumes the appearance of a river [2].

Derwent Water

Here the reader's mind may be fitly prepared for perusal of the following beautiful night-piece of Dr. Brown, preserved to us by Mr. Cumberland, in the dedication of his Ode to the Sun.

Now sunk the Sun, now twilight sunk, and night Rode in her zenith; not a passing breeze Sigh'd to the grove, which in the midnight air Stood motionless, and in the peaceful floods Inverted hung, for now the billow slept Along the shore, nor heav'd the deep, but spread A shining mirror to the moon's pale orb, Which dim and waning, o'er the shadowy cliffs, The solemn woods, and spiry mountains' tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress'd with toil, was drown'd in deep repose, Save that the unseen shepherd in his watch, Prop'd on his crook, stood list'ning by the fold, And gaz'd the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound broke on the deep serene, But the soft murmur, of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain's distant steep, (Unheard till now, and now scarce heard) proclaim'd All things at rest, and imag'd the still voice Of quiet whisp'ring in the ear of night.


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Brown, Dr Ode to the Sun Cumberland, Mr

The following sketch of the appearance of this amphitheatre, in a hard frost, appeared in the Cumberland Pacquet, February 10, 1784.

Derwent lake has been frozen over for several days, and quantities of timber have been drawn across it by horses. The appearance of this celebrated piece of water and the surrounding mountains is described by numbers who have seen it, as the most delightful of any prospect that can be conceived. The four islands have been visited by crowds of people, who agree that the whole scene is at present more awfully grand and enchanting than in the height of summer. The summits and sides of the mountains, at present clad with snow, the icicles hanging from the different cliffs, and the glassy surface of the lake, all these glittering in the sun, fill the eye with such an assemblage of natural magnificence and beauty as beggars all description.'

The following passage may be worth reading here, taken from a description of the curiosities in the Peak of Derbyshire, in the London Magazine, for October, 1778.

'Long has been the contention between gentlemen of Derbyshire and Cumberland, respecting Dovedale and Keswick, each claiming the superiority of natural beauties, and Dr. Brown has been thought by many to carry the dispute in favour of Keswick. I have carefully surveyed both, without being a native of either country; and if I might presume to be any judge of the matter, I should compare Dovedale to the soft and delicate maiden, and Keswick to the bold and sturdy Briton.'

Derwent Water Derwent Water, frozen Cumberland Pacquet ice icicle snow London Magazine Peak District Dovedale Keswick

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The fish here are trout, perch, pike, and eel.


Having seen the glory of Keswick, the beauties of the lake, and the wonders of the environs, there remains a pleasant ride to Ouse-bridge, in order to visit the lake of Bassenthwaite. Messrs. Gray and Pennant took the ride, but did not see the beauties of the lake, either for want of time or proper information.

Derwent Water fish trout perch pike eel Bassenthwaite Lake Ouse Bridge Gray, Thomas Pennant, Thomas

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Mr. Pennant says, 'Pass along the vale of Keswick, and keep above Bassenthwaite-water, at a small cultivated distance from it: this lake is a fine expanse of 4 miles in length, bounded on one side by high hills, wooded in many places to their bottoms; on the other side, by fields, and the skirts of Skiddaw.

'From Mr. Spedding's, of Armathwaite, at the low extremity of the lake, you have a fine view of the whole.'

Mr. Gray allowed himself more time for particulars. 'October 6,' he says, 'went in a chaise, eight miles, along the east side of Bassenthwaite water, to Ouse-bridge; it runs directly along the foot of Skiddaw. Opposite to Wythop-brows, clothed to the top with wood, a very beautiful view opens down to the lake, which is narrower and longer than that of Keswick, less broken into bays, and without islands; at the foot of it, a few paces from the brink, gently sloping upwards, stands Armathwaite, in a thick grove of Scotch firs, commanding a noble view directly up the lake. At a small distance behind this, a ridge of cultivated hills, on which, according to the Keswick proverb, the sun always shines; the inhabitants here, on the contrary, call the vale of Derwent-water, the devil's chamberpot, and pronounce the name of

Bassenthwaite Lake Pennant, Thomas Skiddaw Spedding, Mr Armathwaite postchaise Ouse Bridge Wythop Brows Scotch fir Devil's Chamberpot

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Skiddaw-fell, which terminates here, with a sort of terror and aversion. Armathwaite-house is a modern fabric, not large, and built of dark red stone.'

station, Armathwaite Hall STATION I. From Armathwaite, the lower bay is in full display; a fine expanse of water, spreading itself both ways, behind a circular peninsula (Castle-how) that swells in the middle, and is crowned with wood. In former times it has been surrounded with water, by the lake on one side, and the assistance of a brook that descends from Embleton, on the other. The accessible parts have been defended by trenches, one above another. The upper part must have been occupied with building, as the vestiges of the ruins are visible; and like other such places in this region, they were probably secured by the first inhabitants, as places of difficult access, and of easy defence. From the bottom of the bay, some waving inclosures rise to the side of a green hill, and some scattered houses are seen at the upper end of a fine slope of inclosures. The banks of the lake are fringed with trees, and under them the crystal water is caught in a pleasing manner. At the north-

But the singular beauties of this lake have not before been noticed, viz. the grand sinuosity of three noble bays.

Skiddaw Fell Armathwaite Hall station, Armathwaite Hall Castle How Embleton Bassenthwaite Lake station, Bassenthwaite 1

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[north-]west corner, the Derwent issues from the lake, and is spanned by a handsome stone bridge of three arches. The whole western boundary is the noble range of wooded hills called Wythop-brows. On the eastern shore, the lake retires behind a peninsula, that rushes far into the water, and on its extreme point, a solitary oak, waving to every wind, is most picturesque. This is Scareness. The coast upward, is a fine cultivated tract to the skirts of Skiddaw. Far to the south, Wallow-crag, with all the range of rock, and broken craggy mountains, in Borrowdale, are seen in fine perspective; and on their outline, the spiral point of Langdale-pike appears blue as glass. The deep green woods of Foe-park, and the golden front of Swinside, form a pleasing termination.

station, Scarness STATION II. Return to the road by Scareness, and descend from the house to the oak tree on the extremity of the promontory. The lake is here narrowest, but immediately spreading itself on both hands, forms two semicircular bays. That on the right is a mile across; the bay on the left is smaller; the shore on both sides is finely variegated with low wood and scattered bushes, as is more especially the peninsula itself. The upper bay is perfectly circular, and finely wooded. In front Wythop-brows rise swift

station, Armathwaite Hall Derwent, River Wythop Brows Scareness Wallow Crag Borrowdale Langdale Pikes Foe Park Swinside station, Scarness Bassenthwaite Lake station, Bassenthwaite 2

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from the water's edge. The extremity of some inclosures are picturesquely seen just over the wood, with part of a cottage. The village of Wythop lies behind it in an aerial site. A grass inclosure, scooped in the bosom of the hanging wood, and under it a cot, on the very brink of the lake, stands sweetly. The views downward are fine; the banks high and woody to the bridge, of which two arches are in sight. Behind it a white house is charmingly placed. More to the right, at the head of a gentle slope, in the very centre of view, stands Armathwaite, winged with groves; and behind it, at a small distance, are deep hanging woods, and over them, spreading far to the right and left, a great reach of cultivated grounds. This termination is rich and pleasing to the eye. The view to the south is, on the upper lake, much softened by distance. In the afternoon, if the sun shine, the appearance of the silver-grey rocks, glistening through the green woods that hang on their fissures, is most elegant. Behind, an appendix of Skiddaw rises in rude form; and over it, this chief of mountains frowns in Alpine Majesty.- This view is also well seen from the house of Scareness.

station, Broadness STATION III. The next remarkable promontory is Bradness, a round green hill, that,

Wythop Brows station, Scarness Wythop Armathwaite Skiddaw Scareness Scarness station, Broadness Broadness Bradness Bassenthwaite Lake station, Bassenthwaite 3

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spreading itself into the lake, forms a bay, with Bowness to the south. The best general view of the lake, is from the crown of this hill, behind the farm-house. Here you look over three bays finely formed. Nothing can be imagined more elegant than the sinuosity of this side, contrasted with the steep shore and lofty woods of the opposite. The view upwards is not less charming, being indented and wooded to the water's edge.

along Bassenthwaite Lake If these views are taken, beginning with Bradness, then from Scareness, take the road to Bassenthwaite-halls (a few houses so called) and from the road on the north side of the village, called Rakes, you have a very fine view of a rich cultivated tract, stretching along the banks of the lake, and spreading itself upwards to the skirts of Skiddaw. The elevation is such, that every object is seen completely, and every beauty distinctly marked. The lakes appears in its full magnitude, shaded by a bold wooded shore on the west, and graced by a sweet spreading vale on the east, that terminates in a bold style under the surrounding mountains. The sloping ground to the bridge is charming, and the far-extended vales of Embleton and Isel lie in fine perspective. The river Derwent has his winding course through the latter.

station, Broadness Broadness Bradness Bowness, Bassenthwaite Bassenthwaite Lake Scareness Bassenthwaite Halls Rakes Skiddaw Embleton Isel Derwent, River station, Rakes

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roman camps ANTIQUITIES. Caer-mot is about two miles further to the north, on the great road to old Carlisle and Wigton. It is a green high-crowned hill, and on its skirt, just by the road side, are the manifest vestiges of a square encampment, inclosed with a double foss, extending from east to west, 120 paces, and from south to north, 100 paces. It is subdivided into several cantonments, and the road from Keswick to old Carlisle has crossed it at right angles. Part of the agger is visible where it issues from the north side of the camp, till where it falls in with the line of the present road. It is distant about ten miles from Keswick, and as much from old Carlisle, and is about two miles west of Ireby.

Camden proposes Ireby for the Arbeia of the Romans, where the Bercarii Tigrinensis were garrisoned, but advances nothing in favour of his opinion. The situation is such as the Romans never made choice of for a camp or garrison, and there remains no vestiges of either. By its being in a deep glen, among surrounding hills, where there is no pass to guard, or country to protect, a body of men would be of no use. On the northern extremity of the said hill of Caer-mot, are the remains of a beacon, and near it the vestiges of a square encampment, inclosed with a foss and rampart of 60 feet by 70. This camp is

antiquities Caermote roman fort, Caermote road, Keswick to Bothel Keswick to Bothel agger roman road Ireby Arbeia Camden, William Bercarii Tigrinensis beacon, Caermote

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in full view of Blatumbulgii (Bowness) and Olenacum (old Carlisle); and commanding the whole extent of the Solway firth, would receive the first notice from any frontier station, were (sic) the Caledonians might make an attempt to cross the Firth, or had actually broken in upon the province; and notice of this might be communicated by the beacon on Caer-mot to the garrison at Keswick, by the watch on Castle-crag, in Borrowdale. The garrison at Keswick, would have the care of the beacon on the top of Skiddaw, the mountain being of the easiest access on that side. By this means, the alarm would soon become general, and the invaders be either terrified into flight, or else the whole country quickly in arms to oppose them.

Whether these camps are the Arbeia, I pretend not to say, but that they were of use to the Romans is evident; and what the Britons thought of them, is recorded in the name they have conferred on the hill where they are situated.

The larger camp has no advantage of site, and is but ill supplied with water. The ground is of a spongy nature, and retains wet long, and therefore could only be occupied in the summer months. They seem to have the same relation to old Carlisle and Keswick,

beacon, Caermote beacon camp Blatumbulgii Bowness-on-Solway Olenacum Old Carlisle Solway Firth Caledonians Keswick beacon, Castle Crag Castle Crag Borrowdale Skiddaw beacon, Skiddaw beacon system Arbeia roman fort

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as the camp at Whitbarrow has to old Penrith and Keswick.

along Bassenthwaite Lake From Caer-mot descend to Ouse-bridge, and return to Keswick up the western side of the lake. Every lover of landscape should take this ride in the afternoon; and if the sun shine it is exceedingly pleasant. The road branches off from the great road to Cockermouth, a little below the bridge, and leads through the wood, and round Castle-how. In some places it rises above the lake a considerable height, and the water is agreeably seen at intervals through a screen of low wood that decks its banks. Then the road descends to the level of the water, and presents you with a variety of surprising views, in different styles, that show themselves in an agreeable succession, as the eye wanders in amazement along the lake.

station, Beck Wythop STATION IV. At Beck-wythop, the lake spreads out to a great expanse of water, and its outlet is concealed by Castle-how. The immediate shore is lined with rocks, that range along banks completely dressed in low wood, and over them Wythop-brows rise almost perpendicular. The opposite shore is much variegated, and deeply embayed by the bold promontories of Scareness, Bowness, and Bradness. Just opposite to you, a little

Caermote Ouse Bridge Bassenthwaite Lake road, Keswick to Cockermouth Keswick to Cockermouth Castle How station, Beck Wythop Beck Wythop Wythop Brows Scareness Scarness Bowness, Bassenthwaite Bradness Broadness station, Bassenthwaite 4

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removed from the margin of the lake, and under a range of wood, see the solitary church of Bassenthwaite. Its back-ground is gloomy Ullock, a descendant hill of parent Skiddaw, robed in purple heath, trimmed with soft verdure. The whole cultivated tract between the mountains and the lake is seen here in all its beauty, and Skiddaw appears no where of such majestic height as from this point, being seemingly magnified by the accompaniments of the lesser hills that surround its base.

Over the northern extremity of this expanse of water, the ground rises in a (sic) easy slope, and in the point of beauty Armathwaite is seated, queen of the lake, on which she smiles in graceful beauty. On each hand are hanging woods. The space between displays much cultivation, and is divided by inclosures, waving up the farms seen under the skirts of Caer-mot, the Crown-top hill, that closes this scene in the sweetest and most elegant manner possible. If the sun shine, you may be entertained here for hours with a pleasing variety of landscapes. All the views up the lake, are in a style great and sublime. They are seen in the bosom of the lake, softened by reflection, but to the glass is reserved the finished picture, in the truest colouring, and most just perspective.

landscape mirror station, Beck Wythop Bassenthwaite Lake St Bega with St John, Bassenthwaite Ullock Skiddaw Armathwaite Caermote

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As you come out of the wood, at the gate leading to the open space, there is a magnificent bird's-eye view of Keswick, in the centre of a grand amphitheatre of mountains. Proceeding along the banks of the lake, the road leads through Thornthwaite and Portinscale to Keswick [1].

Keswick Bassenthwaite Lake Thornthwaite Portinscale

On taking leave of Bassenthwaite-water we may observe, that it was the first lake that was honoured with one of those amusements called Regattas; this was on the 24th of August, 1780. Another was exhibited on the 1st of August, 1781, (when the swimming sweepstakes were introduced); and the last on the 4th of September, 1782. This species of entertainment was begun on Derwent-water, on the 28th of August, 1781, and continued there once in every year till 1791.

That the reader who has not been present at one of these rural fetes may form some idea of their nature and effects, we subjoin from the Cumberland Pacquet, the following description of the Regatta exhibited on Derwent-water, the 6th of September, 1782. But it will be allowed, by all who have had an opportunity of seeing it, that every representation, in the absence of the beauties that surround the scene, must fall infinitely short of the romantic grandeur it labours to hold up to the imagination.

'At eight o'clock in the morning, a vast concourse of ladies and gentlemen appeared on the side of the Derwent lake, where a number of marquees, extending about four hundred yards, wereerected (sic) for their accommodation. At twelve, such of the company as were invited by Mr. Pocklington, passed over in boats to the island which bears his name; and, on their landing, were saluted by a discharge of his artillery.- This might properly be called the opening of the Regatta; for as soon as the echo of this discharge had ceased, a signal gun was fired, and five boats, which lay upon their oars (on that part of the water which runs nearest the town of Keswick) instantly pushed off the shore, and begun (sic) the race.

'A view from any of the attendant boats (of which there were several) presented a scene which exceeds all description. The sides of the hoary mountains were clad with spectators, and the glassy surface of the lake was variegated with a number of pleasure barges; which, tricked out in all the gayest colors, and glittering in the rays of a meridian sun, gave a new appearance to the celebrated beauties of this matchless vale.

'The contending boats passed Pocklington's island, and rounding St. Herbert's and Ramps-holme, edged down by the outside of Lord's-island, describing in the race almost a perfect circle, and, during the greater part of it, in full view of the company.

'About three o'clock, preparations were made for the sham-attack on Pocklington's island. The fleet (consisting of several barges, armed with small cannon and musquets) retired out of view, behind Friar-crag, to prepare for action: previous to which, a flag of truce was sent to the governor, with a summons to surrender upon honorable terms. A defiance was returned; soon after which, the fleet was seen advancing, with great spirit, before the batteries, and instantly forming in a curved line, a terrible cannonade began on both sides, accompanied with a dreadful discharge of musquetry. This continued for some time, and being echoed from hill to hill, in an amazing variety of sounds, filled the ear with whatever could produce astonishment and awe. All nature seemed to be in an uproar, which impressed on the awakened imagination, the most lively ideas of the 'war of elements,' and 'crush of worlds.'

'After a severe conflict, the enemies were driven from the attack, in great disorder. A feu-de-joye was then fired in the fort, and oft repeated by the responsive echoes. The fleet after a little delay, formed again, and, practising a variety of beautiful manoeuvres, renewed the attack. Uproar again sprang up, and the deep-toned echoes of the mountains again joined in the solemn chorus, which was heard to the distance of ten leagues to leeward, through the eastern opening of the vast amphitheatre, as far as Appleby.

The garrison at length capitulated, and the entertainments of the water being finished, (towards the evening) the company moved to Keswick; to which place, from the water's edge, a range of lamps were fixed, very happily disposed, and a number of fire-works were played off.

'An assembly room (which has been built for the purpose) next received the ladies and gentlemen, and a dance concluded this annual festivity;- a chain of amusement which we may venture to assert, no other spot can possibly furnish, and which want only to be more universally known, to render this a place of more general resort than any other in the kingdom.

'To those whom nature's works alone can charm, this spot will, at all times, be viewed with rapture and astonishment; but no breast, however unsusceptible of pleasure, can be indifferent to that display of every beauty which decks the ancient vale of Keswick on a Regatta-day.'

As the permanent beauties of this matchless vale became more known and frequented, this amusement was laid aside: it resembled too much the busy scenes from which the opulent wish to retire to the enjoyment of rural delight: nor could it long be thought necessary to employ the assistance of art, in that way, to heighten the most exalted charms of nature.

Bassenthwaite Lake regatta Cumberland Pacquet Derwent Water Regatta marquee Pocklington, Mr Pocklington's Island cannon boat race St Herbert's Island Rampsholme Island Lord's Island musket echoes Friar Crag Keswick fireworks assembly room, Keswick dance

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Keswick to Buttermere Newlands Hause A morning ride up the vale of Newland, to


This ride remains hitherto unnoticed, though one of the most pleasing and surprising in the environs of Keswick. Company


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who visit the vale of Keswick, and view its lake from Castle-rigg, Latrig, Swinside, and the vicarage, imagine inaccessible mountains only remain beyond the line of this amazing tract. But whoever takes a ride up Newland vale [1], will be agreeably surprised with some of the finest solemn pastoral scenes they have

Keswick Derwent Water Castlerigg Latrigg Swinside Newlands Valley

Here, in a hill called Gold-scope, are the remains of a famous ancient copper-mine, which exhibit some curious excavations, called the Pen-holes. One shaft, reaching from the top of the hill to the bottom (into which, if a large stone be let fall, it occasions a most tremendous noise) is met by a level passage, cut quite through the mountain, along which a stream of water (from Bank-beck) was conveyed to turn a draining wheel, at its meeting with the shaft.

These mines were wrought in Henry 8th's time, and some of the succeeding reigns. But the metal yielding a considerable quantity of gold, they came to be considered as royal mines, and occasioned a dispute between the crown and the duke of Somerset, then lord of the manor, and a discontinuance of the works. In 1757, Mr. Gilbert and company drained them to the very bottom, at the expense of about 100l. but did not find the metal such, or so plentiful, as to encourage them to proceed on at so prodigious a depth.


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Goldscope Lead Mines Scope End copper mine Pan Holes Bank Beck mine drainage waterwheel Henry VIII gold Somerset, Duke of Gilbert, Mr

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yet beheld. Here present themselves an arrangement of vast mountains, entirely new, both in form and coloring of rock; large hollow craters scooped in their bosoms, once the seeming seats of raging liquid fire, though at present overflowing with the purest water, that foams down the craggy brows; other woods ornament their base, and other lakes, clear as the Derwent, lie at their feet. The softer part of these scenes are verdant hills patched with wood, spotted with rock, and pastured with herds and flocks.

The ride is along Swinside; and having turned the brow of the hill, and passed the first houses, through which the road leads, observe at the gate on the right, a view down a narrow vale, which is pleasing in a high degree.

Newlands Valley volcano road, Keswick to Buttermere Keswick to Buttermere

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The road continues winding through a glade, along the side of a rapid brook, that tumbles down a stony channel with water as clear as crystal. At the hedge-row tree under Rawlingend (a brawny mountain) turn, and have a new and pleasant view of the vale of Keswick. The road has then a gentle ascent, and the rivulet is heard murmuring below. At the upper end of the cultivated part of the vale, a green pyramidal hill, divided into waving inclosures, looks down the vale upon Keswick, &c. The verdant hills on each side terminate in rude and awful mountains, that tower to the skies in a variety of grotesque forms, and on their murky furrowed sides hang many a torrent. Above Keskadale, the last houses in Newland, no traces of human industry appear. All is naked solitude and simple nature. The vale now becomes a dell, and the road a path. The lower parts are pastured with a motley herd; the middle tract is assumed by the flocks; the upper regions (to man inaccessible) are abandoned to the birds of Jove. Here untamed nature holds her reign in solemn silence, amidst the gloom and grandeur of dreary solitude [1]. The morning

Newlands Valley Newlands Beck Rowling End High Snab Bank Keskadale Farm eagle Derwent Fells road, Keswick to Buttermere Keswick to Buttermere

And here the following exclamation of young Edwin may be properly recalled to the reader's remembrance;

Hail, awful scenes, that calm the troubled breast, And woo the weary to profound repose, Can passion's wildest uproar lay to rest, And whisper comfort to the man of woes!

Here innocence may wander safe from foes, And contemplation soar on seraph wings; O solitude, the man who thee foregoes, When lucre lures him, or ambition stings, Shall never know the source whence real grandeur springs.

Beattie's Minstrel, B. 2d.


Beattie's Minstrel Edwin

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sun, beaming on the blue and yellow mountains' sides, produces effects of light and shade the most charming that ever a son of Apelles imagined. In approaching the head of Newland-hawse, on the left, a mountain of purple-coloured rock presents a thousand gaping chasms, excavated by torrents that fall into a bason, formed in the bosom of the mountain, and from thence precipitating themselves over a wall of rock, become a brook below. In front is a vast rocky mountain, the barrier of the dell, that opposes itself to all further access. Among the variety of water-falls that distinguish this awful boundary of rock, one catches the eye at a distance that exceeds the boasted Lowdore, in height of rock and unity of fall, whilst the beholder is free of all anxiety of mind in the approach. Not one pebble or grain of sand offends; but all is nature, in her sweetest trim of verdant turf, spread out to please her votaries.

Whoever would enjoy, with ease and safety Alpine views, and pastoral scenes in the sublime style, may have them in this morning ride.

road, Keswick to Buttermere Keswick to Buttermere Newlands Valley Newlands Hause Robinson Crags Moss Force

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The road, or rather track, becomes now less agreeable than it was, for a few roods, not from any difficulty there is in turning the mountain turf into good road, at a small expense, but from the inattention of the dalesmen, who habituate themselves to tread in the track made by their flocks, and wish for nothing better. It will not be labour lost to walk a few roods here, and see a new creation of mountains, as unlike those left behind, as the Andes are to the Alps. The contrast is really striking, and appears at once on the summit of the hill. On the right, at the head of a deep green hill, a naked furrowed mountain, of an orange hue, has a strange appearance amongst its verdant neighbours, and sinks, by his height, even Skiddaw itself.

Descend the track on the left, and you soon have in sight the highest possible contrast in nature. Four spiral towering mountains, dark, dun, and gloomy at noon-day, rise immediately from the western extremity of the deep narrow dell, and hang over Buttermere. The more southern is, by the dalesmen, from its form, called Hay-rick; the more pyramidal High-crag; the third High-style; and the fourth, from its ferruginous colour, Red-pike. Between the second and third there is a large crater, that, from the parched colour of the conical mountains,

road, Keswick to Buttermere Keswick to Buttermere road Whiteless Pike Hay Stacks Hay Rick High Crag, Ennerdale and Kinniside High Stile Red Pike Buttermere lake

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in whose bosom it is formed, appears to have been the focus of a volcano, in some distant period of time, when the cones were produced by explosion. At present it is the reservoir of water, that feeds the roaring cataract you see in the descent to Buttermere. Here all is barrenness, solitude, and silence, only interrupted by the murmurs of a rill, that runs unseen in the bottom of a deep dell [1]. The smooth verdant sides of the vast hills on the right have many furrows engraven in their sides by the winter rains; and the sable mountains in front present all the horrors of cloven rock, broken cliff, and mountain streams tumbling headlong. Some traces of industry obtruding

volcano caldera Bleaberry Tarn Sour Milk Gill Buttermere lake

There is one curious spectacle, often seen by the shepherd on the tops of these mountains, which the traveller may never chance to see, but which is so happily delineated in the following stanza, that he may the less regret it. What I mean is the effects of mists, which frequently involve every object round in the bases of these eminences, and which in the district of pointed hills just described, must be experienced in the greatest perfection.

And oft the craggy cliff he lov'd to climb, When all in mist the world below was lost; What dreadful pleasure! there to stand sublime, Like shipwreck'd mariner on desart coast, And view th'enormous waste of vapour, tost In billows length'ning to th'horizon round, Now scoop'd in gulps, with mountains now embos'd; And hear the voice of mirth and song rebound, Flock, herds, and water-falls along the hoar profound!

Minstrel, B. 1st.


Beattie's Minstrel mists

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Buttermere themselves at the foot of the glen, disturb the solemn solitude with which the eye and mind have been entertained, and point out your return to society; for now you approach the village of Buttermere, which is situated between the lakes and consists of sixteen houses. The chapel here is very small, the stipend not large, for though twice augmented with the queen's bounty, it exceeds not twenty pounds per annum. This is one of the cures Mr. Pennant mentions; but the perquisites of the clog-shoes, harden-sark, whittle-gate, and goose-gate, have no better support than in some ancient, and probably idle tale.

The life of the inhabitants is purely pastoral. A few hands are employed in the slate quarries; the women spin woollen yarn, and drink tea. Above the village, you have a view of the upper lake, two miles in length, and short of one in breadth. It is terminated on the western side by the ferruginous mountain already mentioned. A stripe of cultivated ground adorns the eastern shore. A group of houses, called Gatesgarth, is seated on the southern extremity, under the most extraordinary amphitheatre of mountainous rocks that ever eye beheld. Here we see Honister-crag rise to an immense height, flanked by two conic mountains, Fleetwith to

Buttermere St James, Buttermere Pennant, Thomas slate quarry spinning Buttermere lake Gatesgarth Honister Crag Fleetwith Pike stipends

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the eastern, and Scarf on the western side; a hundred mountain torrents form never-failing cataracts, that thunder and foam down the centre of the rock, and form the lake below. Here the rocky scenes and mountain landscapes are diversified and contrasted with all that aggrandizes the object in most sublime style, and constitutes a picture the most enchanting of any in these parts.

tourists' woes Mr. Gray's account of Barrowside, and his relation of Borrowdale, are hyperboles; the sport of fancy he was pleased to indulge himself in. A person that has crossed the Alps or Appenines, will meet here only miniatures of the huge rocks and precipices, the vast hills, and snow-topt mountains he saw there. And though he may observe much similarity in the style, there is none in the danger. Skiddaw, Helvellyn, and Cachidecam, are but dwarfs, when compared with mount Maudite, above the lake of Geneva, and the guardian mountains of the Rhone. If the roads in some places be narrow and difficult, they are at least safe. No villainous banditti haunt the mountains; innocent people live in the dells. Every cottager is narrative of all he knows; and mountain virtue and pastoral hospitality are found at every farm. This constitutes a pleasing difference betwixt travelling here and on the continent, where

Buttermere lake Scarf Hay Stacks Gray, Thomas bandits road hospitality hyperbole

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every inn-holder is an extortioner, and voiturin an imposing rogue.

The space betwixt the lakes is not a mile, and consist of pasture and meadow ground. The lower lake is called

Crummock Water CROMACK-WATER [1],

Soon opens after you leave the village, and pass through an oaken grove. A fine expanse of water sweeps away to the right under a rocky promontory, Randon-knot, or Buttermere-hawse. The road then serpentizes round the rock, and under a rugged, pyramidal, craggy mountain. From the crest of this rock, the whole extent of the lake is discovered. On the western side the mountains rise immediately from the water's edge, bold and abrupt. Just in front, between Blea-crag and Mell-break, (two spiral hills) the hoarse resounding noise of a water-fall is heard across the lake, concealed within the bosom of the cliff, through which it has forced its way, and when viewed from the foot of the fall, is a most astonishing phaenomenon.

This lake is beautified with three small isles. One of rock lies just before you. The

innkeeper Buttermere lake Crummock Water Great Wood Blea Crag Mell Break Scale Force Scale Beck station, Randon Knot voiturin coachman

This lake abounds with the finest char, and red trout, and contains also some pike and perch.

fish char red trout trout pike perch

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whole eastern shore is diversified with bays, the banks with scattered trees, and a few inclosures, terminated by a hanging wood. At the foot of the lake, a high-crowned hill pushes forward, fringed with trees, and sweetly laid out with inclosures; and above it, on a cultivated slope, is the chapel of Lowes-water, surrounded with scattered farms. Behind all, Low-fell raises its verdant front; a sweet contrast to his murky neighbours, and a pleasing termination, either as seen from the top of this rock, or from the bosom of the lake.

The chain of pyramidal mountains on each side of this narrow vale, are extremely picturesque. They rise from distinct bases, and swell into the most grotesque forms of serrated or broken rocks.

These lakes are of a much greater depth than Derwent-water, and this may be the only reason why they have char, and some others have not. The char, in the summer months, retire to the deeps, probably to avoid the heat. The water here is clear, but not so transparent as the lake of Derwent. The outlet is at the north-east corner, by the river Cocker, over which is a handsome stone bridge, of four arches. This lake is four miles in length, and in some places almost half a mile over.

Crummock Water St Bartholomew, Loweswater Loweswater Fell char Cocker, River Scalehill Bridge station, Randon Knot water, Crummock Water

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Loweswater LOWES-WATER.

Proceed from the bridge, by High-cross, to Lowes-water. Having passed through a gate that leads to the common, the lake spreads out before you, a mile in length, and of an equal breadth of about a quarter of a mile. The extremities are rivals in beauty of hanging woods, little groves, and waving inclosures, with farms seated in the sweetest points of view. The south end is overlooked by lofty Mellbreak, at whose foot, a white house within some grass inclosures, under a few trees, stands in the point of beauty. The eastern shore is open, and indented with small bays; but the opposite side is more pleasing. Carling knot presents a broad pyramidal front, of swift ascent, covered with soft vegetation, and spotted with many aged solitary thorns. On each side the outlines wave upwards in the finest manner, terminating in a cone of grey rocks, patched with verdure.

This lake, in opposition to all the others, has its course from north to south, and under Mellbreak falls into Cromack-water. It is of no great depth, and without char; but it abounds with pike and perch, and has some trout.

station, Mellbreak An evening view of both lakes, is from the side of Mell-break, at the gate, under a coppice of oaks, in the road to Ennerdale. No-

Loweswater Loweswater lake Highcross Mell Break Carling Knott pike perch trout fish station, Mell Break station, Highgap Yeat char

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[No]thing exceeds, in composition, the parts of this landscape. They are all great, and lie in fine order of perspective. If the view be taken from the round knoll, at the lower end of the lake, the appearance of the mountains that bound it is astonishing. You have Mellbreak on the right, and Grasmire on the left, and betwixt them, a stupendous amphitheatre of mountains, whose tops are all broken and dissimilar, and of different hues, and their bases skirted with wood, or clothed with verdure. In the centre point of this amphitheatre is a huge pyramidal broken rock, that seems with its figure to change place, as you move across the fore-ground, and gives much variety to the scenes, and alters the picture at every pace. In short, the picturesque views in this district are many; some mixt, others purely sublime, but all surprise and please. The genius of the greatest adepts in landscape, might here improve in taste and judgement; and the most enthusiastic ardor for pastoral poetry and painting, will here find an inexhaustible source of scenes and images.

to Ennerdale and Wast Water When the roads to Ennerdale and Wast-water are improved, they may be taken in this morning ride [1].

Loweswater lake Crummock Water Mellbreak Grasmoor landscape painting station, Mell Break road

An account of a ride from Keswick to Ennerdale has been communicated by a friend of the publisher's, and it is inserted in the Addenda, article IX.

road, Keswick to Ennerdale Keswick to Ennerdale

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From the bridge at the foot of the lake, ascend the road to Brackenthwaite. At the ale-house, Scalehill, take a guide to the top of the rock, above Mr. Bertie's woods, and have an entirely new view of Cromack-water. The river Cocker is seen winding through a beautiful and rich cultivated vale, spreading far to the north, variegated with woods, groves, and hanging grounds, in every pleasing variety. The most singular object in this vale of Lorton and Brackenthwaite, is a high-crowned topt (sic) rock that divides the vale, and raises a broken craggy head over hanging woods, that skirt the sloping sides, which are cut into waving inclosures and varied with groves and patches of coppice wood. To the west a part of Lowes-water is seen, under a fringe of trees at High-cross. Behind you, awful Grasmire (the Skiddaw of the vale) frowns in all the majesty of furrowed rock, cut almost perpendicularly to the centre by the water-falls of ages. The swell of a cataract is here heard, but entirely concealed within the gloomy recess of a rocky dell, formed by the rival mountains, Grasmire and Whiteside. At their feet, lie the mighty ruins, brought down from the mountains, by the memorable water-spout, that deluged all the vale, in September, 1760 [1].

Scalehill Bridge Scalehill Bertie, Mr Lanthwaite Wood Brackenthwaite Hows Crummock Water Cocker, River Lorton Vale Loweswater lake Highcross Grasmoor Liza Beck water spout Whiteside station, Dob Ley Head

I do not know whether an account of the effects of the storm have been published; but the following description of a similar one which happened in St. John's vale, given as the most authentic that has yet appeared, by a native of the place, may here merit a perusal.

In the evening of 22d of August, 1749, that day having been much hotter that (sic) was ever known in these parts, a strange and frightful noise was heard in the air, which continued for some time, to the great surprise of the inhabitants, sounding over them like a strong wind, though they could not perceive it. This was succeeded by the most terrible claps of thunder, and incessant flashes of lightning breaking over their heads. At the same time the clouds poured down whole torrents of water on the mountains to the east, which in a very little time swelled the channels of their rivulets and brooks, so as to overflow every bank, and overwhelm almost every obstacle in their way. In a moment they deluged the whole valley below, and covered with stones, earth, and sand many acres of fine cultivated ground. Several thousands of huge fragments of broken rocks were driven by the impetuosity of these dreadful cataracts into the fields below, and such was their bulk, that some of them were more than ten horses could move, and one fairly measured nineteen yards in circumference. A corn-mill, dwelling-house, and stable, all under one roof, lay in the tract of one of these currents, and the mill from the one end, and the stable from the other, were both swept away, leaving the little habitation standing in the middle, rent open at both ends, with the miller, who was very old and infirm, in bed, and who was ignorant of the matter till he arose in next morning to behold nothing but ruin and desolation. His mill was no more! and instead of seeing green ground in the vale below, all was covered with large stones and rubbish, four yards deep, and among which one of the mill-stones was irrecoverably lost. The old channel of the stream too was entirely choaked up, and a new one cut open on the other side of the building, through the middle of a large rock, four yards wide, and nine deep. - Something similar to this happened at several other places in the neighbourhood, for the space of two miles, along Legberthwaite, and Fornside, but happily, through the providence of the Almighty, no person's life was lost.

(An account of this inundation is given in the Philosophical Transactions, for the year 1750, No.494.)


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

storm St John's in the Vale St John's Beck Legberthwaite Fornside floods

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After this, the mountains become humble hills, and terminate the sweet vale, that stretches from the feet of Black-crag and Carling-knot, and spreads itself into a country watered by the Cocker.

Carling Knott Black Crag Cocker, River

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The ride down this vale is pleasant. All the scenes are smiling, rich, and rural. Every dale-lander appears to be a man of taste, and every village, house, and cot, is placed in the choicest site, and decorated in the neatest manner, and style of natural elegance. Not one formal avenue, or straight-lined hedge, or square fish-pond, offends the eye in all this charming vale. The variety of situation gives diversity of views, and a succession of pleasing objects creates the desire of seeing.

The back view is under a wooded hill, near the fifth mile-post, and is fine. Here return up the great road to Keswick [1].

Keswick to Penrith From Keswick to Penrith, seventeen miles, of very good road, through an open wild country.

roman road roman camp ANTIQUITIES. Upon Hutton-moor, and on the north side of the great road, may be traced the path of the Roman way, that leads

Lorton Vale road, Penrith to Keswick Penrith to Keswick Hutton Moor roman road, Brougham to Moresby Brougham to Moresby development

While staying at Keswick it may be worth while to see two museums kept there. They contain a great variety of fossils, and other natural curiosities of the country, several pieces of antiquity, and many other articles.

Keswick Museum museum, Keswick fossil

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from old Penrith, or Plumpton-wall, in a line almost due west to Keswick. Upon the moor are the traces of a large encampment that the road traverses. And a little beyond the eighth mile-post, on the left, at Whitbarrow, are strong vestiges of a square encampment. The Roman road, beyond that, is met with, in the inclosed fields of Whitbarrow, and is known by the farmers by the opposition they meet in ploughing across it. After that it is found entirely on the common called Greystock Low-moor; and lately they have formed a new road on the agger of it. It proceeds in a right line to Greystock town, where it makes a flexure to the left, and continues in a line to Blencow; it is then found in a ploughed field, about 200 yards to the north of Little-Blencow, pointing at Coach-gate; from thence it passes on the north side of Kellbarrow, and through Cow-close, and was discovered in making the new turnpike road from Penrith to Cockermouth, which it crossed near the toll-gate. From thence it stretches over Whitrigg in a right line, is visible on the edge of the wood at Fair-bank, and in the lane called Low-street. From thence it points through inclosed land to the south end of the station called Plumpton-wall, and old Penrith. It crosses the brook Petteral, at Topinholme.

In the year 1772, near Little-Blencow, in removing a heap of stones, two urns were

roman road, Brougham to Moresby Brougham to Moresby agger Old Penrith Plumpton Wall Whitbarrow roman fort, Whitbarrow Greystock Low Moor Greystock Blencow Little Blencow Kellbarrow Cow Close road, Penrith to Keswick Penrith to Keswick turnpike Whitrigg Fairbank Low Street Petteral, River Petteril, River Topinholme urn agger

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taken up, about two feet and a half high, made of very coarse earth, and crusted on both sides with a brown clay, the tops remarkably wide, and covered with a red flat stone. Besides ashes and bones, each urn had a small cup within it, of a fine clay, in the shape of a tea-cup. One was pierced in the centre of the bottom part. The place where they were taken up is called Loddon-how, within twenty yards of the road between Penrith and Skelton, and about 200 yards from the Roman road, and four miles from the station. Also, on the banks of the Petteral, a few roods from the south corner of the station, a curious altar was lately found. It was three feet four inches in height, and near sixteen inches square. It had been thrown down from the upper ground, and the corners broken off in the fall. The front had been filled with an inscription; the letters short and square, but not one word remains legible. On the right hand side is the patera, with a handle, and underneath the secespita. On the opposite side is the ampula, and from its lip a serpent or viper descends in waves. The back part is rude, as if intended to stand against a wall. The emblems are in excellent preservation [1].

urn cup Loddon How Petteral, River Petteril, River roman altar altar, roman paterae secespita ampula serpent

This curious altar, after being some time in the possession of the late Dr. James, of Arthuret, was removed into the valuable collection of antiquities at Netherby.

altar, roman roman altar James, Dr Arthuret Netherby

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The castrum is 168 paces from south to north, by 110 within the foss; which was also surrounded with a stone-wall. The stones have been removed to the fence-wall on the road side, and being in Plumpton, is called Plumpton-wall.

The station is a vast heap of ruins, of stone building. The walls are of great thickness, and cemented. The town has surrounded the station, except on the side of the Petteral. But whether the station took its name from the river, as being upon its banks, and was called the Petriana, or whether the station gave name to the river (which is perhaps the least probable) let him who can determine.

The station is twelve miles and three quarters from Carlisle; five and a quarter from Penrith; about seven from Brougham-castle; and about eighteen from Keswick, where an intermediate station must have been, between Ambleside and Moresby, having Caer-mot between it and old Carlisle, and Papcastle between it and Moresby. The summer station would be on Castle-hill, and the winter station on the area of the present town of Keswick, or on some convenient place betwixt the conflux of the rivers Greeta and Derwent. And it is more probable that the Derventione of the Chorographia was here than at Papcastle, which comes better in for the Pampo-

roman fort, Old Penrith castrum Plumpton Wall Plumpton Petteral, River Petteril, River Petriana Keswick roman fort, Keswick Greta, River Derwent, River Castle Hill Derventione placename, Petriana

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[Pampo]calio of the same Chorographia. A station here would be an efficacious check on any body of the enemy that might cross the estuaries, above or below Boulness, and pass the watch there, and the garrisons at old Carlisle, Ellenborough, Papcastle, and Moresby; for it was impossible for any body of men to proceed to the south, but by Borrowdale or Dunmail-raise, a garrison at Keswick commanded both these passes. The watch at Caer-mot would give the alarm to that on Castle-crag, in the pass of Borrowdale, and the centinel on Castle-head, that overlooks Keswick, would communicate the same to the garrison there; so that it is apparently impossible that any body of men could pass that way unnoticed or unmolested. But if they attempted a route on the northern side of Skiddaw, and over Hutton-moor, to Patterdale, the watch at Caer-mot was in sight, both of old Carlisle and Keswick, and the garrison of the latter might either pursue, or give notice to Whitbarrow and Ambleside, to meet them in the pass at the head of Patterdale, called Kirkston, which is so steep, narrow, and crowded with rocks, that a few veteran troops would easily stop the career of a tumultuous crowd. If they made good the pass, and turned to the east before the Romans arrived, they would, in that case, be harrassed (sic) in the rear, till they arrived at Kendal, where the watchmen from Watercrook would be ready to receive them,

Pampocalio roman fort, Keswick Borrowdale Dunmail Raise Caermote Castle Crag Castle Head Skiddaw Hutton Moor Patterdale Kirkstone Pass Watercrook Kendal invasion

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and then they would be attacked in front and rear. That the Romans have had engagements at Kirkston-pass is evident, from the Roman arms that were lately found in the adjoining moss, and the many heaps of stones collected thereabouts, which have the appearance of barrows.

Scots These are the only passes amongst the mountains, that a body of Caledonians could attempt in their way to the south, and these could not be secured without a station at Keswick, and that could not be more advantageously placed, than where the town now stands, on the meeting of the roads from the surrounding stations, all being about an equal distance from it, and at such a distance as rendered a station there necessary, and the several castellums on Castle-crag, and Castle-hill, and Castlet, useful in giving notice, in order to guard these important posts. That no vestige is now visible of a station ever being there, nor any notice taken of it by Camden and Horsley, nor even atraditional (sic) record of its existence, are seeming difficulties, which put the negative on what has been advanced. But this may only prove, that no care was taken to preserve the memory of such remains, and that the town occupies the whole area of the station and that the station had been placed within the site of the town, probably in the lower part, facing the

invasion Kirkstone Pass Romans Caledonians roman fort, Keswick Keswick Castle Hill Castlet Castle Crag Camden, William Horsley, Mr

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pass of the Greeta. In the wheel of the Greeta, in a meadow peninsulated by the river, just below the town, and called Goats-field, there are vestiges of a foss, but too imperfect to draw a conclusion from in favour of the station. The ground round the town is very fertile, and has been long enough cultivated to destroy any remains of it, and what have been accidentally discovered, may be gone into oblivion; and no change happening in the town itself to occasion new discoveries, farther proofs may still be wanting. If Camden visited Keswick, he was satisfied with the then present state of the 'little town which king Edward I. made a market.' The face of the country only drew his attention. That Horsley never visited these parts is evident, from his mistaken account of the road from Plumpton-wall to Keswick, which he says passed through Greystock park. This, had he but seen the face of the country, he could never have imagined. His mistake, and Camden's silence, gave occasion to a regular survey of the said road, and finding the military roads from Papcastle, Ellenborough, Moresby, Ambleside, and Plumpton, all to coincide at Keswick: for this and the other reasons already assigned, it appeared evident that a station must be somewhere near. The Castle-hill, above Keswick, is a faithful record of the existence of a station in this country. Here was the seat of the ancient lords of the manor of Der-

roman fort, Keswick Greeta, River Goats Field Camden, William Keswick Horsley, Mr roman road Graystock Park Greystoke Park Castle Hill Lord of the Manor, Derwentwater Edward I market

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[Der]went-water, probably raised on the ruins of the Roman fortress: but after the heiress of that family was married to Ratcliff's, the family seat was removed into Northumberland, and the castle went to ruins; and with the stones thereof the Ratcliff's built a house of pleasure in one of the islands in Derwent-water [1]. The name Castle-hill, being more ancient than the last erection, is still retained. At Ambleside, when I enquired for the Roman station, a few years ago, no person could inform me of it, till one considering my description, answered, it is the castle. The station at Plumpton is called by the same name; and at Kendal, the castellum that overlooks the station, is also called the Castle-steads. So here the Castle-hill was probably the place of the summer station; but being a fruitful tract, and much ploughed, I have not been able to trace any appearance of a foss, or vallum, and therefore the whole must rest upon the necessity, or at least on the expediency, of a station here.- Since the above was written, an urn, with other remains, were turned up by the plough, in a field below the town, and said to be Roman.

Ullswater ULLS-WATER.

Those that do not choose to go as far as Penrith, may, near the eighth mile-post,

Lord of the Manor, Derwentwater Ratcliff Family Derwent Water Castle Hill roman fort, Waterhead Ambleside roman fort, Old Penrith roman fort, Watercrook Castlesteads urn Ullswater

Nicholson's History of Cumberland, page 86.

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turn off to the right (leaving Mell-fell, a round green hill, on the left) to Matterdale, and proceed to Gowbarrow-park, which will bring them upon Ulls-water, about the middle part of it, where it is seen to great advantage. But here it must be observed, that some of the principal beauties of the lake, and the sweetest pastoral scenes, are entirely lost by this route. Dunmallet, the greatest ornament of the lake, with the whole of the first great bend, cannot here be seen, and much of the dignity of the lake is thereby lost. It is therefore better to ride to the gate on the right, that leads to Dacre, and over Dacre-common, to the foot of Dunmallet. By this course, every part of the lake will be viewed to the greatest advantage.

Mr. Gray's choice of visiting this lake, was from Penrith, up the vale of Emont. 'A grey autumnal day,' he writes, 'went to see Ullswater, five miles distant; soon left Keswick road, and turned to the left, through shady lanes, along the vale of Emont, which runs rapidly on near the way, rippling over the stones; to the right, Dalemain, a large fabric of pale red stone, with nine windows in front, and seven on the side. Further on, Hutton-St.-John, a castle-like old mansion of Mr. Huddlestone. Approach Dunmallet, a fine pointed hill, covered with wood. Began to mount the hill, and with some toil

Mell Fell Matterdale Gowbarrow Park Ullswater Dunmallet Dunmallard Dacre Dacre Common Gray, Thomas Eamont, River Dalemain Hutton St John Huddlestone, Mr

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station, Dunmallard Hill gained the summit. From hence, saw the lake opening directly at my feet, majestic in calmness, clear and smooth as a blue mirror, with winding shores, and low points of land, covered with green inclosures, white farm houses looking out among the trees, and cattle feeding. The water is almost everywhere bordered with cultivated lands, gently sloping upwards, from a mile to a quarter of a mile in breadth, till they reach the feet of the mountains, which rise very rude and awful, with their broken tops, on each hand. Directly in front, at better than three miles distance, Place-fell, one of the bravest among them, pushes its bold breast into the midst of the lake, and forces it to alter its course, forming first a large bay to the left, and then bending to the right. Descended Dunmallet by a side avenue, only not perpendicular and came to Barton-bridge, over the Emont. Then walked through a path in the wood, round the bottom of the hill, came forth where the Emont issues out of the lake, and continued my way along the western shore, close to the water, and generally on a level with it; it is nine miles long, and at the widest, under a mile in breadth. After extending itself three miles and a half, in a line to the south-west, it turns at the foot of Place-fell, almost due west, and is here not twice the breadth of the Thames at London. It is soon again interrupted by the root of

Dunmallet Dunmallard Ullswater Place Fell Barton Bridge Eamont, River Helvellyn station, Dunmallard Hill

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Helvellyn, a lofty and very rugged mountain, and spreading again, turns off to the south-east, and is lost among the deep recesses of hills. To this second turning I pursued my way, about four miles along its borders, beyond a village scattered among trees, and called Watermillock.' Here Mr. Gray leaves us, and the greatest part of the lake unseen, and its most picturesque parts undescribed. For the last bend of the lake is spotted with rocky isles, deeply indented with wooded promontories on one side, and rocks on the other, from which result many a truly pleasing picture.

roman camp ANTIQUITIES. Before you quit the top of Dunmallet, observe the vestiges of its former importance, in the remains of a Roman fort. An area of 110 paces by 37, surrounded with a foss, is yet visible, and stones of the rampart still peep through the grass. The well, that supplied the guard kept here, was but lately filled with stones. This fort must have been of great consequence in guarding the lake, and commanding the pass, and in maintaining a connection between the garrisons of Ambleside and Brougham, it being five or six miles distance from the latter, and nineteen from the former. There are also strong vestiges of a square fort on Soulby-fell, which communicates with this, and the camp at Whitbarrow

Ullswater Helvellyn Watermillock Dunmallet roman fort, Dunmallard Dunmallard roman fort, Soulby Fell Soulby Fell roman fort, Whitbarrow

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Opposite to Watermillock, a cataract descends down the front of Swarth-fell, in Martindale-forest. At Skelling-nab, a bold promontory, the lake is contracted to a span, but it soon spreads itself again both ways, forming a variety of sweet bays and promontories. After a reach of three miles, it winds with a grand sweep round the smooth breast of Place-fell, and making a turn directly south, advances with equal breadth towards Patterdale. The western shore is various. Drawing near the second bend, the mountains strangely intersect each other. Behind many wooded hills rises Stonecross-pike, and over all, steep Helvellyn shows his sovereign head. On the western side, Yew-crag, a noble pile of rock, fronts Place-fell, where its streams tumble in a cataract to the lake. Gowbarrow-park opens with a grand amphitheatre of shining rock, the floor of which is spread with soft green pasture, once shaded with ancient oaks, to which many decayed roots bear witness, Scattered thorns, trees, and bushes vary the ground, which is pastured with flocks, herds of cattle, and fallow deer. The road winds along the margin of the lake, and at every turn presents the finest scenes that can be imagined. At the upper end of Gowbarrow-park, the last bend of the lake, which is by much the finest, opens, scattered with small rocky islands. The shores are bold, rocky, wooded, and much embayed. Pass

Watermillock Swarth Fell Martindale Forest Skelling Nab Place Fell Patterdale Stonecross Pike Helvellyn Yew Crag Gowbarrow Park

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station, Stybarrow Crag Newbridge, and the road winds up a steep rock, having the lake underneath you on the left. From the top, you have a view under the trees, both up and down the lake. Martindale-fell, a naked grey rock, on the opposite shore, rises abruptly from the water, to an Alpine height, and with an astonishing effect. The rock you stand on hangs over the lake, which seems blue and unfathomable to the eye. An island in the middle space has a beautiful appearance. This is the most romantic, striking, and terrible situation upon the lake, especially if the wind blows the surges of water against the rock below you. The shores on both sides upwards are very pleasing, and the little decorating isles are scattered in the most exquisite taste, and delightful order. The ride along the banks, since the repair of the road, is charming.

The upper end terminates in sweet meadows, surrounded to the right by towering rocky hills, broken and wooded. Martindale fell is the opposite boundary, skirted here with hanging inclosures, cots, and farms.

The principal feeders of this lake are Grysdale-beck, on the western corner, and Goldrill-beck, which descends from Kirkston-fell. They enter it in a freer manner than the feeder of Derwent does, and make a much finer appearance at their junction.

New Bridge Ullswater Martindale Fell Grysdale Beck Goldrill Beck Kirkstone Fell station, Stybarrow Crag

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From the bridge in Patterdale [1], Goldrill-beck serpentizes sweetly through the meadows, and falls easily into the lake about the middle of the vale. Glencairn-beck, descending from Helvellyn, joins the lake at the bridge which unites the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland.

station, Patterdale Hotel There is from the top of the rock, above the inn, a very charming view of the last bend of the lake, which constitutes one of the finest landscapes on it, and takes in just enough for a delightful picture. The nearest fore-ground is a fall of inclosures. A rocky wooded mountain that hangs over Patterdale-house (called Martindale-fell) is in a proper point of distance to the right. Steep rocks, and shaggy woods hanging from their sides, are on the left. Gowbarrow-park rises in a fine style from the water edge for the back-ground, and a noble reach of water, beautifully spotted with rocky isles, charmingly disposed, with perpetual change of rocky shore, fill the middle space of this beautiful picture.

The lake is of a depth sufficient for breeding char, and abounds with a variety of

Goldrill Beck Glencairn Beck Helvellyn Glencoyne Bridge station, Patterdale Hotel Patterdale House Martindale Fell Gowbarrow Park Ullswater char fish

After crossing the bridge in Patterdale, and ascending the side of Martindale-fell, to a certain height, in the view across the head of the lake, the mountains assume more pointed and Alpine forms than any we have seen in this country. No.12 of Mr. Farrington;s views represents this subject.

Farrington, Mr print, Farrington 12 Patterdale Martindale Fell station, Martindale Fell

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other fish. Trout of thirty pounds weight and upwards, are said to be taken in it.

The water of the lake is very clear, but has nothing of the transparency of Derwent, and is inferior to Buttermere and Cromack-water also in this respect. The stones in the bottom, and along the shores, are coated with mud.

along Ullswater Mr. Gray viewed this lake in the same manner as that at Keswick, proceeding along its banks, and facing the mountains, judging that the idea of magnitude and magnificence were thereby increased, and the whole set off with every advantage of foreground. But this lake viewed from any height, except Dunmallet, also loses much of its dignity, as a lake, from the number of its flexures, and jutting out of promontories; it nevertheless retains the appearance of a magnificent river ingulphed in rocks.

The bold winding hills, the intersecting mountains, the pyramidal cliffs, the bulging, broken, rugged rocks, the hanging woods, and the tumbling, roaring cataracts, are parts of the sublimer scenes presented in this surprising vale. The cultivated spots wave upward from the water in beautiful slopes, intersected by hedges, decorated with trees, in the most pleasing manner; mansions,

Ullswater trout fish water, Ullswater Gray, Thomas

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cottages, and farms, placed in the sweetest situations, are the rural parts, and altogether form the most delightful and charming scenes. The accompaniments of this lake are disposed in the most picturesque order, bending round its margins, and spreading upwards in craggy rocks and mountains, irregular in outline; yet they are certainly much inferior in sublimity and horrible grandeur, to the environs of Keswick, and the dreadful rocks of Borrowdale. But in this opinion we have Mr. Cumberland against us, who, having visited the other lakes in dark unfavourable weather, when nothing could be seen besides weeping rocks, flooded roads, and watery plains, darkened by sable clouds that hovered over them, and concealed their variegated shores,- entertained an unfavourable idea of them; and being more fortunate in a fine day, in that part of the tour, where he visited Ulls-water, he attuned his lyre in honour of this enchanting lake, and sung its charms not only in preference to Windermere, Grasmere, and the vale of Keswick, but he also raises it above the pride of Lomond, and the marvellous Killarney.

Our bard, in the sweet ode alluded to, represents himself upon the banks of the lake of Ulls-water, bemoaning the hardness of his fate, in being deprived of a fine day

Ullswater Cumberland, Mr weather

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for this view, when the sun, beaming forth, blessed him with a full display of all the beauties of this enchanting lake. In gratitude for so special a favour, in a true poetic rapture, he dedicates this ode to the God of Day, and commemorates his partiality to the lake of Patterdale, in the following harmonious numbers:

Me turbid skies and threat'ning clouds await, / Emblems, alas! of my ignoble fate.

But see! the embattled vapours break, Disperse and fly, Posting like couriers down the sky; The grey rock glitters in the glassy lake:- And now the mountain tops are seen Frowning amidst the blue serene; The variegated groves appear, Deck'd in the colours of the waning year; And as new beauties they unfold, Dip their skirts in beaming gold. Thee, savage Wyburn, now I hail, Delicious Grasmere's calm retreat, And stately Windermere I greet, And Keswick's sweet fantastic vale:- But let her naiads yield to thee, And lowly bend the subject knee, Imperial lake of Patrick's dale! For neither Scottish Lomond's pride, Nor smooth Killarney's silver tide, Nor ought that learned Poussin drew, Or dashing Rosa flung upon my view, Shall shake thy sovereign undisturbed right, Great scene of wonder and sublime delight!

Ullswater Cumberland, Mr God of Day Lake of Patterdale Ode to the Sun

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Hail to thy beams, O Sun!- for this display, What, glorious orb, can I repay? The thanks of an unprostituted muse [1].

station, Watermillock cannon echoes The navigators of this lake find much amusement by discharging guns, or small cannon, at certain stations. The effect is indeed truly curious, for the report is reverberated from rock to rock, promontory, cavern, and hill, with every variety of sound; now dying away upon the ear, and again returning like peals of thunder, and thus re-echoed seven times distinctly. [2]- Opposite to Watermillock is one of these stations.

Cumberland, Mr Ode to the Sun cannon echoes Watermillock station, Watermillock

Ode to the Sun, page 18. The whole of this ode is inserted in the Addenda, Article IV.

This effect is thus described by Mr. Hutchinson:

'Whilst we sat to regale, the barge put off from shore to a station where the finest echoes were to be obtained from the surrounding mountains. This vessel was provided with six brass cannon mounted on swivels;- on discharging one of these pieces, the report was echoed from the opposite rocks, where by reverberation it seemed to roll from cliff to cliff, and return through every cave and valley, till the decreasing tumult gradually died away upon the ear.

'The instant it had ceased, the sound of every distant water-fall was heard, but for an instant only, for the momentary stillness was interrupted by the returning echo on the hills behind; where the report was repeated like a peal of thunder bursting over our heads, continuing for several seconds, flying from haunt to haunt, till once more the sound gradually declined;- again the voice of the water-falls possessed the interval - till, to the right, the more distant thunder arose upon some other mountain, and seemed to take its way up every winding dell and creek, sometimes behind, on this side, or on that, in wonderous speed running its dreadful course; when the echo reached the mountains, within the line and channel of the breeze, it was heard at once on the right and left, at the extremities of the lake.- In this manner was the report of every discharge re-echoed seven times distinctly.'

Excursion to the Lakes, page 65.

echoes cannon Hutchinson, Mr Ullswater Excursion to the Lakes

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The higher end of the lake is fourteen miles from Penrith, and ten from Ambleside, of good turnpike road, save only at Styboar-crag, where it is cut into the rock that awfully overhangs it, and is too narrow.

Ullswater to Ambleside Kirkstone Pass Above Goldrill-bridge, the vale bocomes (sic) narrow and poor, the mountains steep, naked, and rocky. Much blue slate, of an excellent kind, is excavated out of their bowels. The ascent from the lake to the top of Kirkston is easy, and there are many water-falls from the mountains on both sides. From the top of Kirkston to Ambleside the descent is quick. Some remarkable stones near the gorge of the pass are called Highcross.

to Haweswater After what we have seen, the only lake that remains to be visited in this tour is


This is a pleasant morning ride from Penrith; or it may be taken in the way to Shap, or from Shap, and return to Kendal. There

Ullswater turnpike Styboar Crag Goldrill Bridge Kirkstone Pass Struggle, The Highcross Hawes Water road, Kirkstone to Patterdale road, Ambleside to Kirkstone

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is also a road from Pooley-bridge, over the mountain to Bampton vale, a beautiful secreted valley.

Ascending the road from Pooley-bridge to the south, from the brow of the common, you have a grand general view of Ulls-water, with all its winding shore, and accompaniments of woods, rocks, mountains, bays, and promontories, to the entrance of Patterdale. To the north-east you look down on Pooley-bridge, and the winding of the river guides the eye to a beautiful valley, much ornamented with plantations, in the midst of which Dalemain is seated, queen of the vale of Emont. Turning south, proceed by White-raise, a large karn of stones, and near it are the remains of a small circus, ten stones of which are still erect. A little further on, are the vestiges of a larger one of 22 paces by 25. All the stones except the pillar are removed. It stands on the south side of the circus, and the place is called Moor-Dovack. Here the vale of Bampton opens sweetly to the view, ascending to the south, and spreading upwards in variety of dale-land beauty. At the bridge the road turns to the right, and soon brings you upon Hawes-water.

Haweswater Mr. Young is the first that says any thing in favour of this sweet but unfrequented lake.

Hawes Water Pooley Bridge Bampton Vale Lowther Valley Ullswater Dalemain White Raise stone circle Moor Divock stone circles Young, Mr track, Pooley Bridge to Bampton Pooley Bridge to Bampton

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'The approach to the lake is very picturesque; you pass between two high ridges of mountains, the banks finely spread with inclosures; upon the right, two small beautiful hills, one of them covered with wood; they are most pleasantly elegant. The lake is a small one, above three miles long, half a mile over in places, and a quarter in others; almost divided in the middle by a promontory of inclosures, joined only by a strait, so that it consists of two sheets of water. The upper end of it is fine, quite inclosed with bold, steep craggy rocks and mountains; and in the centre of the end, a few little inclosures at their feet, waving upward in a very beautiful manner. The south side of the lake is a noble ridge of mountains, very bold and prominent down to the water's edge. They bulge out in the centre of a fine, bold, pendant, broad head, that is venerably magnificent: and the view of the first sheet of the lake, losing itself in the second, among hills, rocks, woods, &c. is picturesque. The opposite shore consists of inclosures, rising one above another, and crowned with craggy rocks [1].

The narrowest part, by report, is 50 fathoms deep, and a man may throw a stone across it. Thwaite-force or fall, is a fine cataract on the

Young, Mr Hawes Water Thwaite Force

Six month's Tour, vol. 3d. page 168.

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right, and opposite to it, the first sheet of water is lost among the rocks and wood, in a beautiful manner. Bleakhow-crag, a ruinous rock, and over it, Castle-crag, a staring shattered rock, have a formidable appearance; and above all is seen Kidstow-pike, on whose summit the clouds weep into a crater of rock that is never empty. On the eastern side, a front of prominent rock bulges out into a solemn naked mass, and a waving cataract descends the furrowed side of a soft green hill. The contrast is fine - At Bleakhow-crag there is a pleasing back view.

Above the chapel, all is hopeless waste and desolation. The little vale contracts into a glen, strewed with the precipitated ruins of mouldering mountains, and the destruction of perpetual water-falls.

Haweswater to Kendal Kendal is fourteen miles from the chapel, and whoever chooses an Alpine ride, may proceed to it up this vale. From the chapel to the top of the mountains is three miles, and the descent into Long-Sleddale is as much more. In approaching the mountain, Harter-fell scowls forward in all the terrific grandeur of hanging rock. As you advance, a yawning chasm appears to divide it upwards from the base, and within it is heard the hoarse noise of ingulphed waters. The tumult of cataracts and water-falls on all sides,

Young, Mr Hawes Water Bleakhow Crag Castle Crag Kidsty Pike chapel, Mardale Holy Trinity, Mardale Longsleddale Gatescarth Pass Harter Fell, Longsleddale track, Gatescarth to Mardale Gatescarth to Mardale track, Garnett Bridge to Sadgill Garnett Bridge to Sadgill track, Sadgill to Gatescarth Sadgill to Gatescarth

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adds much to the solemnity of these tremendous scenes. The path soon becomes winding, steep, and narrow, and is the only possible one across the mountain. The noise of a cataract on the left accompanies you during the ascent. On the summit of the mountain you soon come in sight of Long-Sleddale, Lancaster-sands, &c. and in the course of your descent, you will presently be accompanied by a cataract on the right. The road traverses the mountain as on the other side, but is much better made, and wider, on account of the slate taken from the sides of these mountains and carried to Kendal, &c. The water-falls on the right are extremely curious. You enter Long-Sleddale between two shattered rocky mountains. That on the left, Crowbarrow, is not less terrible to look up at, when under it, than any rock in Barrowside or Borrowdale, and it has covered a much larger space with ruins. Here is every possible variety of water falls and cataracts; the most remarkable of which is on the left. Over a most tremendous wall of rock, a mountain torrent, in one broken sheet, leaps headlong one hundred yards and more. The whole vale is narrow; the hills rise swift on each hand; their brows are wooded; their feet covered with grass, or cultivated, and their summits broken. The road along the vale is tolerable, and joins the great road at Watch-gate, about four miles from Kendal.

Gatescarth Pass Longsleddale Lancaster Sands Sprint, River slate quarry waterfall, Sprint Crowbarrow Buckbarrow Galeforth Gill Watchgate

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Penrith Hawes-water may be taken the first in the morning, and then cross the mountains by the road to Pooley-bridge for Ulls-water, and return in the evening to


So much is already said of this town, that little remains now to be added here. The situation is pleasant, and open to the south. It is tolerably well built, and rather a genteel than a trading town. The town's people are polite and civil, and the inns commodious and well served.

Saving the few resident families, the life of this town is its being a thorough-fare. For, although seated in the midst of a rich and fruitful country, few manufacturers have been induced to fix here. Before the interest of the sister kingdoms became one, Penrith was a place of uncertain tranquillity, and too precarious for the repose of trade and manual industry; being better circumstanced for a place of arms and military exercise. Yet since this happy change of circumstances, no more than one branch of tanning, and a small manufacture of checks have taken place. This must be owing either to want of attention in people of property, or of

Penrith tanning weaving Act of Union, 1707

(Bereda, Rav. Chor. Vereda , Anton. Inter.)

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industry of the inhabitants. The latter is not to be supposed; for the spirit of agriculture, introduced by the gentlemen of the environs, is in as flourishing a way amongst the farmers of this neighbourhood, as in other parts of the kingdom. The superfluities of the market are bought up for Kendal, where much of that produce is wanting which superabounds here.

The most remarkable objects at Penrith, are the beacon, on the summit of the hill above the town, and the awful remains of the royal fortress on the crest of the rising ground that commands the town. It is supposed to be an erection of Henry VI. out of the ruins of a more ancient structure called Mayburgh; but this is not very probable, since stones are easier quarried here than they could be got there. But as popular records have generally some fact to rest upon, and some truth in the bottom, so some facings and other principal stones taken from Mayburgh, might give rise to the tradition. There might also have been a stronghold here in the time of the Romans. At present the buildings are ruins in the last stage. One stone arched vault only remains, that from its situation appears to have been the keep, now no longer terrible, since the border service ceased, and a mutual inter-

Penrith agriculture market beacon, Penrith Beacon Hill, Penrith Penrith Castle Henry VI Mayburgh roman fort, Penrith

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[inter]course of trade and alliance happily took the place of national reprisals and family feuds.

placename charter The antiquity of this town is supposed to be found in its name being of British derivation, from Pen and Rhudd, signifying in that langauge, a red head or hill; and such is the colour of the hill above the town, and the ground and stones round it. But with respect to situation, it may well be derived from Pen, the head, and Ryn, a promontory, and so be referred to the beacon hill. It might however be judged a more honourable etymon to derive the name from Pen, and Rhydd, of Rhyddaw, to make free, and that on account of special service or fidelity to the Roman government, the Britons of this town were emancipated from the abject slavery which the nation in general were subjected to, by their tyrannical masters. This, in their own language, might be Penrhydd, and pronounced by the Britons, as by the Welch at this day, Penrith. However this may be, it has been the happiness of this town to remain a royal franchise through all the ages of feudal servitude; at least ever since the reign of Edward I. without the incumbrance of a charter, and it is now peaceably governed by the steward of the honours, and a free jury. The honours of both town and castle belong to the Duke of Portland.

Penrith placename, Penrith Edward I charter, Penrith Portland, Duke of

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Giant's Grave In the church-yard are some sepulchral monuments, which have long been the subject of antiquarian speculation, not yet decided. Thus much is evident, that the pillars alluded to are of one stone, formed like the ancient spears; the shafts round, for about seven feet high; above that, they appear to be square, and to have terminated in a point. They are about ten feet high, stand parallel to the church, distant from each other fifteen feet. The space between is inclosed with circular stones, by some conjectured to represent boars. There remains visible, on the upper part of the pillars, some ornamental work, but no inscription or figures appear at present, and the stones are so much fretted by time, that it rests upon mere conjecture to affirm there ever were any. They probably mark the tomb of some great man, or family, before the custom was introduced of interring within churches, and are most likely British, or if not, must be Saxon.

from Penrith There are many pleasing rides in the environs of Perith; most of them lead to curious remains of ancient monuments, or to modern rural improvements. In Whinfield-park are the Countess-pillar, the White-hart tree, and the Three-brothers' tree; the first particular is a filial tribute of Ann, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, to the memory of her pious mother, Mary, Countess Dowager

Penrith St Andrew, Penrith Giant's Grave Whinfield Park Whinfell Park Countess Pillar White Hart Tree Three Brother Tree Clifford, Anne, Lady Pembroke, Countess of Cumberland, Countess of

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of Cumberland; and the trees are the remains of large aged oaks, that have long out-lived their own strength. One of them is upwards of nine yards in circumference. Brougham-castle is an awful ruin, the Brovoniacum of the Romans, and since that the bulwark of Westmorland, on that side, and the pride of its Earls for many descents. In the roof of a gallery, is a stone with a Roman sepulchral inscription, much defaced. At Little-Salkeld is the largest druidical circle in the northern parts. Near Eamont bridge is Arthur's round table, and at a small distance from it is Mayburgh, both of remote antiquity, and doubtful use. The first may be presumed to have been a place of public exhibition for martial exercises, and the latter has the circumstances of a British fort; but the rude pillar inclines some to believe it the remains of a druid temple. It is entirely formed of loose stones and pebbles, collected from the adjacent rivers and fields. That the height has once been great, may be collected from the vast breadth of the base, increased by the fall of stones from the top. It incloses an area of 80 yards or more, and near the middle stands a red stone, upwards of three yards high. The entrance is on the eastern side, and opens to a sweet view of Brougham-house, to which the rude pillar when whitened (and of this Mr. Brougham is very careful) is a fine obelisk.

White Hart Tree Three Brother Tree oak Brougham Castle Brovoniacum roman fort, Brougham Little Salkeld stone circle, Salkeld Long Meg and Her Daughters Eamont Bridge Arthur's Table Mayburgh Brougham House Brougham, Mr

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If the name of this very extraordinary monument was Breingwin, then Mr. Pennant, from Rowland, has pointed out its use, viz. 'a supreme consistry of druidical administration, as the British name imports.' But if the present name be a Saxon corruption of the ancient name, which probably was Mysirion, by the Saxons pronounced Maybirion, or Maybir, and to bring its till (sic) nearer to their own language, Mayburgh, then this conjecture being admitted, it will signify a place of study and contemplation [1]. Such places the druids had, and were the public school destined for the colloquial instruction of pupils in mysteries of religion, and the arcana of civil government. Druidical remains are frequent in the neighbourhood, and many of them similar; but Mayburgh is such a huge and singular construction, that it must have been designed for some extraordinary use.

station, Beacon Hill From the beacon the views are many, all extensive and vast. The eye is in the centre of a plain, inclosed with a circle of stupendous mountains of various forms. The plain is adorned with many ancient towns, and more ancient castles, stations, and castellums, where the Roman eagle long displayed her wings; but which are now possessed by a happier people, who enjoy, with freedom,

Mayburgh placename, Mayburgh Breingwin Mysirion Maybirion druids Beacon Hill, Penrith station, Beacon Hill

Mona Antiqua, page 84.

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all the refinements of liberal taste and flourishing industry.

Shap Abbey Hawes-water may be conveniently visited from Penrith, returning from it by the ruins of Shap (or Heppe) abbey to Shap. The remains of this ancient structure are inconsiderable, yet picturesque. A square tower, with piked windows, is the chief part of the ruins, and does honor to the reign of King John, when it was built for canons of the praemonstratensian order, that had been first placed at Preston-patrick, near Kendal, by Thomas, son of Gospatrick.

This abbey was dedicated by the first founder to St. Mary Magdalene, and he endowed it with a large portion of his lands, in Preston, near Kendal. His son translated it to Magdalene vale, near Shap, and further endowed it with the lands of Karl, or Karl-wath. Robert de Vitripont (Vipon) first Lord of Westmorland, confirmed the preceding grants, and added to that of Matilda his mother, and Ivo his brother, the tithes of all his mills, and of the game killed in all his lands in Westmorland. This grant is dated on Saturday, April 24, in the 13th of King John.

Shap to Kendal From this sequestered spot, continue the route to the village of Shap, a proper place for refreshment, before you face Shap-fells,

Hawes Water Shap Abbey Heppe John praemonstratensian order Preston Patrick St Mary Magdalene Karlwath de Vitripont, Robert charter, Shap Abbey Shap road, Kendal to Shap Kendal to Shap

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a dreary, melancholy tract of twelve miles [1]. On the east side of the road, soon after you leave the village, observe a double range of

Shap Fells

This elevated tract being near the centre of Westmorland, and where we may suppose its Genius is most likely to sit enthroned, it may afford the reader a seasonable amusement to peruse in this place a little ode, addressed to that imaginary being, by a late elegant bard, when on one of his visits to his native country.


To the Genius of Westmorland.

Hail, hidden Power of these wild groves, These uncouth rocks and mountains grey; Where oft, as fades the closing day, The family of fancy roves.

In what lone cave, what secret cell, Coeval with the birth of time, Wrapt in high cares, and thought sublime, In awful silence dost thou dwell!

Oft in the depth of winter's reign, As blew the dark winds o'er the dale, Moaning along the distant gale, Has fancy heard thy voice complain.

Oft in the dark wood's lonely way, Swift has she seen thee glancing by; Or down the summer evening sky, Sporting in clouds of gilded day.

I caught from thee the sacred fire, That glow'd within my youthful breast;- Those thoughts too high to be express'd, Genius, if thou didst once inspire.

O! pleas'd, accept this votive lay, That in my native shade retir'd, And once, once more by thee inspir'd, In gratitude I pay.

Langhorne's Effusions of Friendship and Fancy Vol.1, Let.25.


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Genius of Westmorland Westmorland, genius of Langhorne Effusions of Friendship and Fancy

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huge granites [1], pitched in the ground, and at some distance from each other, leading to circles of small stones, and increasing the space between the rows as they approach the circles, where the avenue is about 27 paces wide. They are supposed to have run quite through the village, and terminated in a point. It has long embarrassed the antiquaries what to call this very uncommon monument of ancient date. Mr. Pennant has given a plausible explanation of it from Olaus Magnus, and supposes the row of granites to be the recording stones of a Danish victory obtained on the spot, and the stony circles to be grateful tributes to the memory of consanguineous heroes slain in the action.

There is at a small distance to the east from these stones a spring, called Shap-spaw, in smell and taste like that of Harrowgate, and much frequented by the people of the country for scorbutic complaints, and eruptions of the skin. Leaving this gloomy region of black moors and shapeless mountains behind you, you approach a charming vale, which Mr. Young, in his elegant manner, describes thus:

'After crossing this dreary tract, the first appearance of a good country is most exquisitely fine; about three miles from Kendal, you

stone circle, Shap Kemp Howe Pennant, Thomas Shap Spa Spa Well spa Shap Fells Young, Mr Kent Valley

Since the inclosure of the common, many of these stones have been destroyed, for the purpose of making fence-walls.

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station, Stone Crag at once look down from off this desolate country upon one of the finest landscapes in the world; a noble range of fertile inclosures, richly enamelled with the most beautiful verdure: and coming to the brow of the hill, have a most elegant picturesque view of a variegated tract of waving inclosures, spreading over the hills, and hanging to the eye in the most picturesque and pleasing manner that fancy can conceive: three hills in particular are overlooked, cut into inclosures in a charming style, of themselves forming a most elegant landscape, and worthy the imitation of those who would give the embellishments of art to the simplicity of nature.'

The station from whence this description is taken, is about the midway between the third and fourth mile-stone, on the top of a rock, on the east side of the old road, called Stone-crag, which cannot be mistaken. The three hills referred to in the description, are on the near ground of the landscape. There are many beautiful hills and knolls scattered about the valley; some cultivated, others covered with wood, or shining in the softest verdure. But the most remarkable one for picturesque form, is an oval green hill crowned with the ruins of a castle; it divides the valley, and overlooks a town hanging on the side of a steep mountain, this is

Kent Valley station, Stone Crag Stone Crag Kendal Castle Kendal

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Kendal KENDAL. [1]

The approach to it from the north is pleasant. A noble river, the Kent, is discovered flowing briskly through fertile fields, and visiting the town in its whole length. It is crossed by a handsome bridge, where three great roads coincide, from Sedbergh, Kirkby-Stephen, and Penrith. The main street leading from the bridge slopes upwards to the centre of the town, and contracts itself into an inconvenient passage, [2] where it joins another principal street, which falls with a gentle declivity both ways, and is a mile in length, and of spacious breadth. Was an area for a market-place opened at the incidence of these two streets, it would be a noble improvement. The entrance from the south is by another bridge, which makes a short awkward turn into the suburbs, but after that, the street opens well, and the town has a chearful appearance. The principal inns are genteel, commodious, and plentifully served.

Here is a workhouse for the poor, which for neatness and oeconomy exceeds most of the kind in the kingdom.

Kendal Kent, River Stramongate Bridge market, Kendal Nether Bridge

Concangium, Not. Imp.

This passage is now widened; and a new street has been opened from near the centre of the town, to the river side, which has much improved the road through it for carriages.

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manufactures The objects most worthy of notice here are the manufactories. The chief of these are of Kendal cottons (a coarse woollen cloth) of linseys, toilonets, kerseymeres, callicoes, and of knit worsted stockings. Also a considerable tannery is carried on in this town. The less (sic) manufactures are, of fish hooks, of waste silk (which is received from London, and after scouring, combing, and spinning, is returned) of ivory combs, and of wool cards, in which branch considerable improvements have been made by the curious machines invented here for that purpose. There are other articles of industry well worth seeing; as the mills for scouring, fulling, and frizing cloth, for cutting and rasping dying wood, &c. But what is most to the credit of this place, is, that notwithstanding many inconveniences, which this town has laboured under, the manufactures have all along continued to flourish, and have of late years been greatly increased by the spirit and industry of the inhabitants. These manufactures are particularly noticed so early as the reign of King Richard II, and Henry IV. when special laws were enacted for the better regulation of Kendal-cloths, &c. [1]

Kendal weaving stockings knitting tanning fish hooks spinning, silk comb, ivory wool cards Richard II Henry IV

About a mile and a half from Kendal, on the road to Ulverston, is Scout-scar, a high rock, on which is a terrace of about a mile in length, facing the west, from which there is a most extensive and surprising view, which you come upon all at once as you approach the top, and is equal, if not superior, to most of the views in this romantic country.

At Mr. Todhunter's Museum, in Kendal, may be seen a large collection of fossils, and other articles of natural history, mostly of this country, as well as various articles of antiquity, ancient armour, coins, medals, sculpture, carvings in wood, and various other curiosities well worth the attention of tourists.

A quarry of marble has lately been discovered near this town, which produces quite a new variety. It is of different colours, beautifully variegated, and takes the highest polish. When inlaid in statuary marble it has the best effect, and is equal, if not superior, to any imported from Greece or Italy. Chimney-pieces, and other ornamental works are made of it, and of the common limestone of the country, which also polishes very fine, in a good style, by Mr. Francis Webster, in Kendal, who has erected a mill for sawing and polishing the same.

Scout Scar station, Scout Scar Kendal Museum Todhunter, Mr marble limestone quarry Webster, Francis

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charter When William the Conqueror gave the barony of Kendal to Ivo de Taillebois, the inhabitants of the town were villain-tenants of the baronial lord; but one of his successors emancipated them, and confirmed their burgages to them, by charter. Queen Elizabeth, in the 18th year of her reign, erected it into a corporation, by the name of aldermen and burgesses; and afterwards King Charles I. incorporated it with a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 20 capital burgesses.

church Mr. Gray's description of this town is injurious to it; but his account of the church and castle is worth transcribing. 'Near the end of the town, stands a handsome house of Colonel Wilson's, [1] and adjoining it, the

Kendal Barony Taillebois, Ivo de Elizabeth I charter, Kendal Gray, Thomas Wilson, Colonel

This is called Abbot-hall, and is now the property of Christopher Wilson, Esq.

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church, a very large Gothic fabric, with a square tower; it has no particular ornaments, but double aisles, and at the east four chapels, or choirs.' Mr. Gray's account then proceeds to the inside of the church,[1] which he describes with his usual accuracy and ease. Speaking of the four chapels or choirs, he says, 'there is one of the Parrs, another of the Stricklands, the third is the proper choir of the church, and the fourth of the Bellinghams, a family now extinct. The Bellinghams came into Westmorland before the reign of Henry VII, and were seated at Burneside.[2] In the reign of Henry VIII, Alan Bellingham purchased of the king the 20th part of a knight's fee in Helsington, parcel of the possession of Henry Duke of

Kendal Holy Trinity, Kendal Gray, Thomas Parr chapel Strickland chapel Bellingham chapel Burneside Henry VIII Bellingham, Alan Helsington

The following epitaph, composed for himself, by Mr. Ravlph Tirer, vicar of Kendal (who died in 1627) and placed in the chancel, may be worth the reader's perusal on account of its quaintness, and yet uncommon historical precision.

London bredd me, Westminster fedd me, Cambridge sped me, my sister wed me, Study taught me, Liuing sought me, Learning brought me, Kendall caught me, Labour pressed me, Sickness distressed me, Death oppressed me, & Graue possessed me, God first gave me, Christ did saue me, Earth did crave me, & Heauen would haue me.


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Tirer, Ravlph, Rev epitaph, Tirer Tirer, Ralph, Rev

In the reign of King Edward II. Richard Bellingham married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Gilbert Burnshead, of Burnshead, Knt. near Kendal.

Bellingham, Richard Burnshead, Margaret Burnshead, Gilbert

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Richmond, and Sir John Lumley (Lord Lumley) which his father, Thomas Bellingham, had farmed of the crown; he was succeeded by his son, James Bellingham, who erected the tomb in the Bellingham's chapel. There is an altar tomb of one of them (viz. Alan Bellingham) dated 1577, with a flat brass arms and quarterings; and in the window their arms alone, argent, a hunting horn sable, strung gules. In the Strickland's chapel are several modern monuments, and another old altar tomb, not belonging to the family: on the side of it, a fess dancette between ten billets deincourt. This tomb is probably of Sir Ralph D'Aincourt, who, in the reign of King John, married Helen, daughter of Anselm de Furness, whose daughter, and sole heiress, Elizabeth D'Aincourt, was married to William, son and heir of Sir Robert de Strickland, of Great Strickland, Knt. 23 of Henry III. The son and heir was Walter de Strickland, who lived in the reign of Edward I, was possessed of the fortunes of Anselm de Furness and D'Aincourt in Westmorland, and erected the above tomb to the memory of his grandfather, Ralph D'Aincourt. The descendants of the said Walter de Strickland have lived at Sizergh, in the neighbourhood, ever since, and this chapel is the family burial place. In Parr's chapel is a third altar tomb, in the corner, no figure or inscription, but on the side, cut in stone, an escutcheon

Lumley, John, Sir Bellingham, Thomas Bellingham, James coat of arms, Bellingham Bellingham chapel Strickland chapel coat of Arms, D'Aincourt D'Aincourt, Ralph Furness, Anselm de D'Aincourt, Elizabeth Strickland, Robert de, Sir Great Strickland Strickland, Walter de Sizergh Parr chapel

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of Ross, of Kendal, three water budgets, quartering Parr, two bars in a border engrailed; 2dly, an escutcheon, vaire, a fess for Marmion; 3dly, an escutcheon, three chevronels braced, and a chief which I take for Fitzhugh: at the foot is an escutcheon, surrounded with the garter, bearing Ross and Parr quarterly, quartering the other two before mentioned. I have no books to look in, therefore cannot say whether this is Lord Parr, of Kendal, Queen Catharine's father, or her brother the Marquis of Northampton. Perhaps it is a cenotaph for the latter, who was buried at Warwick, 1571.'

Kendal Castle The castle he describes thus:- 'The remains of the castle are seated on a fine hill, on the side of the river opposite to the town; almost the whole inclosure-wall remains, with four towers, two square, and two round, but their upper parts and embattlements are demolished: it is of rough stone and cement, without any ornament of arms, round, inclosing a court of the like form, and surrounded by a moat; nor ever could it have been larger than it is, for there are no traces of out-works. There is a good view of the town and river, with a fertile open valley through which it winds.

Had Mr. Gray ascended from the end of Stramongate-bridge to the castle, which was

Parr chapel coat of arms, Ross coat of arms, Parr Parr, Lord Northampton, Marquis of Kendal Castle Gray, Thomas Kent Valley

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the only way to it when in its glory, and is the easiest at present, he would have observed a square area that had been fortified with a deep moat, and connected with the castle by a draw-bridge, where was probably the base court. The stones are now entirely removed, and the ground levelled, 'and laughing Ceres reassumes the land.' The present structure was undoubtedly raised by the first Barons of Kendal, and probably on the ruins of a Roman station; this being the most eligible site in the country for a summer encampment, and at a small distance from Watercrook. There are still some remains of a dark red freestone, used in facings, and in the doors and windows, and have been brought from the environs of Penrith, more probably by the Romans, than by either the Saxon or Norman Lords. Fame says this castle held out against Oliver Cromwell, and was battered from the Castle-law-hill, but this is not so probable, as that its present ruinous state is owing to the jealousy of that usurper.

from Kendal Watercrook There is a most pleasant morning ride of five miles, down the east side of the river. Watercrook is one mile distant, on the right, close by the side of the Kent. This is the Concangium of the Romans, where a body of the Vigilatores (or watchmen) kept guard, and was the intermediate station betwixt the Dictis at Ambleside, and the garrison at

Kendal Castle Watercrook Cromwell, Oliver Castle Law Hill Castle Howe roman fort, Watercrook Concangium vigilatores

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Overborough. The line of the foss may be still traced, though much defaced by the plough. Altars, coins, and inscribed stones, have been found here. And in the wall of the barn, on the very area of the station, is still legible, the inscription preserved by Mr. Horsley,[1] to the memory of two freed men, with an imprecation against any one who should contaminate their sepulchre, and a fine to the fiscal. There is also an altar without an inscription, and a Silenus without a head. At a small distance is a pyramidal knoll, crowned with a single tree, called Sattury, where probably something dedicated to the god Saturn has stood. Pass through the village of Natland, and on the crest of a green hill, on the left, called Helm, are the vestiges of a castellum, called Castle-steads, which, during the residence of the watchmen at Watercrook, corresponded (by smoke in the day, and flame in the night) with the garrison at Lancaster, by the beacon on Warton-crag. There is a house at a distance to the north, called Watch-house, where Roman coins have been found.

Levens Force etc Proceed through Sedgwick,[2] and fall in with the course of the river at Force-bridge,

roman fort, Watercrook altar, roman roman altar coin, roman roman coin Horsley, Mr inscription, roman roman inscription Silenus Sattury Saturn Natland roman fort, Helm Helm, The Castlesteads beacon, Helm Warton Crag beacon, Warton Crag Watch House Sedgwick Force Bridge

Brit. page 300.

Near this place are large works for the manufactory of gunpowder.

Old Sedgwick Gunpowder Mills Sedgwick

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and from the crown of it have a very singular romantic view of the river both ways, working its passage in a narrow deep channel of rocks, hanging over it in a variety of forms, and streaming a thousand rills into the flood. The rocks in the bottom are strangely excavated into deep holes of various shapes, which, when the river is low, remain full of water, and from their depth are black as ink. The bridge is one bold arch, supported by the opposite rocks, of unknown antiquity. A mantle of ivy vails (sic) its ancient front, and gives it a most venerable appearance. If you ride down the west side of the river from the bridge, as far as the forge, to see the water-fall of the whole river, let it be remembered, that the stream is much impaired in beauty since the forge was erected. And if, from the end of the uppermost house, you look up between the trees in the midst of the channel, you will see the whole body of the river issuing from a sable cavern, and tumbling over a rock, of height just sufficient to convert it into a froth as white as snow, and behind it the arch of the bridge is partly caught in a disposition that forms a very uncommon assemblage of picturesque beauties. This is seen in the highest perfection when then stream is full. Return to the bridge, and ride down the east side of the river to Levens-park.- In order to ride through the park, you must be favoured with a key from Levens-hall.

Force Bridge station, Force Bridge Kent, River Levens Force forge, Levens Levens Park

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Here is one of the sweetest spots that fancy can imagine. The woods, the rocks, the river, the grounds, are rivals in beauty of style, and variety of contrast. The bends of the river, the bulging of the rocks over it, under which in some places it retires in haste, and again breaks out in a calm and spreading stream, are matchless beauties. The ground in some places is bold, and hangs abruptly over the river, or falls into gentle slopes, and easy plains. All is variety, with pleasing transition. Thickets cover the brows; ancient thorns, and more ancient oaks, are scattered over the plain; and clumps, and solitary beech trees of enormous size, that equal, if not surpass, any thing the Chiltern-hills can boast. The park is well stocked with fallow deer. The side of the Kent is famous for petrifying springs, that incrust vegetable bodies, such as moss, leaves of trees, &c. There is one on the park, called the Dropping-well.

At a small distance is Hincaster, where the Romans had a camp. Within the park is Kirkshead, mentioned by Camden as a place frequented by the Romans, yet nothing of late belonging to that people has been discovered at either place. Levens-hall was the seat of a family of that name, for many ages; then of Redman, for several descents; afterwards it came to Bellingham, and Alan, or his son James Bellingham, gave it the present

Levens Park Kent, River deer fallow deer petrifying spring spring, petrifying Dropping Well Hincaster Romans Levens Hall Levens Family Redman Family Bellingham Family Bellingham, Alan Bellingham, James

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form in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; and in taste of carvings in wood, attempted to outdo his contemporary, Walter Strickland, Esq. of Sizergh. After Bellingham it came to Colonel Graham, and from his daughter, by marriage, to the ancestor of the late noble possessor.[1]

return to Kendal Return by Levens-bridge, to Kendal, five miles. Have a new view of the valley, and the east side of the Kent. At the park-gate have a charming view of Sizergh, shewing itself to the morning sun, and appearing to advantage from an elevated site under a bold and wooded back-ground. The tower was built in the reign of Henry III, or Edward I, by Sir William Strickland, who had married Elizabeth, the general heiress of Ralph D'Aincourt. This is evident from an escutcheon cut in stone, on the west side of the tower, and hung cornerwise, D'Aincourt quartering Strickland, three escalop shells, the crest, on a close helmet, a full-topt holly-bush. The same are the arms of the family at this time, and this has been their chief residence ever since.[2]

Levens Hall Bellingham, James Strickland, Walter Sizergh Hall Graham, Colonel Kent, River Kent Valley Sizergh Park Strickland, William, Sir D'Aincourt, Elizabeth coat of arms, D'Aincourt and Strickland

The Earl of Suffolk.- The gardens belonging to this seat are rather curious, in the old style, and said to have been planned by the gardener of James II, who resided here with Colonel Graham, during some part of the troubles of his royal master.

Suffolk, Earl of Levens Hall garden, Levens Hall Graham, Colonel

Sizergh-hall, is a venerable old building, in a pleasant situation, formed like the rest in ancient times, for a place of defence. The tower is a square building, defended by two square turrets and battlements. One of them is over the great entrance, and as a guard-room capable of containing ten or a dozen men with embrazures. The winding stair-case terminates in a turret, which defends the other entrance.

Burn's Westmorland.

Sizergh Hall

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Before you leave Kendal, visit the Castle-law-hill. This is an artificial mount, that overlooks the town, and faces the castle, and surpasses it in antiquity, being one of those hills called Laws, where in ancient times distributive justice was administered. From its present appearance, it seems to have been converted to different purposes, but though well situated as a watch upon the castle, it could never be a proper place to batter it from, as has been reported.[1]

Kendal to Lancaster To Lancaster, by Burton-in-Kendal,[2] is 22 miles. Observe on the left, before you

Kendal Castle Law Hill Castle Howe moot hill motte road, Lancaster to Kendal Lancaster to Kendal Burton-in-Kendal laws

An obelisk was erected on the top of this hill, by a subscription of the inhabitants of Kendal, in 1788, which, seen from almost every part of the vale, is a handsome object, and being the centenary of the revolution in 1688, has the following inscription:-

Sacred to Liberty.


monument, Kendal obelisk Glorious Revolution, 1688

(Coccium, Rav. Chor.)- On the edge of the mountain, about a mile and a half to the north of this town, is a natural curiosity, called Claythrop-clints, or Curwenwood-kins, which many tourists would probably like to see. It consists of a large plain of naked limestone-rock, a little inclined to the horizon, which has evidently once been one continued calcarious mass, in a state of softness like that of mud at the bottom of a pond. It is now deeply rent with a number of fissures, of 6, 8, or 10 inches wide, just in the form of those which take place in clay or mud that is dried in the sun. It also exhibits such channels in its surface, as can only be accounted for by supposing them formed by the ebbing of copious waters, (probably those of the deluge) before the matter was become hard. It is five or six hundred yards in length, and about two hundred in breadth. There are several other limestone plains of the same kind in the neighbourhood, but this is the most remarkable and extensive.

In the crevices of the rock, the botanist may meet with the belladonna, or solanum lethale (the deadly nightshade) and some other curious plants.


Cockin, William : 1780=1784

Claythorp Clints Curwenwood Kins limestone pavement belladonna Deluge, The

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reach Burton, Farlton-knot,[1] a beautiful naked limestone mountain, said to resemble much in form the rock of Gibraltar.

Between Burton and Lancaster, see Dunald-mill,[2] a subterraneous cavern, with a brook running through it, and many curious petrifactions, in style and kind like those in Derbyshire.


Finis chartaeque viaeque.

Farleton Knott Dunald Mill

By a trigonometrical process, the height of the monument was found to be 594 feet above the level of the turnpike.

Farleton Knott

This place is particularly described in Article VI. of the following Addenda.

Pages 190-192:-

Image W21190.jpg.


MOUNTAINS Yards. Scafell, north point E. of Wast-water 1080 Helvellyn 1070 Skiddaw 1060 Bowfell (Langdale) 1030 Rydalhead 1030 Grasmire, N.E. of Crummock Lake 955 Redpike, near Buttermere 950 Kentmere High-street 912 Coniston Old-man 860 Whernside, near Dent 825 Hillbell, N.W. of Kendal 812 Carrock, west-pike, Colbeck 744 Knoutberry-hill, near Dent 728 Goatscar, summit of the road from Hawes-water to Kendal 663 Pendale-hill, Lancashire 548 Whinfell Beacon, N.E. of Kendal 500 Rivington-pike, between Bolton and Chorley, Lancashire 400 Benson-knot, near Kendal 366 Penrith Beacon 340 Kendal-fell, N.W. summit 216 Town of Kendal 46
LAKES Hawes-water 238 Leathes-water, Wythburn 182 Ulls-water 106 Crummock-water 91 Derwent-water 76 Bassenthwaite-water 70 Esthwaite-water 66 Grasmere-water 60 Rydal-water 52 Windermere-water 36
IN SCOTLAND, From Pennant's Tour, 1769. Ben-lomond 1080 Benevish 1450 Ben-y-bourd still higher, which, with Laghin-y-gair and Benewewish, are never without snow.
IN OTHER PARTS, By Mr. M. T. Bouritt. Summit of Dole, the highest mountain of Jura 1800 Valley of Chamouni, in Savoy 1121 Ridge de Brevin, a Glacier, in the valley of Chamouni 2949 Valley of Mountainvert, in savoy 1865 Abbey of Sixt, ibid. 797 Summit of Grenier 2782 Summit of Grenarion 2958 Summit of Buet 3315 Mount Blanc 5081 Mount AEtna 4000 Lake of Geneva, at the lower passage of the Rhone 398 Lake of Neuschatel 456
By different Authors. Highest part of the Table, at the Cape of Good Hope 1153 Pike Rucia in the island of Madeira 1689 Pike of Teneriffe 4399 The same according to Dr. Heberden 5132 Summit of Cotopaxis, in South America, according to Don Antono de Ulloa 6643 Corambour, under the equator 6000 Chimboraco 6440 Petchinca 4860 Carason 4940

From this survey of mountains it appears that Scafell is the highest in England, yet below the point of permanent snow. It has been observed, by the French accademicians (sic), that amongst the Cordilleras, in the province of Quito, Petchinca and Carason are the highest accessible mountains, and that all of greater heights are vested with eternal snow.

On the Glaciers, snow is permanent at a much inferior height; and where the sun's rays fall more obliquely, less height is found the boundary between temporary and eternal snow. But no mountain in England touches the zone of barrenness that intervenes between this region and the limits of vegetation. Sheep pasture the summits of Snowden, Helvellyn, and Skiddaw, and barrenness only prevails where rock and precipice are invincible obstacles to vegetation.

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addenda ADDENDA.

IT having been judged, that the principal detached pieces which have appeared on the subject of the Lakes, by esteemed writers, if collected together, might accommodate the reader, and contribute to the chief purport of this manual,- they are here subjoined, along with some other connected articles, and similar descriptions, which relate to the same country.



IN my way to the north, from Hagley, I passed through Dovedale; and, to say the truth, was disappointed in it.- When I came to Buxton, I visited another or two of their romantic scenes; but these are inferior to Dovedale. They are but poor miniatures of Keswick; which exceeds them more in grandeur than I can give you to imagine; and more, if possible, in beauty than in grandeur.

Instead of the narrowing strip of valley which is seen at Dovedale, you have at Keswick a vast amphitheatre, in circumfe-

Brown, Dr Dovedale Buxton Keswick Vale of Keswick

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[circumfe]rence above twenty miles. Instead of a meagre rivulet, a noble living lake, ten miles round, of an oblong form, adorned with a variety of wooded islands. The rocks, indeed, of Dovedale are finely wild, pointed, and irregular; but the hills are both little and unanimated; and the margin of the brook is poorly edged with weeds, morass, and brushwood. But at Keswick, you will on one side of the lake, see a rich and beautiful landscape of cultivated fields, rising to the eye, in fine inequalities, with noble groves of oak, happily dispersed, and climbing the adjacent hills, shade above shade, in the most various and picturesque forms. On the opposite shore you will find rocks and cliffs of stupendous height, hanging broken over the lake in horrible grandeur, some of them a thousand feet high, the woods climbing up their steep and shaggy sides, where mortal foot never yet approached. On these dreadful heights, the eagles build their nest; a variety of water-falls are seen pouring from their summits, and tumbling in vast sheets from rock to rock, in rude and terrible magnificence; while on all sides of this immense amphitheatre, the lofty mountains rise around, piercing the clouds, in shapes as spiry and fantastic as the very rocks of Dovedale - To this I must add the frequent and bold projection of the cliffs into the lake, forming noble bays and promontories: in other parts they finely retire from it, and often open in abrupt chasms or cliffs, through which at hand you see rich and cultivated vales, and beyond these, at various distances, mountain rising over mountain, among which, new prospects present themselves in mist, till the eye is lost in agreeable perplexity:-

Where active fancy travels beyond sense, And pictures things unseen ---

Were I to analyse the two places into their constituent principles, I should tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror, and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. Of

Derwent Water Keswick Vale of Keswick Dovedale eagle's nest

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beauty it hath little: nature having left it almost a desart: neither its small extent. nor the diminutive and lifeless form of the hills, admit magnificence - But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator, and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and wooded islands. The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steeps, the hanging woods, and foaming waterfalls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains.

So much for what I would call the permanent beauties of this astonishing scene. Were I not afraid of being tiresome, I could now dwell as long on its varying or accidental beauties, I would sail round the lake, anchor in every bay, and land you on every promontory and island. I would point out the perpetual change of prospects; the woods, rocks, cliffs, and mountains, by turns vanishing or rising into view: now gaining on the sight, hanging over our heads in their full dimensions, beautifully dreadful; and now by change of situation, assuming new romantic shapes, retiring and lessening on the eye, and insensibly losing themselves in an azure mist. I would remark the contrast of light and shade, produced by the morning and evening sun; the one gilding the western, and the other the eastern side of this immense amphitheatre; while the vast shadow projected by the mountains, buries the opposite part in deep and purple gloom, which the eye can hardly penetrate: the natural variety of colouring which the several objects produce, is no less wonderful and pleasing; the ruling tints in the valley being those of azure, green, and gold, yet ever various, arising from an intermixture of the lake, the woods, the grass, and corn-fields; these are finely contrasted by the grey rocks and cliffs; and the whole heightened by the yellow streams of light, the purple hues, and misty azure of the mountains. Sometimes a serene air and clear sky disclose the tops of the highest hills; at others you see the clouds in-

Keswick Vale of Keswick Lorrain, Claude Claude Poussin Dughet, Gaspard Rosa, Salvator Derwent Water Derwent Water, by boat

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[in]volving their summits, resting on their sides, or descending to their base, and rolling among the vallies, as in a vast furnace.- When the winds are high, they roar among the cliffs and caverns, like a peal of thunder; then too the clouds are seen in vast bodies, sweeping along the hills in gloomy greatness, while the lake joins the tumult and tosses like a sea. But in calm weather, the whole scene becomes new; the lake is a perfect mirror; and the landscape in all its beauty, islands, fields, woods, rocks, and mountains, is seen inverted and floating on its surface.- I will now carry you to the top of a cliff, where if you dare approach the ridge, a new scene of astonishment presents itself, where the valley, lake, and islands seem lying at your feet, where this expanse of water appears diminished to a little pool, amidst the vast immeasurable objects that surround it: for here the summits of more distant hills appear beyond those you had already seen; and rising behind each other in successive ranges, and azure groups of craggy and broken steeps, form an immense and awful picture, which can only be expressed by the image of a tempestuous sea of mountains.- Let me now conduct you down again, to the valley, and conclude with one circumstance more, which is, that a walk by still moonlight (at which time the distant water-falls are heard in all their variety of sound) among these enchanting dales, opens a scene of such delicate beauty, repose, and solemnity, as exceeds all description.

Derwent Water reflections moonlight

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Dr Dalton Keswick Enumerating the beauties of the Vale of Keswick [1].

... ... TO NATURE'S pride, Sweet Keswick's vale, the muse will guide: The muse who trod th'enchanted ground, Who sail'd the wond'rous lake around, With you will haste once more to hail The beauteous brook of Borrowdale.

From savage parent, gentle stream! Be thou the muse's favourite theme:- O soft insinuating glide Silent along the meadow's side, Smooth o'er the sandy bottom pass, Resplendent all through fluid glass, Unless upon thy yielding breast Their painted heads the lilies rest, To where in deep capacious bed, The liquid lake is widely spread.

Let other streams rejoice to roar Down the rough rocks of dread Lowdore, Rush raving on with bois'trous sweep, And foaming rend the 'frighted deep, Thy gentle genius shrinks away From such a rude unequal fray; Through thine own native dale, where rise Tremendous rocks amid the skies, Thy waves with patience slowly wind, /

Dalton, Dr Keswick Vale of Keswick Derwent Water Lodore Falls Watendlath Beck

First printed in 1775.- See 'Pearch's Collection of Poems,' Vol.I.

Pearch's Selection of Poems

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Till they the smoothest channel find, Soften the horrors of the scene, And through confusion flow serene.

Horrors like these at first alarm, But soon with savage grandeur charm, And raise to noblest thoughts the mind; Thus by thy fall, Lowdore, reclin'd, The craggy cliff, impendant wood, Whose shadows mix o'er half the flood, The gloomy clouds with solemn sail, Scarce lifted by the languid gale, O'er the capp'd hill, and dark'ned vale:- The rav'ning kite, and bird of Jove, Which round the aerial ocean rove, And, floating on the billowy sky, With full expanded pinions fly, Then flutt'ring on their bleating prey, Thence with death-dooming eye survey:- Channels by rocky torrents torn, Rocks to the lake in thunders borne, Or such as o'er our heads appear Suspended in their midst career, To start again at his command, Who rules fire, water, air, and land, I view with wonder and delight, A pleasing, though an awful sight: For, seen with them, the verdant isles Soften with more delicious smiles, More tempting twine their op'ning bowers, More lovely grow the purple flowers, More smoothly slopes the border gay, In fairer circles bends the bay, And last, to fix our wand'ring eyes, Thy roofs, O Keswick, brighter rise, The lake, and lofty hills between, Where giant Skiddaw shuts the scene.

Lodore Falls eagle Skiddaw Jove, bird of

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Mr Gray's Journal MR. GRAY'S JOURNAL,


I HOPE you got safe and well home, after that troublesome night [1]. I long to hear you say so. For me, I have continued well, being so favoured with the weather, that my walks have never once been hindered till yesterday (that is, a fortnight and three or four days, and a journey of more than 300 miles.) I am now at Aston for two days. To-morrow I go to Cambridge. Mason is not here; but Mr. Alderson receives me. According to my promise. I send you the first sheet of my journal, to be continued without end.

Sep. 30. A mile and a half from Brough, where we parted, on a hill lay a great army [2] encamped: to the left

Gray, Thomas Wharton, Dr Mason, Mr Alderson, Mr Brough fair fair, Brough

Dr. Wharton, who had intended to accompany Mr. Gray to Keswick, was seized at Brough with a violent fit of asthma, which obliged him to return home. This was the reason Mr. Gray undertook to write the following journal of his tour for his friend's amusement. He sent it under different covers; I give it here in continuation. It may not be amiss, however, to hint to the reader, that if he expects to find elaborate and nicely turned periods in this narration, he will be greatly disappointed. When Mr. Gray described places, he aimed only to be exact, clear, and intelligible; to convey peculiar, not general ideas, and to paint by the eye, not the fancy. There have been many accounts of the Westmorland and Cumberland lakes, both before and since this was written, and all of them calculated to please readers who are fond of what they call fine writing: yet those who can content themselves with an elegant simplicity of narrative, will, I flatter myself, find this to their taste; they will perceive it written with a view, rather to inform than surprise; and, if they make it their companion when they take the same tour, it will enhance their opinion of its intrinsic excellence; in this way I tried it myself before I had resolved to print it.

Gray, Thomas Wharton, Dr asthma descriptive style

There is a great fair for cattle, kept on the hill near Brough, on this and the preceding day.

Brough fair fair, Brough cattle

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opened a fine valley, with green meadows and hedge-rows, a gentleman's house peeping forth from a grove of old trees. On a nearer approach appeared myriads of cattle and horses in the road itself, and all the fields round me, a brisk stream hurrying across the way, thousands of clean, healthy people in their best party-coloured apparel: farmers and their families esquires and their daughters, hastening up from the dales and down the fells from every quarter, glittering in the sun, and pressing forward to join the throng. While the dark hills, on whose tops the mists were yet hanging, served as a contrast to this gay and moving scene, which continued for near two miles more along the road, and the crowd (coming towards it) reached on as far as Appleby. On the ascent of the hill above Appleby, the thick hanging woods, and the long reaches of the Eden, clear, rapid and full as ever, winding below, with views of the castle and town, gave much employment to the mirror [1]; but now the sun was wanting, and the sky overcast. Oats and barley cut everywhere, but not carried in. Passed Kirkby-thore, Sir William Dalston's house at Acorn-bank, Whinfield-park, Harthorn-oaks, Countess-pillar, Brougham-castle, Mr. Brougham's large new house; crossed the Eden and the Eamont with its green vale, and dined at three o'clock with Mrs. Buchanan, at Penrith, on trout and partridge. In the afternoon walked up beacon-hill, a mile to the top, and could see Ulls-water through an opening in the bosom of that cluster of broken mountains, which the Dr. well remembers, Whinfield and Lowther parks, &c. and the craggy tops of an hundred nameless hills: these lie to the west and south. To the north, a great extent of black and dreary plains. To the east, Cross-fell, just visible through mists and vapours hovering round it.

Gray, Thomas fair, Brough Brough fair landscape mirror harvest Kirkby Thore Dalston, William, Sir Acorn Bank Whinfield Park Hawthorn Oaks Countess Pillar Brougham Castle Brough, Mr Eden, River Eamont, River Buchanan, Mrs Beacon Hill, Penrith Ullswater Lowther Park Cross Fell

Mr. Gray carried usually with him on these tours a plano-convex mirror, of about four inches diameter, on a black foil, and bound up like a pocket-book. A glass of this sort is perhaps the best and most convenient substitute for a camera obscura, of anything that has hitherto been invented, and may be had of any optician.

Gray, Thomas landscape mirror camera obscura

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Oct. 1. A grey autumnal day, the air perfectly calm, and mild, went to see Ulls-water, five miles distant; soon left the Keswick road, and turned to the left through shady lanes along the vale of Eamont, which runs rapidly on near the way, rippling over the stones: to the right is Dalemain, a large fabric of pale red stone, with nine windows in the front and seven on the side, built by Mr. Hazel; behind it is a fine lawn surrounded by woods, and a long rocky eminence rising over them; a clear and brisk rivulet runs by the house to join the Eamont, whose course is in sight, and at a small distance. Further on appears Hutton-St.-John, a castle-like old mansion of Mr. Huddleston. Approached Dunmallet, a fine pointed hill, covered with wood, planted by old Mr. Hazel before-mentioned, who lives always at home, and delights in planting. Walked over a spongy meadow or two, and began to mount the hill, through a broad straight green alley, among the trees, and with some toil gained the summit. From hence saw the lake open directly at my feet, majestic in its calmness, clear and smooth as a blue mirror, with winding shores and low points of land covered with green inclosures, white farm houses looking out among the trees, and cattle feeding.- The water is almost everywhere bordered with cultivated lands, gently sloping upwards from a mile to a quarter of a mile in breadth, till they reach the feet of the mountains which rise very rude and awful with their broken tops on each hand. Directly in front, at better than three miles distance, Place-fell, one of the bravest among them, pushes its bold broad breast into the midst of the lake, and forces it to alter its course, forming first a large bay to the left, and then bending to the right. I descended Dunmallet again by the side avenue, that was only not perpendicular, and came to Barton-bridge over the Eamont; then walked through a path in the wood round the bottom of the hill, came forth where the Eamont issues out of the lake, and continued my way along its western shore, close to the water, and generally on a level with it. Saw a cormorant flying over it and fishing. The figure of the lake nothing resembles that down

Gray, Thomas Ullswater road, Patterdale to Penrith Eamont, River Dalemain Hazel, Mr Hutton St John Huddleston, Mr Place Fell Dunmallard Hill Barton Bridge cormorant

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in our maps. It is nine miles long; and at the widest part it is under a mile in breadth. After extending itself three miles and a half to the south-west, it turns at the foot of Place-fell almost due west, and is here not twice the breadth of the Thames at London. It is soon again interrupted by the root of Helvellyn, a lofty and very rugged mountain, and spreading again, turns off to the south-east, and is lost among the deep recesses of the hills. To this second turning I pursued my way about four miles along its border, beyond a village scattered among trees, and called Watermillock, in a pleasant grave day, perfectly calm and warm, but without a gleam of sunshine; then the sky seemed to thicken and the valley to grow more desolate, and the evening drawing on, I returned by the way I came, to Penrith.

Oct. 2. I set out at ten for Keswick, by the road we went in 1767; say (sic) Greystock town and castle to the right, which lie about three miles from Ulls-water over the fells; passed through Penruddock and Threlkeld at the foot of Saddleback, whose furrowed sides were gilt by the noon-day sun, whilst its brow appeared of a sad purple, from the shadow of the clouds as they sailed slowly by it. The broad and green vallies of Gardies and Lowside, with a swift stream glittering among the cottages and meadows, lay to the left, and the much finer, but narrower valley of St. John, opening into it: Hill-top, the large, though low mansion of the Gasgarth's, now a farm-house, seated on an eminence among the woods, under a steep fell, was what appeared the most conspicuous, and beside it a great rock, like some ancient tower nodding to its fall. Passed by the side of Skiddaw and its cub, called Latrigg; and saw from an eminence at two miles distance, the vale of Elysium in all its verdure; the sun then playing on the bosom of the lake, and lighting up all the mountains with its lustre. Dined by two o'clock at the Queen's-head, and then straggled out alone to the parsonage, where I saw the sun set in all its glory.

Ullswater Place Fell Helvellyn Watermillock Greystoke Greystoke Castle Saddleback Penruddock Threlkeld St John's in the Vale Hilltop Gasgarth Family Skiddaw Latrigg Queen's Head, Keswick

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Oct. 3. A heavenly day; rose at seven, and walked out under the conduct of my landlord to Borrowdale; the grass was covered with a hoar frost, which soon melted and exhaled a thin blueish smoke; crossed the meadows obliquely, catching a diversity of views among the hills, over the lake and islands, and changing prospect at every ten paces. Left Cockshut (which we formerly mounted) and Castle-hill, a loftier and more rugged hill behind me, and drew near the foot of Wallow-cragg, whose bare and rugged brow, cut perpendicularly down above 400 feet, (as I guess, though the people call it much more) awfully overlooks the way. Our path here tends to the left, and the ground gently rising, and covered with a glade of scattered trees and bushes on the very margin of the water, opens both ways the most delicious view that my eyes every beheld. Opposite are the thick woods of Lord Egremont, and Newland valley, with green and smiling fields embosomed in the dark cliffs; to the left, the jaws of Borrowdale, with that turbulent chaos of mountain behind mountain, rolled in confusion; beneath you, and stretching far away to the right, the shining purity of the lake-reflecting rocks, woods, fields, and inverted tops of hills, just ruffled by the breeze, enough to show it is alive, with the white buildings of Keswick, Crosthwaite church, and Skiddaw, for a back-ground at a distance. Behind you the magnificent heights of Wallow-crag: here the glass played its part divinely; the place is called Carf-close-reeds; and I choose to set down these barbarous names, that any body may enquire on the place, and easily find the particular station that I mean. This scene continues to Barrowgate, and a little further, passing a brook called Barrow-beck, we entered Borrowdale: the crags named Lowdore-banks began now to impend terribly over the way, and more terribly when you hear that three years since an immense mass of rock tumbled at once from the brow, barred all access to the dale (for this is the only road) till they could work their way through it. Luckily no one was passing by at the time of this fall; but down the side of the mountain, and far into the lake, lie dispersed the huge fragments of this

Borrowdale Cockshot Wood Castle Hill Wallow Crag Egremont, Lord Newland Valley Derwent Water Keswick St Mary, Crosthwaite landscape mirror Borrowgate Barrow Beck Lodore Banks landslip station, Carf Close Reeds

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ruin, in all shapes and in all directions: something farther we turned aside into a coppice, ascending a little in front of Lowdore water-fall: the height appeared to be about 200 feet, the quantity of water not great, though (these three days excepted) it hath rained daily for near two months before; but then the stream was nobly broken, leaping from rock to rock, and foaming with fury. On one side a towering crag, that spired up to equal, if not overtop, the neighbouring cliffs (this lay all in shade and darkness) on the other hand a rounder, broader, projecting hill shagged with wood, and illuminated by the sun, which glanced sideways on the upper part of the cataract. The force of the water wearing a deep channel in the ground, hurries away to join the lake. We descended again, and passed the stream over a rude bridge. Soon after we came under Gowdar-crag, a hill more formidable to the eye, and to the apprehension, than that of Lowdore; the rocks at top deep-cloven perpendicularly by the rains, hanging loose and nodding forwards, seen just starting from their base in shivers. The whole way down, and the road on both sides, is strewed with piles of the fragments, strangely thrown across each other, and of a dreadful bulk; the place reminds me of those passes in the Alps, where the guides tell you to move with speed, and say nothing, lest the agitation of the air should loosen the snows above, and bring down a mass that would overwhelm a caravan, I took their counsel here, and hastened on in silence.

Non ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa.

The hills here are clothed all up their steep sides with oak, ash, birch, holly, &c., some of it has been cut forty years ago, some within these eight years: yet it is all sprung again, green, flourishing, and tall for its age, in a place where no soil appears but the staring rock, and where a man could scarce stand upright. Here we met a civil young farmer overseeing his reapers (for it is now oat harvest) who conducted us to a neat white house in the village of Grange, which is built on a rising ground in the midst of a valley; round it the mountains

Borrowdale Lodore Falls Watendlath Beck Gowder Crag avalanche landslip Grange oak ash birch holly snow

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form an awful amphitheatre, and through it obliquely runs the Derwent, clear as glass, and showing under its bridge every trout that passes. Beside the village rises a round eminence of a rock covered entirely in old trees, and over that more proudly towers Castle-cragg, invested also with wood on its sides, and bearing on its naked top some traces of a fort, said to be Roman, By the side of this hill, which almost blocks up the way, the valley turns to the left, and contracts its dimensions till there is hardly any road but the rocky bed of the river. The wood of the mountains increases, and their summits grow loftier to the eye, and of more fantastic forms; among them appear Eagle's-cliff, Dove's-nest, Whitedale pike, &c. celebrated in the annals of Keswick. The dale opens about four miles higher, till you come to Seathwaite, where lies the way, mounting the hill to the right, that leads to the wad-mines; all farther access is here barred to prying mortals, only there is a little path winding over the fells, and for some weeks in the year passable to the dalesmen; but the mountains know well that these innocent people will not reveal the mysteries of their ancient kingdom, 'the reign Chaos and Old Night,' only I learned that this dreadful road, divided again, leads one branch to Ravenglass, and the other to Hawkshead.

For me , I went no farther than the farmer's (better than four miles from Keswick) at Grange; his mother and he brought us butter that Siserah would have jumped at, though not in a lordly dish, bowls of milk, thin oaten cakes, and ale, and we had carried a cold tongue thither with us. Our farmer was himself the man that last year plundered the eagles' eyrie: all the dale are up in arms on such an occasion, for they loss (sic) abundance of lambs yearly, not to mention hares, partridges, grouse, &c. He was let down from the cliff, in ropes, to the shelf of the rock on which the nest was built, the people above shouting and hallooing to frighten the old birds, which did not dare to attack him. He brought off the eaglet (for there is rarely more than one) and an addle egg. The nest was roundish, and more than a yard over, made of twigs

Derwent, River Grange Grange Bridge Castle Crag earthwork Eagle's Cliff Dove's Nest Whitedale Pike Seathwaite black lead mine hospitality eagle eagle's nest road, Keswick to Borrowdale Siserah hillfort, Castle Crag trout Chaos Old Night

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twisted together. Seldom a year passes, but they take the brood, or eggs, and sometimes they shoot one, sometimes the other, parent; but the survivor has always found a mate (probably in Ireland) and they breed near the old place. By his description I learn that this species is the Erne, the vulture Abicilla of Linnaeus in his last edition (but in your's Falco Albicilla) so consult him and Pennant about it.

We returned leisurely home the way we came, but saw a new landscape; the features indeed were the same in part, but many new ones were disclosed by the mid-day sun, and the tints were entirely changed: take notice this was the best, or perhaps the only day for going up Skiddaw, but I thought it better employed; it was perfectly serene, and hot as mid-summer.

In the evening I walked alone down to the lake, by the side of Crow-park, after sun-set, and saw the solemn colouring of the night draw on, the last gleam of sun-shine fading away on the hill tops, the deep serene of the waters, and the long shadows of the mountains thrown across them, till they nearly touched the hithermost shore. At a distance were heard the murmurs of many water-falls, not audible in the day time; I wished for the moon, but she was dark to me, and silent,

Hid in her vacant interlunar cave.

Oct. 4. I walked to Crow-park, now a rough pasture, once a glade of ancient oaks, whose large roots still remain in the ground, but nothing has sprung from them. If one single tree had remained, this would have been an unparalleled spot: and Smith judged right when he took his print of the lake from hence, for it is a gentle eminence, not too high, on the very margin of the water, and commanding it from end to end, looking full into the gorge of Borrowdale. I prefer it even to Cockshut-hill, which lies beside it, and to which I walked in the afternoon; it is covered with young

eagle's nest erne Falco albicilla Aquila chrysaetos golden eagle Borrowdale Derwent Water Crow Park oak trees Cockshot Wood station, Crow Park print, Smith

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trees, both sown and planted, oak, spruce, Scotch fir, &c. all which thrive wonderfully. There is an easy ascent to the top, and the view far preferable to that on Castle-hill (which you remember) because this is lower and nearer the lake; for I find all points that are much elevated, spoil the beauty of the valley, and make its parts, which are not large, look poor and diminutive [1]. While I was here, a little shower fell, red clouds came marching up the hills from the east, and part of a bright rainbow seemed to rise along the side of Castle-hill.

From hence I got to the parsonage a little before sun-set, and saw in my glass a picture, that if I could transmit to you, and fix it in all the softness of its living colours, would fairly sell for a thousand pounds. This is the sweetest scene I can yet discover in point of pastoral beauty; the rest are in a sublimer style.

Oct. 5. I walked through the meadows and corn-fields to the Derwent, and crossing it went up to How-hill; it looks along Bassenthwaite-water, and sees at the same time the course of the river, and a part of the upper lake, with a full view of Skiddaw: then I took my way through Portinscale village to the Park, a hill so called, covered entirely with wood; it is a mass of crumbling slate. Passed round its foot, between trees and the edge of the water, and came to a peninsula that juts out into the lake, and looks along it

Cockshot Wood landscape mirror How Hill Bassenthwaite Lake Park Hill Skiddaw station, Cockshot Wood station, How Hill oak spruce Scots pine station, Crosthwaite Vicarage

The picturesque point is always thus low in all prospects: a truth which though the landscape-painter knows, he cannot always observe; since the patron who employs him to take a view of his place, usually carries him to some elevation for that purpose, in order, I suppose, that he may have more of him for his money. Yet when I say this I would not be thought to mean that a drawing should be made from the lowest point possible; as for instance in this very view, from the lake itself, for then a fore-ground would be wanting. On this account, when I sailed at Derwent-water, I did not receive so much pleasure from the superb amphitheatre of mountains round me, as when, like Mr. Gray, I traversed its margin; and therefore think he did not loose much by not taking boat.

viewpoints Derwent Water, by boat

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both ways; in front rises Wallow-crag and Castle-hill, the town, the road to Penrith, Skiddaw, and Saddleback. Returning met a brisk and cold north-eastern blast, that ruffled all the surface of the lake, and made it rise in little waves that broke at the foot of the wood. After dinner walked up the Penrith road two miles, or more, and turning into a cornfield to the right, called Castle-rigg, saw a druid circle of large stones, 108 feet in diameter, the biggest not eight feet high, but most of them still erect: they are fifty in number [1]. The valley of St. John appeared in sight, and the summits of Cachidecam (called by Camden Casticand) and Helvellyn, said to be as high as Skiddaw, and to rise from a much higher base.

Oct. 6. Went in a chaise eight miles along the east side of Bassenthwaite-water to Ouse-bridge, the road in some part made, and very good, the rest slippery and dangerous cart road, or narrow rugged lanes, but no precipices; it runs directly along the foot of Skiddaw. Opposite to Wythop brows, clothed up to the top with wood, a very beautiful view opens down the lake, which is narrower and longer than that of Keswick, less broken into bays and without islands [2]. At the foot of it, a few paces from the brink, gently sloping upwards, stands Armathwaite, in a thick grove of Scotch firs, commanding a noble view directly up the lake; at a small distance behind the house is a large extent of wood, and still behind this a ridge of cultivated hills on which, according to the Keswick proverb, the sun always shines. The inhabitants here, on the contrary, call the vale of Derwent-water, the Devil's chamberpot, and pronounce the name of Skiddaw-fell, which terminates here

Bassenthwaite Lake Wallow Crag Castle Hill road, Penrith to Keswick Skiddaw Saddleback Castlerigg Stone Circle druids Cachidecam Casticand Helvellyn Ouse Bridge road, Bassenthwaite Lake Wythop Brows Armathwaite Hall Devil's Chamberpot Skiddaw Fell Scots pine

See this piece of antiquity more fully described, with a plate annexed, by Mr. Pennant, in his second tour of Scotland, 1772, page 38.

Pennant, Thomas Castlerigg Stone Circle

It is somewhat extraordinary that Mr. Gray omitted to mention the islands on Derwent-water, one of which, I think they call it Vicar's island, makes a principal object in the scene. See Smith's view of Derwent-water.

Vicar's Island Derwent Isle print, Smith

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with a sort of terror and aversion. Armathwaite-house is a modern fabric, not large, and built of dark red stone, belonging to Mr. Spedding, whose grandfather was steward to old Sir James Lowther, and bought this estate of the Highmores. The sky was overcast, and the wind cool; so after dining at a public-house, which stands here near the bridge, that crosses the Derwent just where it issues from the lake, and sauntering a little by the water side, I came home again. The turnpike is finished from Cockermouth hither, five miles, and is carrying on to Penrith. Several little showers to-day. A man came in who said there was snow on Cross-fell this morning.

Oct. 7. I walked in the morning to Crow-park, and in the evening up Penrith road. The clouds came rolling up the mountains all round, very dark, yet the moon shone at intervals. It was too damp to go towards the lake. To-morrow I mean to bid farewell to Keswick.

Botany might be studied here to great advantage at another season, because of the great variety of soils and elevations, all lying within a small compass. I observed nothing but several lichens, and plenty of gale, or Dutch myrtle, perfuming the borders of the lake. This year the wad-mine has been opened, which is done once in five years: it is taken out in lumps sometimes as big as a man's fist, and will undergo no preparation by fire, not being fusible: when it is pure, soft, black, and loose-grained, it is worth sometimes thirty shillings a pound. There are no char ever taken in these lakes, but plenty in Buttermere-water, which lies a little way north of Borrowdale, about Martinmas, which are potted here. They sow chiefly oats and bigg here, which are now cutting and still on the ground; the rains have done much hurt; yet observe, the soil is so thin and light, that no day has passed in which I could not walk out with ease; and you know I am no lover of dirt. Fell mutton is now in sea-

Armathwaite Hall Spedding, Mr Lowther, James, Sir Highmore Family Ouse Bridge Inn Derwent, River Ouse Bridge road, Keswick to Cockermouth botany black lead mine char Buttermere oats bigg soil sheep mutton lichen gale myrtle

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[sea]son for about six weeks; it grows fat on the mountains, and nearly resembles venison. Excellent pike, and perch, here called bass; trout is now out of season; partridge in great plenty.

Oct. 8. I left Keswick, and took the Ambleside road, in a gloomy morning: about two miles (rather a mile) from the town, mounted an eminence called Castle-rigg, and the sun breaking out discovered the most enchanting view I have yet seen of the whole valley behind me, the two lakes, the river, the mountains, all in their glory; so that I had almost a mind to have gone back again. The road in some few parts is not completed, yet good country road, through sound but narrow and stony ones, very safe in broad day light. This is the case about Causeway foot and among Naddle-fells, to Langthwaite. The vale you go in has little breadth; the mountains are vast and rocky, the fields little and poor, and the inhabitants are now making hay, and see not the sun by two hours in the day so long as at Keswick. Came to the foot of Helvellyn, along which runs an excellent road, looking down from a little height on Leathes-water, (called also Thirlmere, or Wythburn-water) and soon descending on its margin. The lake looks black from its depth, and from the gloom of the vast crags that scowl over it, though really clear as glass: it is narrow, and about three miles long, resembling a river in its course; little shining torrents hurrying down the rocks to join it, but not a bush to overshadow them or cover their march; all is rock and loose stones up to the very brow, which lies so near your way that not above half the height of Helvellyn can be seen.

Next I passed by the little chapel of Wythburn, out of which the Sunday congregation were then issuing: soon after a beck near Dunmail-raise, where I entered Westmorland a second time: and now began to see Helm-crag, distinguished from its rugged neighbours, not so much by its height as by

sheep mutton perch bass trout fish partridge road, Ambleside to Keswick Causeway Foot Naddle Fell Langthwaite Thirlmere Leathes Water Wythburn Water Helvellyn Wythburn Chapel Dunmail Raise Helm Crag station, Castlerigg Raise Beck

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the strange broken outline of its top, like some gigantic building demolished, and the stones that composed it flung across each other in wild confusion. Just beyond it, opens one of the sweetest landscapes that art ever attempted to imitate. The bosom of the mountains spreading here into a broad bason discovers in the midst Grasmere-water: its margin is hollowed into small bays, with bold eminences; some of rock, some of turf, that half conceal and vary the figure of the little lake they command; from the shore a low promontory pushes itself far into the water, and on it stands a white village, with the parish church rising in the midst of it; hanging inclosures, corn-fields and meadows, green as an emerald, with their trees, and hedges, and cattle, fill up the whole space from the edge of the water; and just opposite to you is a large farm house, at the bottom of a deep smooth lawn, embosomed in old woods, which climb half way up the mountains' sides, and discover above them a broken line of crags that crown the scene. Not a single red tile, no gentleman's flaring house, or garden walls, break in upon the repose of this little unsuspected paradise; but all its peace, rusticity, and happy poverty, in its neatest, most becoming attire.

The road here winds over Grasmere-hill, whose rocks soon conceal the water from your sight; yet it is continued along behind them, and contracting itself to a river, communicates with Rydal-water, another small lake, but of inferior size and beauty: it seems shallow too, for large patches of reeds appear pretty far within. Into this vale the road descends. On the opposite banks large and ancient woods mount up to the hill; and just to the left of our way, stands Rydal-hall, the family seat of Sir Michael le Fleming, a large old-fashioned fabric, rounded with wood. Sir Michael is now on his travels, and all this timber, far and wide, belongs to him. Near the house rises a huge crag, called Rydal-head, which is said to command a full view of Windermere, and I doubt it not;

Helm Crag Grasmere lake Grasmere St Oswald, Grasmere Grasmere Hill Rydal Water road, Ambleside to Keswick Rydal Hall Fleming, Michael le, Sir Rydal Head station, Dunmail Raise

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for within a mile, that lake is visible even from the road; as to going up the crag, one might as well go up Skiddaw.

I now reached Ambleside, sixteen miles from Keswick, meaning to lie there; but on looking into the best bed-chamber, dark and damp as a cellar, grew delicate, gave up Windermere in despair, and resolved I would go on to Kendal directly, fourteen miles further [1]. The road in general fine turnpike, but some parts (about three miles in all) not made, yet without danger.

For this determination I was unexpectedly well rewarded; for the afternoon was fine, and the road for the space of full five miles, ran along the side of Windermere, with delicious views across it, and almost from one end to the other. It is ten miles in length, and at most a mile over, resembling the course of some vast and magnificent river; but no flat marshy grounds, no osier beds, or patched of scrubby plantations on

Ambleside inn, Ambleside Windermere lake Windermere road, Kendal to Windermere

By not staying a little at Ambleside, Mr. Gray lost the sight of two magnificent cascades: the one not half a mile behind the inn, the other down Rydal-crag, where Sir Michael le Fleming is now making a pathway to the top of it. These, when I saw them, were in full torrent; whereas Lowdore water-fall, which I visited in the evening of the very same day, was almost without a stream. Hence I conclude that this distinguished feature in the vale of Keswick, is like most of the northern rivers, only in high beauty during bad weather. But his greatest loss was in not seeing a small water-fall, visible only through the window of a ruined summer-house in Sir Michael's orchard. Here nature has performed everything in little, that she usually executes on her larger scale; and on that account, like the miniature painter, seems to have finished every part of it in a studied manner; not a little fragment of the rock thrown into the bason, not a single stem of brushwood that starts from its craggy sides, but has its picturesque meaning; and the little central stream dashing down a cleft of the darkest coloured stone, produces an effect of light and shadow beautiful beyond description. This little theatrical scene might be painted as large as the original on a canvass not bigger than those usually dropped in the opera house.

[The inn at Ambleside has been greatly improved since Mr. Gray's time, and now as commodious as any in the country.]

Stockghyll Force High Fall, Rydal Fleming, Michael le, Sir Rydal Crag Lodore Falls Low Fall, Rydal inn, Ambleside

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its banks: at the head two vallies open among the mountains: one, that by which we came down, the other Langdale, in which Wrynose and Hardknot, two great mountains, rise above the rest: from thence the fells visibly sink, and soften along its sides; sometimes they run into it (but with a gentle declivity) in their own dark and natural complexion: oftener they are green and cultivated, with farms interspersed, and round eminences, on the border covered with trees: towards the south it seemed to break into large bays, with several islands, and a wider extent of cultivation. The way rises continually, till a place called Orrest-head where it turns south-east, losing sight of the water.

Passed by Ings chapel, and Staveley; but I can say no farther, for the dusk of the evening coming on, I entered Kendal almost in the dark, and could distinguish only a shadow of the castle on a hill, and tenter grounds spread far and wide round the town, which I mistook for houses. My inn promised sadly, having two wooden galleries, like Scotland, in front of it: it was indeed an ill-contrived house, but kept by civil, sensible people; so I stayed two nights with them, and fared and slept very comfortably.

Oct. 9. The air mild as summer, all corn off the ground, and the sky-larks singing aloud (by the way, I saw not one at Keswick, perhaps because the place abounds in birds of prey.) I went up the castle-hill: the town chiefly consists of three nearly parallel streets, almost a mile long; except these, all the other houses seem as if they had been dancing a country dance, and were out: there they stand back to back, corner to corner, some up-hill, some down, without intent or meaning. Along by their side runs a fine brisk stream, over which there are three stone bridges: the buildings (a few comfortable houses excepted) are mean, of stone, and covered with a

Windermere lake Langdale Wrynose Hardknot Orrest Head St Anne, Ings Staveley tenter grounds Kendal inn, Kendal sky lark Castle Hill, Kendal Kent, River

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bad rough-cast [1]. Near the end of the town stands a handsome house of Colonel Wilson's, and adjoining to it the church, a very large gothic fabric, with a square tower, it has no particular ornaments but double aisles, and at the east end four chapels or choirs; one of the Parrs, another of the Stricklands, the third is the proper choir of the church, and the fourth of the Bellingham's, a family now extinct. There is an altar tomb of one of them dated 1577, with a flat brass arms and quarterings; and in the window their arms alone, arg. a hunting horn sab. strung gules. In the Stricklands' chapel several monuments, and another old altar tomb not belonging to the family: on the side of it a fess dancette between ten billets deincourt. In the Parrs' chapel is a third altar tomb in the corner, no figure or inscription, but on the side cut an escutcheon of Ross of Kendal (three water buckets) quartering Parr, (two bars in a bordure engrailed). 2dly, an escutcheon, vaire, a fess for Marmion; 3rdly, an escutcheon, three chevronels braced, and a chief (which I take for Fitzhugh) at the foot is an escutcheon, surrounded with the garter, bearing Ross and Parr quarterly, quartering the other two before-mentioned. I have no books to look in, therefore cannot say, whether this is the Lord Parr, of Kendal, Queen Catherine's father, or her brother the Marquis of Northampton; perhaps it is a cenotaph for the latter, who was buried at Warwick, in 1571. The remains of the castle are seated on a fine hill on the side of the river opposite the town; almost the whole inclosure of the walls remain, with four towers, two square and two round, but their upper parts

rough cast Abbot Hall Wilson, Colonel Holy Trinity, Kendal Parr Family Strickland Family Bellingham Family coat of arms blazon Ross Family Marmion Family Parr, Katherine Kendal Castle

[The accounts of things given by hasty travellers, are generally inaccurate and often injudicious. As to the principal streets in Kendal, they are neither three in number, nor nearly parallel. They are but two. One about a mile in length, and another about half a mile. These streets contain indeed not many elegant houses; they are however on the whole as open and well-built as in most other towns. As to the bad rough-cast our author speaks of, judges of rough-cast have always supposed this country no way deficient in the materials, or in the manner of laying it on.]

Kendal rough cast

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or embattlements are demolished; it is of rough stone and cement, without any ornament or arms, round, inclosing a court of like form, and surrounded by a moat; nor could it ever have been larger than it is, for there are no traces of out-works. There is a good view of the town and river, with a fertile open valley, though which it winds.

After dinner I went along the Millthorp turnpike, four miles to see the falls, or force of the river Kent; came to Sizergh (pronounced Siser), and turned down a lane to the left. This seat of the Stricklands, an old catholic family, is an ancient hall house, with a very large tower, embattled; the rest of the buildings added to it are of a later date, but all is white and seen to advantage on a back ground of old trees; there is a small park also well wooded. Opposite to this, turning to the left, I soon came to the river; it works its way in a narrow and deep rocky channel, overhung with trees. The calmness and brightness of the evening, the roar of the waters, and the thumping of huge hammers at an iron forge not far distant, made it a singular walk; but as to the falls (for there are two) they are not four feet high. I went on down to the forge, and saw the demons at work by the light of their own fires; the iron is brought in pigs to Millthorp, by sea, from Scotland, &c. and is here beat into bars and plates. Two miles farther, at Levens, is the seat of Lord Suffolk, where he sometimes passes the summer; it was a favourite place of his late Countess; but this I did not see.

Oct. 10. I proceeded by Burton to Lancaster, twenty-two miles; very good country, well inclosed and wooded, with some common interspersed. Passed at the foot of Farlton-knot, a high fell. Four miles north of Lancaster, on a rising ground, called Bolton (pronounced Bouton) we had a full view of Cartmel sands, with here and there a passenger riding over them (it being low water) the points of Furness shooting far into the sea, and lofty mountains, partly covered with clouds,

Kendal Castle Levens Force Sizergh Castle Strickland Family Kent, River forge, Levens Millthorp Milnthorpe iron Suffolk, Duke of road, Lancaster to Kendal sands road Bolton Lancaster Sands ironworks, Levens

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extending north of them. Lancaster also appeared very conspicuous and fine; for its most distinguished features, the castle and church, mounted on a green eminence, were all that could be seen. Woe is me! when I got thither, it was the second day of the fair, the inn, in the principal street, was a great old gloomy house, full of people; but I found tolerable quarters, and even slept two nights in peace.

In a fine afternoon I ascended the castle-hill; it takes up the higher top of the eminence on which it stands, and is irregularly round, encompassed with a deep moat; in front, towards the town, is a magnificent gothic gateway, lofty and huge; the overhanging battlements are supported by a triple range of corbels, the intervals pierced through, and showing the day from above. On its top rise light watch towers of small height. It opens below with a grand pointed arch; over this is a wrought tabernacle, doubtless once containing its founder's figure; on one side a shield of France semi-quartered with England; on the other the same, with a label, ermine, for John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster This opens to a court within, which I did not much care to enter, being the county gaol, and full of prisoners, both criminals and debtors. From this gateway the walls continue and join it to a vast square tower of great height, the lower part at least of remote antiquity; for it has small round-headed lights, with plain short pillars on each side of them: there is a third tower, also square, and of less dimensions. This is all the castle. Near it, and but a little lower, stands the church, a large and plain gothic fabric, the high square tower at the west end has been re-built of late years, but nearly in the same style; there are no ornaments or arms, &c. any were (sic) to be seen; within it is lightsome and spacious, but not one monument of antiquity, or piece of painted glass is left. From the church-yard there is an extensive sea-view, (for now the tide had almost covered the sands, and filled the river) and besides the greatest part of Furness, I could distinguish Peel-

Lancaster fair, Lancaster inn, Lancaster Lancaster Castle Gaunt, John of Lancaster, Duke of gaol, Lancaster St Mary, Lancaster coat of arms, royal

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[Peel-]castle on the isle of Foudry, which lies off its southern extremity. The town is built on the slope, and at the foot of the castle-hill, more than twice the bigness of Aukland, with many new buildings of neat white stone, but a little disorderly in their position, and 'ad libitum', like Kendal; many also extend below on the quays, by the river side, where a number of ships were moored, some of them three-masted vessels, decked out with their colours in honour of the fair. Here is a good bridge of four arches over the Lune, that runs, when the tide is out, in two steams, divided by a bed of gravel, which is not covered but in spring tides; below the town it widens to near the breadth of the Thames at London, and meets the sea at five or six miles distance to south-west.

Oct. 11. I crossed the river and walked over a peninsula three miles, to the village of Poulton, which stands on the beach. An old fisherman mending his nets (while I enquired about the danger of passing those sands) told me, in his dialect, a moving story, how a brother of the trade, a Cockler, as he styled him, driving a little cart with two daughters (women grown) in it, and his wife on horseback following, set out one day to cross the seven mile sands, as they had frequently been used to do; (for nobody in the village knew them better than the old man did) when they were about half-way over, a thick fog rose, and as they advanced they found the water much deeper than they expected; the old man was puzzled; he stopped, and said he would go a little way to find some mark he was acquainted with; they staid a while for him, but in vain; they called aloud, but no reply; at last the young woman pressed the mother to think where they were, and go on; she would not leave the place; she wandered about forlorn and amazed; she would not quit her horse and get into the cart with them; they determined after much time wasted, to turn back, and give themselves up to the guidance of their horses. The old woman was soon washed off, and perished; the poor girls clung close to their cart, and

Piel Castle Foudry Island Foulney Island ships Skerton Bridge Lune, River Poulton cockler sands road

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the horse, sometimes wading and sometimes swimming, brought them back to land alive, but senseless with terror and distress, and unable for many days to give any account of themselves. The bodies of their parents were found the next ebb: that of the father a very few paces distant from the spot where he had left them.

In the afternoon, I wandered about the town, and by the quay, till it grew dark.

Oct. 12. I set out for Settle by a fine turnpike-road, twenty-nine miles, through a rich and beautiful country, diversified with frequent villages and churches, very unequal ground; and on the left the river Lune winding in a deep valley, its hanging banks clothed with fine woods, through which you catch long reaches of the water as the road winds about at a considerable height above it. In the most picturesque part of the way, I passed the part belonging to the Hon. Mr. Clifford, a catholic. The grounds between him and the river, are indeed charming [1]; the house is ordinary, the park nothing but a rocky fell, scattered over with ancient hawthorns. Next I came to Hornby, a little town on the river Wenning, over which a handsome bridge is now built; the castle, in a lordly situation, attracted me, so I walked up the hill to it; first presents itself a large white ordinary sashed gentleman's house, and behind it rises the ancient keep, built by Edward Stanley, Lord Monteagle. He died about 1529, in King Henry VIII's time. It is now only a shell, the rafters are laid within it as for flooring. I went up a

sands road cockler road, Lancaster to Settle Lune, River Clifford, Mr Hornby Wenning, River Stanley, Edward Monteagle, Lord Hornby Castle

This scene opens just three miles from Lancaster, on what is called the Queen's road. To see the view in perfection, you must go into a field on the left. Here Ingleborough, behind a variety of lesser mountains, makes the back-ground of the prosect; on each hand of the middle distance, rise two sloping hills; the left clothed with thick woods - the right with variegated rock and herbage; between them, in the richest of valleys, the Lune serpentizes for many a mile, and comes forth ample and clear, through a well wooded and richly pastured fore-ground. Every feature which constitutes a perfect landscape of the extensive sort, is here not only boldly marked, but also in its best position.

station, Hornby Road Queen's Road Lune, River Ingleborough

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winding stone stair-case, in one corner, to the leads, and at the angle is a single hexagon watch tower, rising some feet higher, fitted up in the taste of a modern summer-house, with sash windows in gilt frames, a stucco cupola, and on the top a vast gilt eagle, built by Mr. Charteris, the present possessor. He is the second son of the Earl of Wemyss, brother to the Lord Elcho, and grandson to Colonel Charteris, whose name he bears.

From the leads of the tower there is a fine view of the country round, and much wood near the castle. Ingleborough, which I had seen before distinctly at Lancaster to north-east, was completely wrapped in clouds, all but its summit; which might have easily been mistaken for a long black cloud too, fraught with an approaching storm. Now our road began to mount towards the Appennine, the trees growing less, and thinner of leaves, till we came to Ingleton, eighteen miles; it is a pretty village, situate very high, and yet in a valley, at the foot of that huge monster of nature, Ingleborough: two torrents cross it, with great stones rolled along their beds instead of water; and over them are flung two handsome arches. The nipping air, though the afternoon was growing very bright, now taught us we were in Craven; the road was all up and down, though no where very steep: to the left were mountain tops, to the right a wide valley, all inclosed ground, and beyond it high hills again. In approaching Settle, the crags on the left grew nearer to our way, till we ascended Brunton-brow into a chearful valley (though thin of trees) to Giggleswick, a village with a small piece of water by its side, covered with cots: near it a church which belongs also to Settle; and half a mile farther, having passed the Ribble over a bridge, I arrived there; it is a small market town standing directly under a rocky fell; there are not in it above a dozen good-looking houses, the rest are old and low, with little wooden porticos in front. My inn pleased me much (though small) for the neatness and civility of the

Hornby Castle Charteris, Mr Ingleborough Ingleton road, Lancaster to Settle Brunton Brow Giggleswick Settle inn, Settle summer house

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good woman that kept it; so I lay there two nights, and went -

Oct. 13. To visit the Gordale-scar, which lay six miles from Settle: but that way was directly over a fell, and as the weather was not to be depended upon, I went round in a chaise the only way one could get near it in a carriage, which made it full thirteen miles, half of it such a road! but I got safe over it, so there is an end, and came to Malham (pronounced Maum) a village in the bosom of the mountains, seated in a wild and dreary valley. From thence I was to walk a mile over very rough ground, a torrent rattling along on the left hand; on the cliffs above hung a few goats; one of them danced, and scratched an ear with its right foot, in a place where I could not have stood stock-still.

For all beneath the moon.

As I advanced, the crags seemed to close in, but discovered a narrow entrance turning to the left between them; I followed my guide a few paces, and the hills opening again into no large space; and then all further way is barred by a stream that at the height of about fifty feet, rushes from a hole in the rock, and spreading in large sheets over its broken front, dashes from steep to steep, and then rattles away in a torrent down the valley; the rock on the left rises perpendicular, with stubbed yew-trees and shrubs starting from its sides, to the height of at least 300 feet; but these are not the thing; it is the rock to the right, under which you stand to see the fall, that forms the principal horror of the place. From its very base it begins to slope forward over you in one black or solid mass without any crevice in its surface, and overshadows half the area below its dreadful canopy: when I stood at (I believe) four yards distant from its foot, the drops which perpetually distil from its brow, fell on my head; and in one part of its top, more exposed to the weather, there are loose stones that hang in the air, and threaten visibly some idle

inn, Settle Gordale Scar Malham Malham Cove

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spectator with instant destruction; it is safer to shelter yourself close to its bottom, and trust to the mercy of that enormous mass, which nothing but an earthquake can stir. The gloomy uncomfortable day well suited the savage aspect of the place, and made it still more formidable; I stayed there, not without shuddering, a quarter of an hour, and thought my trouble richly paid; for the impression will last for life. At the alehouse where I dined in Malham, Vivares, the landscape painter, had lodged for a week or more; Smith and Bellers and also been there, and two prints of Gordale have been engraved by them.

Oct. 14. Leaving my comfortable inn, to which I had returned from Gordale, I set out for Skipton, sixteen miles. From several parts of the road, and in many places about Settle, I saw at once the three famous hills of this county, Ingleborough, Pennygant, and Pendle; the first is esteemed the highest, and their features are not to be described, but by the pencil [1].

Malham Cove Vivares, Francois Smith, John Warwick Bellers, William road, Skipton to Settle Ingleborough Pennygant Pen-y-ghent Pendle Hill

Without the pencil, nothing indeed is to be described with precision, and even then, that pencil ought to be in the very hand of the writer, ready to supply with outlines every thing that his pen cannot express by words. As far as language can describe Mr. Gray has, I think, pushed its powers: for rejecting, as I have before hinted, every general unmeaning and hyperbolical phrase, he has selected (both in his journal and on other similar occasions) the plainest, simplest, and most direct terms; yet notwithstanding his judicious care in the disposition of these, I must own I feel them defective. They present me, it is true, with a picture of the same species, but not with the identical picture; my imagination receives clear and distinct, but not true and exact images. It may be asked then, why am I entertained with well-written descriptions? I answer, because they amuse rather than entertain me; and because, after I have seen the places described, they serve to recall to my memory the original scene, almost as well as the truest drawing or picture. In the meanwhile my mind is flattered by thinking it has acquired some conception of the place, and rests contented in an innocent error, which nothing but ocular proof can detect, and which, when detected, does not diminish the pleasure I had before received, but augments it, by superadding the charms of comparison and versification; and herein I would place the real and only merit of verbal prose description. To speak of poetical, would lead me beyond the limits as well as the purpose of this note. I cannot, however, help adding that I have seen one piece of verbal description which completely satisfies me, because it is throughout assisted by masterly delineation. It is composed by the Rev. Mr. Gilpin, of Cheam, in Surrey; and contains, among other places, an account of the very scenes, which, in this tour, our author visited. This gentleman, possessing the conjoined talents of a writer and designer, has employed them in this manuscript to every purpose of picturesque beauty, in the description of which, a correct eye, a practised pencil, and an eloquent pen, could assist him. He has, consequently, produced a work unique in its kind at once. But I have said it is in manuscript, and, I am afraid, likely to continue so; for would his modesty permit him to print it, the great expense of plates would make its publication impracticable.

[This excellent note seems to contain the justest criticism on the nature and powers of verbal description, as applied to landscapes and prospects. And now the reader has gone through our author's specimens of it in the foregoing Guide, if it appear that he hath not availed himself of these precepts as much as he might have done, he may take a scrutiny into his errors, a critical lesson, in the next degree useful to instructions derived from such examples as Mr. Gray's; and thus reap improvement as well as amusement, from the efforts of a hasty and redundant pen.- Mr. Gilpin's tour has been since published.]

descriptive text drawing Gilpin, William, Rev picturesque beauty

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Craven, after all, is an unpleasing country when seen from a height; its vallies are chiefly wide, and either marshy or inclosed pasture, with a few trees. Numbers of black cattle are fatted here, both of the Scotch breed, and a larger sort of oxen with great horns. There is a little cultivated ground, except a few oats.

Skipton, to which I went through Long-Preston and Gargrave, is a pretty large market town, in a valley, with one very broad street gently sloping downwards from the castle, which stands at the head of it. This is one of the good Countess's buildings [1], but on old foundations: it is not very large, but of a handsome antique appearance, with round towers. A grand gateway, bridge, and moat, surrounded by many old trees. It is in good repair, and kept up as the habitation of the Earl of Thanet, though he rarely come thither: what with sleet, and a foolish dispute about chaises, that delayed me, I did not see the inside of it, but went

Craven cattle highland cattle Skipton Skipton Castle Clifford, Anne, Lady Thanet, Earl of

Ann Countess of Pembroke and Montgomery.

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on fifteen miles to Otley: first up Shode-bank, the steepest hill I ever saw a road carried over in England, for it mounts in a straight line (without any other repose for the horses than by placing stones every now and then behind the wheels) for a full mile; then the road goes on a level along the brow of this high hill over Rumbald-moor, till it gently descends into Wharfdale, so they call the vale of the Wharf, and a beautiful vale it is, well wooded, well cultivated, well inhabited, but with high crags at a distance, that border the green country on each hand; through the midst of it, deep, clear, and full to the brink, and of no inconsiderable breadth, runs in long windings, the river. How it comes to pass that it should be so fine and copious a stream here, and at Tadcaster (so much lower) should have nothing but a wide stony channel without water, I cannot tell you. I passed through Long Addingham, Ilkeley, (pronounced Eecly) distinguished by a lofty brow of loose rocks to the right; Burkley, a neat and pretty village among trees; on the opposite side of the river lay Middleton-lodge, belonging to a catholic gentleman of that name; Weston, a venerable stone fabric, with large offices, of Mr. Vavasour, the meadows in front gently descending to the water, and behind a great and shady wood; Farnly (Mr. Fowke's) a place like the last, but larger and rising higher on the side of the hill. Otley is a large airy town, with clean but low rustic buildings, and a bridge over the Wharf; I went into its spacious gothic church, which has been new-roofed, with a flat stucco ceiling; in a corner of it is the monument of Thomas Lord Halifax, and Helen Aske, his lady, descended from the Cliffords and Latimers, as her epitaph says; the figures (which are not ill cut, particularly in his armour, but bare-headed) lie on the tomb. I take them to be the parents of the famous Sir Thomas Fairfax

Shode Bank road, Skipton to Otley Rumbald Moor Wharfedale Wharfe, River Long Addingham Ilkeley Burkley Middleton Lodge Vavasour, Mr Fowke, Mr Halifax, Lord Fairfax, Thomas, Sir Clifford Family Latimer Family

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Mr Cumberland Ode to the Sun ODE TO THE SUN.


SOUL of the world, refulgent sun! Oh, take not from my ravish'd sight Those golden beams of living light, Nor, ere thy daily course be run, Precipitate the night. Lo! where ruffian clouds arise, Usurp the abdicated skies, And seize the aethereal throne: Sullen sad the scene appears, Huge Helvellyn streams with tears! Hark! 'tis giant Skiddaw's groan, I hear terrific Lowdore roar; The sabbath of thy reign is o'er, The anarchy's begun; Father of light! return; break forth, refulgent sun!

What if the rebel blast shall rend These nodding horrors from the mountain's brow - Hither thy glad deliverance send, Ah, save the votarist, and accept the vow! And say, through thy diurnal round, Where, great spectator, hast thou found Such solemn soul-inviting shades, Ghostly dells, religious glades? Where Penitence may plant its meek abode, And hermit Meditation meet its God!

Now by the margin of the glassy deep, My pensive vigils let me keep; There by force of Runic spells, Shake the grot where nature dwells: /

Ode to the Sun Cumberland, Mr sun Helvellyn Skiddaw Lodore Falls

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And in the witching hour of night, Whilst thy pale sister lends her shadowy light, Summon the naked wood-nymphs to my sight.

Trembling now with giddy tread, Press the moss on Gowdar's head. But lo! where sits the bird of Jove, Couch'd in his eyrie far above; Oh! lend thine eye, thy pinion lend, Higher, yet higher let me still ascend. 'Tis done - my forehead smites the skies, To the last summit of the cliff I rise: I touch the sacred ground, Where step of man was never found; I see all nature's rude domain around.

Peace to thy empire, queen of calm desires, Health crown thy hills, and plenty robe thy vales; May thy groves wave untouch'd by wasteful fires, Nor commerce crowd thy lakes with sordid sails!

Press not so fast upon my aching sight, Gigantic shapes; nor rear your heads so high, As if meant to war against the sky, Sons of old chaos and primaeval night. Such were the heights enshrined Bruno trod, When on the cliffs he hung his tow'ring cell, Amongst the clouds aspir'd to dwell, And half-ascended to his God. The prim canal, the level green, The close-clipt hedge, that bounds the flourish'd scene, What rapture can such forms impart, With all the spruce impertinence of art!

Ye pageant streams, that roll in state By the vain windows of the great, Rest on your muddy ooze, and see /

Gowder Crag eagle moon Jove, bird of Bruno

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Old majestic Derwent force His independent course, And learn of him and nature to be free; And you, triumphal arches, shrink; Ye temples, tremble; and ye columns, sink; One nod from Wallow's craggy brow Shall crush the dome Of sacerdotal Rome, And lay her glitt'ring gilded trophies low.

Now, downward as I bend my eye, What is that atom I espy? That speck in nature's plan, Great Heaven! is that a man? And hath that little wretch its cares, Its freaks, its follies, and its airs? And do I hear the insect say, 'My lakes, my mountains, my domain?' O weak, contemptible, and vain! The tenant of the day.- Say to old Skiddaw, 'change thy place,' Heave Helvellyn from his base, Or bid impetuous Derwent stand, At the proud waving of a master's hand.

Now with silent step, and slow, Descend; but first forbear to blow Ye felon winds; let discord cease, And nature seal an elemental peace:- Hush! not a whisper here; Beware! for Echo, on the watch, Sits with erect and list'ning ear, The secrets of the scene to catch; Then swelling, as she rolls around The hoarse reverberated sound, With loud repeated shocks, She beats the loose impending rocks, /

Derwent, River Wallow Crag Echo

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Tears down the fragment big with death, And hurls them thund'ring on the wretch beneath.

Not so the Naiad [1]; she defies The faithless echo, and her yelling cries Howls on the summit of rude Lowdore's brow; Then with a desperate leap, Springs from the rocky steep, And runs enamour'd to the lake below. So the Cambrian minstrel stood, Bending o'er old Conway's flood, White as foam his silver beard, And loud and shrill his voice was heard: All the while down Snowden's side, Winding slow in dread array, He saw the victor king pursue his way; Then fearless rush'd into the foaming tide, Curs'd him by all his idol Gods, and died.

Ah! where is he that swept the sounding lyre, And while he touch'd the master string, Bade ruin seize the ruthless king, With all a prophet's fire? - Mourn him, ye maids, and ye wood-nymphs mourn; But chiefly ye, who rule o'er Keswick's vale, Your visitor bewail, And pluck fresh laurels for his hallow'd urn. He saw your scenes in harmony divine, On him indulgent suns could shine; Me turbid skies and threat'ning clouds await, Emblems, alas! of my ignoble fate.

But see! the embattled vapours break, Disperse and fly, Posting like couriers down the sky; The grey rock glitters in the glassy lake:- /

naiad Lodore Falls Cambrian Minstrel

This alludes to the great water-fall at Lowdore.

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And now the mountain tops are seen Frowning amidst the blue serene; The variegated groves appear, Deck'd in the colours of the waning year; And as new beauties they unfold, Dip their skirts in beaming gold. Thee, savage Wyburn, now I hail, Delicious Grasmere's calm retreat, And stately Windermere I greet, And Keswick's sweet fantastic vale:- But let her naiads yield to thee, And lowly bend the subject knee, Imperial lake of Patrick's dale! [1] For neither Scottish Lomond's pride, Nor smooth Killarney's silver tide, Nor ought that learned Poussin drew, Or dashing Rosa flung upon my view, Shall shake thy sovereign undisturbed right, Great scene of wonder and sublime delight!

Hail to thy beams, O Sun! - for this display, What, glorious orb, can I repay? Not Memnon's costly shrine, Not the white coursers of imperial Rome, Nor the rich smoke of Persia's hecatomb; Such proud oblations are not mine; Nor thou my simple tribute shall refuse, The thanks of an unprostituted muse; And may no length of still-returning day, Strike from my forehead one refulgent ray: But let each tuneful, each attendant sphere, To latest time thy stated labours cheer, And with new Poeans crown the finish'd year.

naiad Wyburn Wythburn Grasmere lake Windermere lake Ullswater Patterdale Patrick's Dale Memnon Rosa, Salvator Poussin Dughet, Gaspard

This alludes to the great lake of Ulls-water, situate in Patterdale, i.e. Patrick's dale, a scene of grandeur and sublimity far superior, in my opinion, to the lake of Keswick.

Ullswater Patterdale

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Rev Plumtre Night Piece on Windermere A NIGHT-PIECE ON THE BANKS OF WINDERMERE,

Written at Ambleside, Westmorland, in the Summer of 1797.


PALE goddess of the serious night, Arise, and cheer my anxious sight; O'er dun twilight's gloom prevail; Invigorate the drooping vale; Shedding o'er mountains, woods, and streams, Thy quiver full of silver beams; Whilst amber, light, and darkest shade, Alternate all the scene pervade. In full-orb's majesty arise, Illume the azure-vaulted skies.

Lo! from behind yon mountain's height; She comes - the chaste-ey'd Queen of Night, Thro' heaven's high cope, her course to run, Till frighted by the garish sun.

Hark! along his rocky shore, I hear impetuous Brathay roar; In sullen majesty he leads, Among the narrow winding meads, His tributary tides. Thee, Rothay, in thy course he meets, Descending from thy flow'ry bed, Swift to thee he fondly glides, With strong embrace thy beauty greets: /

Plumtre, Rev Night Piece on Windermere Windermere lake moon Brathay, River Rothay, River Queen of Night

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Then, with all your glittering train, Together your proud course maintain, And with imperial Windermere, All your boastful honours share; With loud acclaim, exulting, hail! The monarch of the stately vale.

Say, Brathay, as I walk your side, List'ning to your murmuring tide, What sights, what wonders have you seen, Passing your barrier hills between? View'd you old Langdale's solid towers,[1] And Elter-water's peaceful bowers; Where the quarry's yawning scar Hangs hideous in the midnight air! Or, rather higher Langdale's rocks, Hardknot and his mountain twin,[2] At whose rude base your streams begin, Where the widely-straying floods, And the fragrant smelling kine, Their ample wealth combine, And to their happy peasant's board, A frugal, friendly meal afford; Bestowing health and calm content, The greatest blessing heaven has lent: I heard you rattling through the wood, And pass by Colwith's [3] foaming flood; His loose, dishevel'd, hoary head, Affrighted, seeks a calmer bed, Tumbling, from rock to rock, his course, With wild majestic, sullen force; /

Windermere lake Brathay, River Langdale Langdale Pikes Elter Water Thrang Quarry Colwith Force Hardknot Wrynose

Langdale Pikes


Colwith-Force is a very fine, though a small cascade, in Little, or Higher Langdale. The features of it are very wild; and the ruins of a mill, on one side of the rock, have a very good effect.

Colwith Force mill, Colwith

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Till to his sister's [1] arms he flies, And, wide-expanded to the skies, On oozy bed supinely lies.- Again behold him raise his head, As if awaken'd from the dead, Plumb down the rock of Skelwith dash, With hoarse reverberated crash; And, boist'rous boiling from below, Again across the peaceful meadows flow.

So the lorn maniac, in his moods, Sullen o'er his sorrows broods; With unaverted eye, he strays Along the lonely desert ways, With solemn, measur'd, thoughtful pace, Despair depicted in his face: Then starts, and with a stedfast gaze, Replete with horror and amaze, From rock to rock, from steep to steep, Reckless he takes the dangerous leap; Then scours along the level plain Till, all his strength exhaust again, He sinks upon the earth's cold breast, Toil-worn, to take his broken rest.

But, Rothay, you a gentler tide, Serenely through the valleys glide. Peaceful Grasmere's wooded hills, Pour forth for you their tinkling rills.

Skelwith Force Brathay, River Rothay, River Great Langdale Beck

The river Brathay is formed chiefly from two steams,- the one rising in Little Langdale, the other in Great Langdale, where it passes the Pikes and the slate quarry: these join in the small lake of Elter-water. Another of its feeders is the stream from Loughrigg Tarn, a very small but beautiful lake, in the bosom of the mountains, a little to the right of the road as you cross over from Elter-water, or Skelwith-bridge, to Grasmere. /

Brathay, River Great Langdale Beck Elter Water Loughrigg Tarn

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Through Rydal's lake, with placid stream, You, murmuring, in the valley gleam; And, at the neighbouring water's fall, Pass your Fleming's stately hall; For, O 'tis your delight to boast The falls down Rydal's mountains tost; The high cascade[1], with dashing spray, O'er rugged rocks maintains its way, With stubbed trees, by storms despoil'd - A scene most picturesquely wild, Sublime the next cascade appears, The lower, softer features wears.

Such scenes nor Poussin could, nor Claude, In living canvas e'er afford; For nature ev'ry effort tried To form your Fleming's wat'ry pride. - Nor be forgot thy force, Stock-gill, Rushing from the shatter'd hill, Down in frothy torrents tost, Till in the dark abysm lost, And foaming through the woody glen, Thund'ring from rock to rock amain, You seek a refuge in the plain.

O Rothay! yours, and Brathay's stream, Enfold (Well worth the Muse's theme) A spot where Art with Nature vies To catch the enraptur'd poet's eyes. But be it most his pride to tell, There Elegance and Virtue dwell; There Hospitality is found Dealing delight to all around, /

Rothay, River Rydal Water High Fall, Rydal Low Fall, Rydal Poussin Dughet, Gaspard Lorrain, Claude Claude Fleming Family Stockghyll Force

Besides the two cascades in the grounds of Sir Michael le Fleming, there is another higher up, which, when there is plenty of water, is well worth the notice of the picturesque traveller.

Fleming, Michael le, Sir

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With innocence the hour beguiles, And joys to see another's smiles.

Oh! twere endless to declare Thy charms, imperial Windermere: Thy prospects, op'ning to the view, At ev'ry turn delight renew; The skimming bark, with feath'ry sail, Flying before the fresh'ning gale, While Music's voice in aether floats, And Echo still prolongs the notes.- What villas on thy banks arise, T'arrest the far-exploring eyes; Their vary'd beauties to rehearse, Might claim for each a Muse's verse. - Yet let not praise keep quite aloof From Rayrig's hospitable roof; And ever be the spot admir'd, Where learned Watson lives retir'd, Like Cincinnatus, tir'd of state, And factions of the' aspiring great; Withdrawn from party's fierce alarm, He daily tends his little farm. And, oh! had I my utmost will, I'd dwell on yonder woody hill: That humble mansion pleases best, Nam'd from the turtle's peaceful nest.

But, soft - the rustling leaflets sigh, Responsive, as the breeze moves by, In solemn accents, trembling, say, That Storm and Tempest move this way. From yonder murky, lab'ring cloud, Hark! Thunder;s voice rebellows loud: Heav'ns crystal portals open fly, And lightning blazes through the sky;

Windermere lake sailing boat Rayrigg Watson, Mr storm Dove's Nest Echo Cincinnatus

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Wind sweeps along the' afrighted vale; And pattering rain, with pelting hail, Commission'd by great Nature's Lord, Come to fulfil his mighty word, In many a mingling torrent fall, While deep to deep, loud answering, call.

[1] Now tremble, wretch, whose guilty breast Labours with crimes yet unconfess'd; Hide thee, appal'd, thou bloody hand; Thy crime, thou perjur'd, understand; Thou simular of virtue's life, Adulterer with thy neighbour's wife, These high-engender'd warnings hear, These dreadful summoners revere; To all creation they proclaim The Great JEHOVAH'S hallow'd name: Him, and Him only must we fear - Mighty to judge, and merciful to spare.

Let me, O Lord, thy favour win - I am both sinn'd against, and sin; But as against my foes I deal, So let me, God, thy mercy feel, And, through the merits of thy SON, Let me, my earthly race when run, Thy everlasting kingdom share, With all I've ever held most dear, From this world's storms and tempests free, To dwell with Happiness and Thee, To hail the Dayspring from on high, My SAVIOUR'S name to magnify.

And now the elemental war Onwards drives his clattering car, Resounding fainter from afar.- /

Windermere lake storm

See Lear, Act 3, Sc. 2.

King Lear Shakespeare, William

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By slow degrees it dies away; Whilst jocund comes returning Day, From out his chamber in the east, Fresh as a bridegroom newly dress'd, Chasing Midnight, thick and dark, Usher'd by his hearld (sic) lark; Nature wears again her smile, And labour stalks forth to his toil; Fragrance breathes, and perfumes sweet Th'exhilerated senses meet: All, all is joy and gay delight, When day succeeds to fearful night.

'Tis thus in all his dealings still, The God of Nature speaks his will, And never threatens but to save, And awe that wretch who dares to brave That power, which only with a thought, Could make him vanish into nought; And having chasten'd, will forgive, If he return, and bid him live To fairer joys and brighter skies Where neither storms nor tempests rise - The everlasting, bright abode Of an all-righteous, bounteous God.

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By Mr. A. Walker.


Lancaster, August 26th, 1760.

LAST Sunday I visited a cavern about five miles from hence, near the road to Kirkby Lonsdale, Called Dunald-Mill-Hole, a curiosity I think, inferior to none of the kind in Derbyshire, which I have also seen. It is on the middle of a large common, and we are led to it by a brook, nearly as big as the New-River, which, after turning a corn-mill just at the entrance of the cave, runs in at its mouth by several beautiful cascades, continuing its course two miles under a large mountain, and at last making its appearance again near Carnforth, a village on the road to Kendal. The entrance to this subterraneous channel has something most pleasingly horrible in it. From the mill at the top, you descend for about ten yards perpendicularly, by means of chinks in the rocks, and shrubs of trees; the road is then almost parallel to the horizon, leading to the right, a little winding, till you have some hundreds of yards thick of rocks and minerals above you. In this manner we proceeded, sometimes through vaults so capacious, we could not see either roof or sides; and sometimes on all four, from its narrowness; still following the brook, which entertained us with a sort of harmony well suiting the place; for the different height of its falls were as in so many keys of music, which all being conveyed to us by the amazing echo, greatly added to the majestic horror which surrounded us. In our return we were more particular in our observations. The beautiful lakes (formed by the brook in the hollow part of the cavern) realize the fabulous Styx; and murmuring falls from one rock to another, broke the

Dunald Mill Hole Walker, A Carnforth Styx

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rays of our candles, so as to form the most romantic vibrations and appearances upon the variegated roof. The sides too, are not less remarkable for fine colouring: the damp, the creeping vegetables, and the seams in the marble and limestone parts of the rock, make as many tints as are seen in the rainbow, and are covered with a perpetual varnish from the just-weeping springs that trickle from the roof. The curious in grottos, cascades, &c. might here obtain a just taste of nature. When we arrived at the mouth, and once more hailed all-chearing day-light, I could not help but admire the uncouth manner in which nature has thrown together those huge rocks, which compose the arch over the entrance; but, as if conscious of its rudeness, she has clothed it with trees and shrubs of the most various and beautiful verdure, which bend downwards, and with their leaves cover all the rugged parts of the rock. As I never met with an account of this place in any other author, I therefore think it the greater curiosity; but its obscure situation I take to be the reason.

(Parties, returning from the tour of the lakes to Lancaster, who choose to see the above natural curiosity, must leave the Lancaster road to the left, at the guide-post for Kellet, about four miles from Burton. When in the village (a mile farther on) enquire for the road to the mill, which is then near two miles distant. Perhaps, when arrived at the cavern, if the traveller should not think it equal to his expectations and trouble, it may yield him some compensation to enjoy one of the better prospects in the country, which is then about a mile off. Though hitherto unnoticed, a good deal, I think might justly be said in its praise; but previous description is generally more tiresome than welcome. To find this view, proceed eastward, in the direction of the last lane leading to the mill, to the top of the highest rise that you will see on the common before you, and you will be at the station. A very little to the east, you will see a good road on the moor leading to Lancaster, distant about four miles, and the ride will soon entertain with several agreeable objects on the banks of the Lune.)

Over Kellet limestone

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In a letter to a Friend[1],

Of antres vast, and deserts idle, Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose head touch'd heav'n, It was my hint to speak.

Shakespeare's Othello, Act. 1.

SIR,- ACCORDING to promise, I sit down to give you an account of our summer excursion.- After having made the tour of the lakes, we were induced to proceed from Kendal by Kirkby-Lonsdale, Ingleton, Chapel-in-the-Dale, Horton, and Settle, in order to see the caves and other natural curiosities in Craven, in the West-Riding of Yorkshire. This second part of our tour was more entertaining to most of the party than the first, being peculiarly adapted to our taste for natural history, for the great and sublime. While some are pleased with the gay and beautiful, others are only to be roused and affected by the grand and terrible. The strong and nervous sensations require objects proper for their gratification, no less than the most nice and delicate tastes.- If elegant prospects and the refinements of art are suited to these, the rough, irregular, and stupendous works of nature, are no less adapted to the enjoyment of the former. Objects accommodated to the genius of a hardihood truly sublime, are only to be met with, in this island, among the wild and irregular mountains of the north, among the roaring cataracts that roll foaming down precipitate from their lofty summits, and the huge and dreary caverns or profound and yawning chasms they contain within their sides. It is here that Nature delights, as it were, to perform her magnificent works in secret, silently

Tour to the Caves Yorkshire, West Riding Othello Shakespeare, William Craven

This footnote is missing in the 11th edn 1821 text being transcribed here; from the 9th edn 1807, the footnote is:-

This work, written by the late Rev. John Hutton, B.D. Vicar of Burton, with the addition of some philosophical conjectures on the deluge, remarks on the origins of fountains, and observations on the ascent and descent of vapours, occasioned by facts peculiar to the places visited; also a glossary of old words used in the north of England; may be had of the publishers, price 1s. 6d.

Hutton, John, Rev

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satisfied with self-approbation.- As the most amusing part of our tour was in a country not much frequented by the curious and speculative traveller, and never yet described to the public, an account of the objects we met with may perhaps be not unentertaining: it may also tend to excite the curiosity of visiting those unfrequented, yet extraordinary parts of our own native country, and to communicate that rational pleasure which a benevolent mind wishes every one of the same sentiments to partake of.

About six o'clock, one morning in June, we set off from Kendal, and, after travelling about a dozen miles along a good turnpike-road, over Endmoor and Crowbrow, we arrived at Kirkby-Lonsdale soon after eight. About the mid-way we left the little steep white mountain, Farlton-knot, on the right about a mile. It is all composed of solid limestone, and is two or three hundred yards in height. Those who have seen both, say, that on the west side it is very like the rock of Gilbraltar. There were several good mansion-houses by the road side, which, at the beginning of last century, were inhabited by a substantial set of yeomanry and country gentlemen, the most useful members of a community: they are now, however, mostly let out to farmers: the desire of improving their fortunes in trade, or the pleasure of living in towns, have induced the owners to leave them - reverses of fortune, or new attachments, have caused many to sell them, after they had been continued many centuries in their families. Kirkby-Lonsdale is a neat, well paved, clean town, ornamented with several genteel houses, adjoining to some of which are elegant gardens. The houses are covered with blue slate, which has an agreeable effect on the eye of a stranger. A small brook runs through the market-street, which is useful and commodious to the inhabitants: afterwards it turns several mills, in its steep descent to the river Lune. The church is a large and decent structure; the roof is covered with lead, and supported by three rows of pillars. The steeple is a square tower, containing six bells, the music of which we were entertained with at nine o'clock, they being played on by chimes every three hours. Opposite to

road, Kendal to Kirkby Lonsdale Endmoor Crowbrow Farleton Knott limestone Kirkby Lonsdale mill, Kirkby Lonsdale St Mary, Kirkby Lonsdale bells, church

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the church gates is the old hall, taken notice of one hundred and fifty years ago by drunken Barnaby, in his Itinerary . It is still an inn, and no doubt keeps up its ancient character.

Veni Lonsdale, ubi cernam, Aulam factam in tabernam; Nitidae portae, nivei muri, Cyathi pleni, pacae curae; Edunt, bibunt, ludunt, rident, Cura dignum, nihil vident.

I came to Lonsdale, were I staid At hall, into a tavern made: Neat gates, white walls - nought was sparing; Pots brim-full - no thought of caring; They eat, drink, laugh, are still mirth making - Nought they see that's worth care taking.

On our entrance into the church-yard we were struck with the neatness and elegance of the vicarage house, which faced us. The pleasant garden adjoining, ornamented with a neat octagonal summer-house, commanding one of the most delightful prospects of nature, must render this sweet retreat a happy abode to the worthy vicar.

We walked through the church-yard, which is large and spacious, along the margin of a high and steep bank, to neat white mansion-house full in view, somewhat above half a mile distant, called Underley. The prospect was of the most amusing kind. At the foot of the steep bank on which we walked, being about forty or fifty yards perpendicular, glided the large pellucid river Lune, amongst the rocks and pebbles, which amused the ear, whilst the eye was entertained itself with a vast variety of agreeable objects. A transparent sheet of still water, about half a mile in length, lay stretched out before us; at the high end of it was a grotesque range of impending rocks of red stone, about thirty yards in perpendicular height, which had an excellent effect in the scene, both by their colour and situation. We were told,

Barnabee's Journal St Mary, Kirkby Lonsdale Underley Hall Lune, River inn, Kirkby Lonsdale

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that in winter the precipice was in some parts so glazed over with ice, from the water trickling down the surface, as to make it appear like a sheet of alabaster. From other parts of the impending rocks hung great and enormous icicles, which made it appear like a huge organ.

After the eye had traversed over a rich and fertile vale, variegated with woods and country houses, the prospect was terminated with a chain of lofty mountains, which run in a direction from south to north, parallel to the course of the river. The nearest were not above two or three miles off, and looked like the bold and surly sentries of a legion that seemed stationed behind them. On our return we were amused with prospects of a different nature. The church and town before us enlivened the scene: some mill wheels, between them and the river, added an agreeable variety with their motion. The vale beneath seemed to dilate and expand itself: the few parts of it which were visible, afforded sufficient ground to the imagination to conceive an assemblage of the most entertaining objects. Ingleborough, whose head was wrapt in a cloud, stood the farthest to the south in the rank of the mountains which faced us.

After breakfast, we walked by the side of the river to the bridge. The channel is deep, the stream rapid, among rocks, the banks on each side covered with trees of various foliage, which serve both as a defence and ornament. The bridge is the most lofty, strong, ancient, and striking to the eye of a stranger, of any I have yet seen. It is built of freestone, has three arches (two large and one smaller) the height from the surface of the water to the top of the centre arch, except in a flood, is about twelve yards. The arches are of the ribbed sort, which makes the appearance the more grotesque. There is no memorial of its foundation - a negative argument of its vast antiquity. We were indeed amused with one anecdote of its founder, which seemed to be a remnant of the ancient mythology of the north, and one instance, among many, of easily accounting for any thing that is marvellous. The country people have a tradition that it was

Lune, River Kirkby Lonsdale mill, Kirkby Lonsdale Ingleborough Devil's Bridge Lonsdale Lune Valley

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built by the Devil one night in windy weather; he had but one apron full of stones for the purpose, and unfortunately his apron-string breaking as he flew with them over Casterton-fell, he lost many of them out, or the bridge would have been much higher.

From the top of the bridge the prospect down the river is delightful: the sides of the deep channel covered with trees, are nearly parallel for half a mile, and the water one continued surface, save here and there where a pointed rock lift up its head above the stream. We walked down by the side of the river about a mile, and as we proceeded were continually presented with new prospects; while the soft murmurs of the river afforded a variety of different notes. The vale of Lonsdale dilating by degrees, presented us in succession with the different seats and villages that adorn it: Whittington and Arkholme to the west; Tunstal, Melling, Hornby and its castle, to the south; and Leck to the east. The brown and blue mountains of Burnmore and Lyth-fell terminated the view, which we could have wished had extended still farther to the south. While we were selecting various objects for our amusement, we suddenly and insensibly arrived at Overborough, the seat of Thomas Fenwick, Esq. a modern house and one of the largest and most elegant in the county of Lancaster: being situated on a rising ground, though near the river Lune, its different fronts command all the delightful prospects which the vale affords. During our excursion through the gardens and pleasure grounds adjoining, we were presented with views of a different sort to any we had hitherto enjoyed: sometimes we were embowered with woods and lofty trees - nothing of the adjacent country to be seen, save here and there the blue peak of Ingleborough, or some neighbouring mountain; till we crossed a broad vista, which suddenly exhibited a new and unexpected scene of the winding vale beneath. A stranger, in going from the hall to the gardens, must be struck with a surprise bordering on terror, on viewing the profound and gloomy glen by the side of his way. The trees which guard this steep bank prevent the eye from seeing the river Leck, which flows through a chasm

Devil's Bridge Casterton Fell Devil, The Lune, River Whittington Arkholme Tunstal Melling Hornby Leck Burnmore Lyth Fell Overborough Fenwick, Thomas Leck, River Lonsdale

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amongst rocks at the bottom: imagination is left to conceive the cause of the deep and solemn murmurs beneath.

Our ideas of the beauties of art and nature were mellowed and refined by those of venerable antiquity. We were now on classic ground, Overborough being most undoubtedly a Roman station and garrison - the Bremetonacoe (sic) of the emperor Antoninus, as may be collected from Tacitus and other ancient writers. Bremetonacae is placed twenty Roman (or eighteen English) miles north of Coccium, or Ribchester, and twenty-seven Roman (or twenty-four English) miles south of Galacum, which some antiquaries conceive to be Apulby, though others with more probability think it was Brough: the distances correspond, besides the additional argument of their being nearly in the same direction, whether we conceive Galacum to be Apulby or Brough. The Roman road is easily traced from Ribchester into Yorkshire, running on the north side of Slaidburn, through Crossa-Greta, then on the north side of Tatham Chapel, through Bentham, to Overborough; [1] afterwards the Roman road goes through Casterton and Middleton, and, as some think, by Borrow-bridge and Orton, to Apulby. Others, and perhaps from better reasons, are of opinion, the road went by Sedbergh, or Sedburgh, [2] over Blewcaster, along Ravenstonedale-street, and through Kirkby-Stephen, to Brough or Burgh. For Antoninus's tenth Itinerary runs from Glanoventa or Lanchester, in the county of Durham, by Galacum, Bremetonacae, Coccium, Mancunium or Manchester, to Glenovento or Draton, in the county of Salop. In various places by the side of this road are high artificial mounts of earth, which were without doubt the stations of centinels, to prevent any insurrections, or being surprised by an enemy: they may be now seen entire at Burton-in-Lons-

Leck, River Overborough roman fort roman fort, Overborough Bremetonacae Antoninus Coccium Ribchester Galacum Apulby Appleby-in-Westmorland Brough roman road Slaidburn Crossa Greta Tatham Chapel Bentham Middleton Casterton Low Borrow Bridge Orton Sedbergh Blewcaster Ravenstonedale Street Kirkby Stephen Antonine itineraries X Glanoventa Lanchester Mancunium Manchester Glenovento Drayton Shropshire Tacitus roman road

A full account of the antiquities of Bremetonacae, or Overborough, may be seen in a quarto volume, published by Richard Rauthmell.

Bremetonacae roman fort, Overborough Overborough roman fort Rauthmell, Richard

Chester, or caster, is derived from the Latin word castrum, or camp. Street is derived from the Latin word stratum, or military road, or causeway. Borough, or Burgh, from the Greek word burgos, or watch tower.

chester caster castrum street stratum road borough burgh burgos watch tower placename

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[Burton-in-Lons]dale, Overborough, Kirkby-Lonsdale, and Sedbergh. There are several lateral ones, as at Lune-bridge near Hornby, at Melling, and Wennington. On our return we had the bridge full in view most of the way: its antiquity and greatness made its presence venerable and respected. About a furlong before we arrived at the bridge, the town of Kirkby-Lonsdale appeared in a point of view peculiarly pleasing: the high walls of a gentleman's garden, which were between us and the town, made it like a fenced city in miniature; the tower steeple of the church rising proudly eminent above the blue slated houses, with which it was on every side surrounded.

[1] We mounted our horses at the bridge, about eleven o'clock, having ordered them down thither in order to save half an hour in going up the town for them. We travelled near the bottoms of the mountains, on the side of Lonsdale, along the turnpike-road, about an hour, being in three counties in that short interval, Westmorland, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, and amidst a variety of entertaining prospects. The number of small carts laden with coals, and each dragged by one sorry horse, that we met, was surprising to a stranger. Many of the smaller farmers, betwixt Kirkby-Lonsdale and Kendal, earn their bread with carrying coals, during most part of the year, from the pits at Ingleton, Black-Burton, or properly Burton-in-Lonsdale, to Kendal and the neighbouring places, for fuel, and burning lime, in order to manure their land. These beds of coal, we were informed, are six or seven feet in thickness. A steam-engine was erected at Black-Burton, more commodiously to work their best collieries. A survey was lately subscribed for to be made, in order to have a canal from these pits to Lancaster, were (sic) coals might be exported; as also to Kendal and Settle, which are towns much in want of fuel.

After we had got about six miles from Kirkby-Lonsdale, to a public-house called Thornton Church-stile, we stopped to

roman road Burton in Lonsdale Overborough Kirkby Lonsdale St Mary, Kirkby Lonsdale Devil's Bridge Sedbergh Lune Bridge Hornby Melling Wennington coal mine lime kiln Black Burton steam engine canal Thornton Church Stile road, Kirkby Lonsdale to Ingleton Thornton in Lonsdale

If the traveller is distressed for time, and has no inclination to take a second view of the river Lune and its environs, he may order his horse to be sent to Cowan-bridge, and walk through the park of Borough-hall, where he may be entertained with a variety of other prospects.

Cowan Bridge Borough Hall

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procure a guide, candles, lanthorn, tinder-box, &c. for the purpose of seeing Yordas-Cave, in the vale of Kingsdale, about four miles off. By the advice of a friend, we took also with us a basket of provisions, which we found afterwards were of real service. When we had gone about a mile, we were entertained with a fine cascade, called Thornton-force, near some slate quarries, made by the river issuing out of Kingsdale. This cataract had some features different to any we had yet seen among the lakes; but which greatly conduced to render it peculiarly engaging. Part of the river tumbled with impetuosity from the top of the stratum of huge rocks, perpendicularly, about 20 yards: another part of it, in search of a nearer and less violent course, had discovered a subterranean passage, and gushed out of the side of the precipice; when they immediately again united their streams in a large, rounded, deep, and black bason at the bottom. From the margin of this pool the view may be taken to greatest advantage: the high rock on the south and opposite side about a half a dozen yards higher than the cascade, and mantled with shrubs and ivy, leaves nothing on that hand for the imagination to supply. If the archetype was not in being, it might be thought the subterranean stream was added to the picture, by the ingenuity of the artist, in order to give a finishing stroke to the beauty of the scene. This little river is worthy the company of the curious tourist for about a mile along its course through a deep grotesque glen, fortified on each side by steep or impending high rocks. About a mile higher we came to the head of the river, which issues from one fountain called Keld's-head, [1] to all appearance more copious than St. Winifred's Well, in Flintshire; though there is a broken, serpentine, irregular channel, extending to the top of the vale, down which a large stream is poured from the mountains in rainy weather. We now found ourselves in the midst of a small valley, about three miles long, and somewhat more than half a mile broad, the most extraordinary of any we had yet seen. It was surrounded on all sides by

Yordas Cave candle lantern tinder box Thornton Force Kingsdale Kingsdale Beck Twiss, River Keld Head St Winifred's Well

Keld seems the ancient Saxon or British word for spring or fountain and is often made use of in that sense in these parts of Yorkshire

keld spring placename

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high mountains, some of them the loftiest of any in England - Whernside to the south-east, and Gragareth to the north. There was no descent from this vale, except the deep chasm where we saw the cascade. It seemed opened in some distant age, either by the gradual effect of the washing of the river, or some violent and extraordinary flood bursting open the rugged barrier that pent it up. The vale above has all the appearance of having been once a lake, from the flatness of its surface, and its rich soil, like a sediment subsided on the bottom of a stagnant water. We were informed, that the subterranean cascade beneath, just now mentioned, has but lately made its appearance, and is every day more and more enlarging. We were quite secluded from the world, not an habitation for a man in view, but a lonely shepherd's house, with a little wood, and a few inclosures near it, called Breadagarth: it is on the north side of a high mountain, seldom visited by man, and never by the sun for near half a year. The shepherd, its solitary inhabitant, with longing eyes looks for returning verdure, when the sun begins to throw his benign rays on the solitary abode. No monk or anchoret could desire a more retired situation for his cell, to moralise on the vanity of the world, or disappointed lover to bewail the inconstancy of his nymph. The soil seemed the deepest and richest, in some parts of this vale, of any we had ever observed, and no doubt is capable of great improvement. We could not but lament, that instead of peopling the wilds and deserts of North America, our fellow-subjects had not peopled the fertile wastes of the north of England. We have since indeed been informed, that a plan is in agitation for having them inclosed, when no doubt but it will support some scores of additional families.- While we were musing on the many bad effects of peopling distant countries, and neglecting our own, we arrived at the object of this excursion, Yordas-cave: it is almost at the top of the vale, on the north-west side of it, under the high mountain Gragareth. We discovered it by some sheep-folds, at the mouth of a rugged gill or glen, in which we safely pent up our horses. In rainy seasons, we were told, a copious stream is poured down this gill, and a cascade falls over the very entrance into the cave, so as to pre-

Whernside Gragareth Kingsdale Thornton Force Breadagarth Braida Garth Yordas Cave emigration

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[pre]vent any further approach. We were, however, favoured by the weather, and met with no obstacle of that nature to stop our ingress, but boldly entered a large aperture to the left, into the side of the mountain, like the great door of some cathedral. Having never been in the cave before, a thousand ideas, which had been for many years dormant, were excited in my imagination on my entrance into this gloomy cavern. Several passages out of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Virgil, and other classics, crowded into my mind together. At one time I thought it like the den where Cadmus met the huge serpent.-

Silva vetus stabet, nulla violata securi; Est specus in medio virgis ac vimene densus, Efficiens humilem lapidum compagibus arcum; Ubericus foecundus aquis. Hoc conditus antro Martius anguis erat.

Ovid's Met. b.3. fab .1.

Within this vale there rose a shady wood Of aged trees: in its dark bosom stood A bushy thicket, pathless and unworn, O'errun with brambles, and perplex'd with thorn; Amidst the brake a hollow den was found, With rocks and shelving arches vaulted round; Deep in the dreary den, conceal'd from day, Sacred to Mars, a mighty dragon lay.


Indeed, there wanted nothing but an ancient wood, to make one believe that Ovid had taken from hence his lively description.

As we advanced within this antre vast, and the gloom and horror increased, the den of Cacus, and the cave of Poliphemus, came into my mind. I wanted nothing but a Sybil conductress with a golden rod, to imagine myself, like Eneas, going into the infernal region. [1] The roof was so high, and

Yordas Cave Ovid Metamorphoses Addison Cacus Polyphemus Sybil Aeneas Cadmus

See Virgil's Eneid, L.3. l.616 and L.6. l.205. and L.6. l.234

Virgil Aeneid

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the bottom and sides so dark, that, with all the light we could procure from our candles and torches, we were not able to see the dimensions of this cavern. The light we had, seemed only darkness visible, and would serve a timid stranger, alone, and ignorant of his situation,

To conceive things monstrous, and worse Than fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd - Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire.


The height of the cave was somewhat between a dozen and twenty yards; the breadth about the same dimension with the height; and the length at least fifty or sixty yards. Some of the party, who had seen both, thought it much more stupendous and magnificent than the famous Peak's-hole, in Derbyshire.

Having passed a small brook, which one of the party called the Stygian lake, we came to the western side of the cave. It is a solid perpendicular rock of black marble, embellished with many rude sketches, and names of persons now long forgotton (sic), the dates of some being above two hundred years old. After we had proceeded thirty or forty yards northward, past some huge rocks that had at sometime fallen from the roof or side, and arrived at a collonade of rude massy pillars, standing obliquely on their bases, the road divided itself into two parts, but not like that of Eneas, when descending in the realms of Pluto -

Hac inter Elysium nobis; at loeva malorum Exercet poenas, et ad impia Tartarus mittit.

Virgil's En. b.6. l .542.

'Tis here in different paths the way divides; The right to Pluto's golden palace guides; The left to that unhappy region tends, Which to the depth of Tartarus descends, The seat of night profound, and punish'd fiends.-

Yordas Cave Milton graffiti Virgil Aeneid Stygian Lake marble black marble Pluto Tartarus Aeneas

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- No; they both had a divine tendency: on the right was the bishop's throne, and on the left the chapter-house - so called from their resemblance to these appendages of a cathedral. Here we could not but lament the devastation made in the ornaments of these sacred places; some Goths, not long since, having defaced both throne and chapter-house of their pendant petrified works, which had been some ages in forming. The little sascades (sic), which fell in various places from the roof and sides with different trilling notes, serving to entertain the ear with their watery music; while the eye was busy in amusing itself with the curious reflections which were made by our lights from the streams and petrifactions which appeared all around us. We were told by our guide, what a great effect the discharge of a gun or pistol would have upon our ears; but not being desirous to carry our experimental philosophy so far as to endanger or give pain to the organs of hearing, we were not disappointed in having no apparatus for that purpose. We followed a winding passage amongst high and grotesque pillars, being led by the noise of a falling stream, till we arrived at the chapter-house. From the dome of this natural edifice fell a fine and clear cascade into a bason of transparent waters, which served in a peculiar manner to embellish the works of nature, in a style superior to any thing we can have in those of art. We were shown a low and narrow passage on one of the shelves of the rock near the chapter-house, which, we were informed, led to a wider path, extending itself into the heart of the mountain; but our curiosity was satisfied without crawling among the rocks besmeared with slime and mud.

If we had not been cautioned to beware of coming out too suddenly, lest the quick transition from the dreary gloom of the cavern into the glare of sunshine, should injure the sense of seeing, the curiosity for exploring every part in our return, now when our eyes were more opened, was sufficient to retard our steps, and prevent a too hasty egress. While we were regailing sic) ourselves with the provisions we had brought, we enquired of our guide, if he could furnish us with any curious anecdotes relative to this cave. After informing us that it

Yordas Cave stalactite stalagmite Goths vandalism petrifactions reflection

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had been alternately the habitation of giants and fairies, as the different mythology prevailed in the country, he mentioned two circumstances we paid some attention to.- About fifty or sixty years ago, a madman escaped from his friends at or near Ingleton, and lived here a week in the winter season, having had the precaution to take off a cheese, and some other provisions, to his subterranean hermitage. As there was snow on the ground, he had the cunning of Cacus (see Virgil's Eneid, b.8. l.209.) to pull the heels off his shoes, and set them on inverted at the toes, to prevent being traced - an instance, among many others, of a madman's reasoning justly on some detached part of an absurd plan or hypothesis. Since that time, he told us, a poor woman, big with child, travelling alone up this inhospitable vale to that of Dent, was taken in labour, and found dead in this cave.

We now proceeded to examine the pits and chasms apparently caused by the water after it had has run through the cave. We ascended the hill a little higher, to view the gill above the cave: a stream of water flowed down it, which entering an aperture in the rock, we could see descend from steep to steep a considerable way. We made no doubt but it was the same stream which afterwards falls down through the roof of the chapter-house. Here was also a quarry of black marble, of which elegant monuments, chimney-pieces, slabs, and other pieces of furniture, are made by Mr. Tomlinson, at Burton-in-Lonsdale. When polished, this marble appears to be made up of entrochi, and various parts of testaceous and piscosous reliques.

We were persuaded to climb up to the top of the base of Gragareth, the mountain in whose side Yordas is situated, in order to see Gingling-cave. It is on the edge of that flat base of the mountain, on a green plain by the side of a brook, looking down into the vale; Ingleborough appearing a little to the left, or north-east of Breda-Garth, which was almost opposite. This natural curiosity is a round aperture, narrow at the top, but most probably dilating in its dimensions to a profound extent. The stones we threw in made an hollow

Yordas Cave Virgil Aeneid fairy giant quarry, marble marble black marble Tomlinson, Mr Burton in Lonsdale entrochi Gragareth Jingling Pot Gingling Cave Jingling Caves hermit Cacus snow

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gingling noise for a considerable time. At intervals we could hear nothing of their descent; then again we heard them resound in deeper keys, till they were either immersed in some deep pool, or arrived at too great a distance to be heard: for there seemed a variety of different passages for their descent, some being much sooner intercepted in their career than others. Two dogs that were with us, and a small horse brought up by one of the party, seemed violently agitated, and under fearful trepidations, under horrors resembling those we are told the animal creation are seized with preceeding or during an earthquake. Though our reason convinced us of the impossibility of the ground falling in beneath us, we could not but feel many apprehensions, accompanied with sensations hitherto unknown.- We could not learn that any swain had ever been adventurous enough to be let down by ropes in the vast hiatus, to explore those unseen regions, either from a principle of curiosity, or to search for hidden mines.- We were informed of some other openings into this mountain, of a like kind with Gingling-cave, but being at a distance, and of an inferior nature, we returned to Yordas for our horses, which we had pent up in the sheep folds, and proceeding down the vale, we crossed over it at the bottom to Twisleton, and soon arrived at Ingleton.

[1] After we had regaled and rested ourselves comfortably at the Bay-horse, we took an evening walk, about a mile above the town, to the slate quarries by the side of the river Wease, or Greta, which comes down out of Chapel-in-the-Dale, and joins the Kingsdale river at Ingleton. Here we had objects both of nature and art to amuse ourselves with. On one

Jingling Pot Twisleton Bay Horse inn Ingleton Wease, River Greta, River Doe, River Kingsdale Beck Chapel-le-Dale

If the tourist would proceed immediately to Chapel-in-the-Dale, he may go either below Breada-garth to Twisleton, and then turn up the vale to Chapel-in-the-dale; or, which is a nearer road, he may cross Kingsdale above Breada-garth, and ascend the mountain, pursuing a rough and not well-defined road, taking care to keep on the south-west side of a swamp, near a hill, or a heap of stones called a hurder, on the base of Whernside, and then to turn round the west corner of the mountain: afterwards he must turn his course easterly, along the base of the mountain, till he comes to some lanes, any of which will lead him, by some houses, down to the chapel, in the middle of the vale between Whernside and Ingleborough.

Chapel-in-the-Dale Chapel-le-Dale Braida Garth Twiselton Twisleton Kingsdale hurder Whernside

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hand was a precipice ten or twelve yards perpendicular, made by the labour of man, being a quarry of fine large blue slate, affording an useful and ornamental cover for the houses in the adjoining parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Westmorland: on the other hand was the river rolling down from rock to rock, in a narrow deep chasm, where there was no room for human foot to tread between the stream and the rugged, high, steep rocks on each side. Several pieces of the slate were bespangled with yellow marcasites, of a cubic form and different sizes; others were gilded over with the various foliages of ferns, pines, oaks, and other vegetables. This bed of slate runs nearly from south to north, by this place and the quarry near Thornton-force. Its length may be traced two or three miles, though about 200 or 300 yards in breadth - and indeed, of good slate, but a few yards broad. The plain of the stratum is nearly perpendicular to the horizon, and may afford matter of speculation to the natural philosopher, as to its cause, whether from some melted and liquid matter being forced up there at the deluge, or some subsequent volcano; as it is limestone rock on both the east and west side of it, and apparently severed assunder by the weight of the western stratum separating from the above by its inclination to the vale beneath.- We crossed the river by means of the broken fragments of rocks, which afforded us their rugged backs above the surface of the water to tread on. Here we met with a fine field for our entertainment as botanists. There was the lady's-slipper, the fly-orchis, rarely to be met with elsewhere, and many other scarce and curious plants. We crossed over to take a second view of Thornton-force, on the south side of the Kingsdale river, and followed its murmuring stream down a deep glen, fortified with high precipices on each side, to Ingleton; nor did we think ourselves ill repaid, for all the difficulties we had to encounter in our road amongst rocks and streams, as something new and amusing presented itself almost every step we took.

Ingleton is a pretty village, pleasantly situated on a natural mount, yet at the bottom of a vale, near the conflux of two

slate quarry, slate marcasite fossil Thornton Force lady's slipper fly orchis Ingleton Kingsdale Beck

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rivers, over which are thrown two handsome arches. If the streams are sometimes small, the huge stones and fragments of rocks which are rolled down the beds of these rivers, will serve to show that at other times they are remarkably full and impetuous. The church-yard, [1] in the middle of which stands a neat sacred edifice, commands a fine view of the vale of Lonsdale, almost as far as Lancaster. The murmurs of the streams below sooth (sic) the ear, while the eye is selecting a variety of objects for its entertainment. On the back-ground are the lofty mountains of Gragareth, Whernside, and Ingleborough, the summits of which, when they are not enveloped in the clouds, can scarcely be seen for their high intervening bases. When the top of Ingleborough is covered with a thick white mist (or, as the country people say, when he puts on his night-cap) there are often strong gusts, called helm winds, blowing from thence to that part of the country which adjoins to its base. The like observation is made, by the mariners, of the table-land of the Cape of Good Hope, on the coast of Africa. They are called helm winds, from their blowing from the cloud or helmet that covers the head of the mountains.- Amongst other entertainments, the civil usuage and good accommodations we met with at our inn, contributed not a little to heighten the amusements and pleasures of the day. [2]

Early next morning we set off for Ingleton-fells, or Chapel-in-the-Dale, along the turnpike-road leading to Askrig and Richmond. We had not travelled much above a mile before we came into the dale, which is about three quarters of a

inn, Ingleton church, Ingleton Lonsdale valley Gragareth Whernside Ingleborough helm wind

The editor Barnaby's Journal has this distish on Ingleton -

Purgus inest fano, fanum sub acumine collis; Collis ab elatis actus & auctus aquis.

The poor man's box is in the temple set: Church under hill, and hill by waters beat.

Barnabee's Journal Ingleton

The writer of this Tour to the Caves was informed of a deep and curious chasm on the western extremity of the base of Ingleborough, about the village of Caldecoates, about a mile or two from Ingleton; but as he did not see it himself, he has not attempted a description of it from tradition.

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mile broad. For near three miles it had something in its appearance very striking to the naturalist: there were high precipices of limestone rock on each side; and the intermediate vale, to a lively imagination, would seem once to have been of the same height, but sunk down by the breaking of pillars, which had supported the roof of an enormous vault.- About three miles from Ingleton is the head of the river Wease, or Greta, on the left hand side of the road, only a few yards distant from it. It gushes out of several fountains at once, all within twenty or thirty yards of each other; having run about two miles under ground, though making its appearance in two or three places within that distance. When there are floods, its runs also above ground, though not in all places, except the rains are extraordinary great. This the subterranean river mentioned by Dr. Goldsmith in his entertaining Natural history, (vol. 1st,) by the name of Greatah.

When we had gone about a mile farther, being four miles from Ingleton, we turned off the turnpike-road to some houses near the chapel, where we left our horses. At first we imagined we had here met with an exception to the maxim of poet Butler, the author of Hudibras, viz.-

A Jesuit never took in hand To plant a church in barren land.

For the chapelry produceth neither wheat, oats, barley, pease, nor any other sort of grain; nor apples, pears, plums, cherries, nor any kind of fruit - a ripe gooseberry was a natural curiosity in the summer season, in most parts of the district; even their potatoes they have from other places. Yet though they were destitute of these productions, they were blessed with others as valuable, by way of compensation. They abound with excellent hay ground and pastures, and were rich in large flocks, and herds of cattle, which enabled them to purchase every conveniency of life. Having little intercourse with the luxurious, vicious, and designing part of mankind, they were temperate, substantial, sincere, and hospitable. We found an intelligent, agreeable, and entertain-

Doe, River Goldsmith, Dr Butler, Mr Hudibras chapel, Chapel-le-Dale Chapel-le-Dale sheep cattle

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[entertain]ing companion and guide, in the curate, who served them also as school-master. As Dr. Goldsmith observes on a like occasion,

A man he was to all the country dear, And passing rich with thirty pounds a year.

The first curiosity we were conducted to, was Hurtlepot, about eighty yards above the chapel. [1] It is a round, deep hole, between thirty and forty yards diameter, surrounded with rocks almost on all sides, between thirty and forty feet perpendicular above a deep black water in a subterranean cavity at its bottom. All round the top of this horrid place are trees, which grow secure from the axe; their branches almost meet in the centre, and spread a gloom over a chasm dreadful enough of itself without being heightened with any additional appendages. It was indeed one of the most dismal prospect we had yet been presented with: almost every sense was affected in such an uncommon manner, as to excite ideas of a nature truly horribly sublime. When ever we threw in a pebble, or spoke a word, our ears were assailed with a dismal hollow sound, our nostrils were affected with an uncommon complication of strong smells, from the ramps and other weeds that grew plentifully about its sides, and the rank vapours that exhaled from the black abyss beneath. The descent of Eneas into the infernal regions came again fresh into my imagination, and the following passage out of Virgil obtruded itself on my memory,-

Spelunca alta fuit, vastoque immanis hiatu Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris; Quam super haud ulloe poterant impune volantes Tendere iter pennis: talis sese halitus atris Faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat; Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Avernum.

Eneid, b.6. l.237.

Goldsmith, Dr Hurtle Pot Virgil Aeneid ramps wild garlic

About one hundred yards below the chapel there are the ruins of an old cave, called Sandpot; the top has apparently sometime fallen in, and has covered the bottom with its ruins. A large cascade is distinctly heard through this rubbish. If a descent were opened, no doubt but a subterranean passage would be discovered, leading either to the caves above the chapel, or, more probably, to Douk-cave, on the base of Ingleborough, if not to both.

Sandpot Great Douk Cave Douk Cave

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Deep was the cave, and downwards as it went From the wide mouth, a rocky, rough descent: And here the' access a gloomy grove defends: And there the unnavigable lake extends, O'er whose unhappy waters, void of light, No bird presumes to steer his airy flight: From hence the Grecian bards their legends make, And give the name Avernus to the lake.


After viewing for some time, with horror and astonishment, its dreadful aspect from the top, we were emboldened to descend, by a steep and slippery passage, to the margin of this Avernian lake. What its depth is, we could not learn; but from the length of time the sinking stones we threw in continued to send up bubbles from the black abyss, we concluded it to be very profound. How far it extended under the huge pendant rocks, we could get no information of, a subterranean embarkation having never yet been fitted out for discoveries. In great floods, we were told, this pot runs over: some traces of it then remained on the grass. While we stood at the bottom, the awful silence was broken every three or four seconds by drops of water falling into the lake from the rocks above in different solemn keys. The sun shining on the surface of the water, illuminated the bottom of the superincumbent rocks, only a few feet above; which being viewed by reflection in the lake, caused a curious deception, scarcely any where to be met with - they appeared at the like distance below its surface, in form of a rugged bottom: but, alas! how fatal would be the consequence, if any adventurer should attempt to wade across the abyss on this shadow of a foundation! - While we were standing on the margin of this subterranean lake, we were suddenly astonished with a most uncommon noise on the surface of the water, under the pendant rocks. It is called by the country people Hurtlepot boggard, and sometimes the fairy churn, as a churn it resembles. It is no doubt frightful to them, and would have been so to us, if we had not been apprized of the cause: we found it was effected by the glutting of the surface of the water

Hurtle Pot Dryden Avernus boggart fairy churn Hurtlepot Boggard reflections

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against the bottom of some rocks, or passages worn into them to a considerable distance, when it was descending after rain, as then happened to be the case.- This deep is not without its inhabitants: large black trouts are frequently caught in it by the neighbouring people. Botanists find here some rare and curious plants.

On our return from the margin of this Avernian lake, we found the observation of the poet Virgil very applicable,-

... Fascilis descensus Averni: Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis; Sed revocare gradum, superasque evadere ad auras , Hoc opus, hic labor est.

The gates of hell are open night and day; Smooth the descent, and easy is the way; But to return, and view the cheerful skies - In this the task and mighty labour lies.


When we arrived in the superior regions, we pursued our journey about a hundred and fifty yards farther up a very narrow grotesque glen, over a natural bridge of limestone above ten yards thick, having the subterranean river Wease, or Greta, underneath. When we got to the head of this gill, we were stopped by a deep chasm called Ginglepot, at the bottom of a precipice. It is of an oblong and narrow form. An enterprising person, with a steady head and active heels, regardless of the fatal consequences from a false step, might leap over it. It is filled with smooth pebbles at the bottom except the south corner, where there is a deep water, which, in floods, swells up to the top, and issues out in a vast torrent. The length of this chasm is about ten yards, and the perpendicular depth at the north corner, about twenty yards.- In our way from Hurtlepot, we could not help remarking the ruins of two small artificial mounts of earth, which, we were told, formerly served as buts (sic), when the inhabitants exercised themselves in the ancient military accomplishment of archery. The naturalist must also be entertained with the successful efforts

Hurtle Pot trout black trout Virgil Gingle Pot Jingle Pot Doe, River butts, Chapel-le-Dale archery butts

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that had been made by the roots of some old ashes; to get across the dry and broad bed of rocks to a rich bed of sandy soil, in order to support their aged parents, for ever doomed to dwell on the steep side of a barren and rugged cliff.

Returning back a little way from Ginglepot, in order to find a passage out of this dreary glen, we proceeded about an hundred and twenty yards higher, when we came to Weathercoat cave, or cove [1], the most surprising natural curiosity of the kind in the island of Great Britain. It is a stupendous subterranean cataract, in a huge cave, the top of which is on the same level with the adjoining lands. On our approach to its brink, our ears and eyes were equally astonished with the sublime and terrible. The margin was surrounded with trees and shrubs, the foliage of which was of various shapes and colours, which had an excellent effect both in guarding and ornamenting the steep and rugged precipices on every side.- Where the eye could penetrate through the leaves and branches, there was room for the imagination to conceive this cavern more dreadful and horrible, if possible, than it was in reality. This cave is of a lozenge form, and divided into two by a rugged and grotesque arch of limestone rock: the whole length, from south to north, is about sixty yards, and the breadth about half its length. At the south end is the entrance down into the little cave; on the right of which is a subterranean passage under the rocks, and a petrifying well. A stranger cannot but take notice of a natural seat and table in a corner of this grotesque room, well suited for a poet or philosopher: here he may be secluded from the bustle of the world, though not from noise; the uniform roaring, however, of the cascade, will exclude from the ear every other sound, and his

ash Weathercoate Cave petrifying well

The word cave is pronounced by the country people cove, or coave. This hint may be of service to a stranger in his enquiries.- This cave is not above 100 yards from the turnpike-road from Lancaster to Richmond: it is on the left hand side of the twenty-second milestone from Lancaster, from whence the cascade may be distinctly heard. The delicate and timid may neither be afraid of their persons or clothes, if they have no mind to descend: they may stand safe on the margin of either Hurtlepot, Ginglepot, or Weathercoat-cave. They will there see enough to astonish them, and imagination will supply the rest.

Weathercoate Cave Hurtle Pot Jingle Pot rainbow

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retirement will conceal him from every object that might divert the eye.- Having descended with caution from rock to rock, we passed under the arch, and came into the great cave, where we stood some time in silent astonishment to view the amazing cascade. The perpendicular height of the north corner of this cave, was found, by an exact admeasurement, to be thirty-six yards. Near eleven yards from the top issues a torrent, out of a hole in the rock, about the dimensions of a large door in a church, conveying usually as much water as the New River at London. It rushes forwards with a curvature, which shows that it has had a steep descent before it appears in open day, and tumbles precipitately twenty-five yards perpendicular down on the rocks at the bottom, with a noise that amazes the most intrepid ear. The water sinks as its (sic) falls amongst the rocks and pebbles, running by a subterranean passage about a mile, when it appears again by the side of the turnpike road, visiting in its way the other caverns of Ginglepot and Hurtlepot. The cave is filled with the spray that arises from the water dashing against the bottom; and the sun happening to shine very bright, we had a small vivid rainbow within a few yards of us, for colour, size, and situation perhaps no where else to be equalled. A huge rock, that had sometime been rolled down by the impetuosity of the stream, and was suspended between us and the top of the cascade, like the coffin of Mahomet at Medina, had an excellent effect in the scene. Though the stream had polished the surfaces of the pebbles on which it fell at the bottom, by rolling them against each other, yet its whole force was not able to drive from its native place the long black moss that firmly adhered to the large immovable rocks. We were tempted to descend into a dark chamber at the very bottom of the cave, covered over with a ceiling of rock above 30 yards thick, and from thence behind the cascade, at the expense of having our clothes a little wet and dirtied; when the noise became tremendous, and the idea for personal safety awful and alarming, as the rocks on which we stood, and every one about us seemed to shake with the vast concussion. We were informed, that in a great drought the divergency of the stream is so small, that we might with safety go quite round the cascade. At

Weathercoate Cave Doe, River Jingle Pot Hurtle Pot

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the bottom we were shown a crevice, where we might descend to the subterranean channel, which would lead us to Ginglepot, and perhaps much farther: we were also shown above a shallow passage between the strata of rocks, along which we might crawl to the orifice out of which the cascade issued, where it was high enough to walk erect, and where we might have the honour of making the first expedition for discoveries, no creature having yet proceeded in that passage out of sight of day-light: but as we were apprehensive the dangers and difficulties to be encountered in our progress, would not be compensated by the pleasure, we did not attempt to explore these new regions [1]. After a little rain another cascade, similar to the former, falls nearly from the same height on the west side of the cave, appearing and disappearing, with great variety, amongst the rocks, as if it fell down the chimney of a ruinous building, where several holes were made into it in the gable end. If the rains still increase, a large stream sets in out of the room by the side of the little cave; and in great floods, a vast river falls into the great cave, down the precipice on the eastern side. Nothing can be more grotesque and terrible, than to view this cave when about half full of water: a variety of cascades issue from crannies in every quarter - some as small as a tap in a hogshead, and others as copious as rivers - all pouring with impetuosity into this deep and rugged bason. With their united streams they are sometimes able to fill the whole capacity of the cavern, and make it overflow; the subterranean crannies and passages of this leaky vessel not being able, with the increased pressure from above, to carry off the water as fast as it is poured

Weathercoate Cave Jingle Pot Doe, River

The writer of this Tour, in company with the owner of the cave, and some others, has since been in the passage out of which the cascade issues, but is not able to tell how far it extends, as it was high and wide enough to admit passengers much farther than they were. The owner of the cave, and others, have been in the passage beneath, half way to Ginglepot: they have no doubt but it leads thither: they did not get so far, owing to the water deepening, more than the height lessening. Another subterranean river, that from Gatekirk above, meets this cascade directly underneath it, along which there is a passage, and which the above party, in some measure through mistake, explored, having missed their way in their return, and gone far beyond the cascade, before they were convinced of their error by the noise of the cascade gradually decreasing.

Weathercoate Cave Jingle Pot Gatekirk

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in: but this happens only about six or seven times in twenty years [1].

Having satisfied our curiosity in viewing this wonder of nature, and moralized on the insignificancy of all human attempts in producing any thing like it, we ascended into our native regions, and proceeded to another, called Douk-Cove, about a mile south, on the other side of the turnpike road, towards the foot of Ingleborough, whose height now appeared to great advantage from the nature of our own elevated situation. Douk-cove is something similar to that of Weathercoat, but not heightened so much with the vast and terrible; the cavity, indeed, is longer and wider, but not deeper; the rocks not so high and steep, except on the east side, where the hawks and other birds build their nests, not dreading the approach of human foot. They both seem once to have been covered over, like Yordas; but the roofs have fallen in, by some inundation or other accident. The stream of this cascade does not fall above five or six yards, and is not so large as the former; though, like it, is immediately absorbed amongst the rocks beneath: the subterranean passage out of which it issues is very curious. By the help of a ladder we ascended, and went along it to some distance, by means of candles. When we had gone about forty or fifty yards, we came to a chasm twelve or fifteen yards in depth from the surface, through which we could see broad day. How far we could have proceeded we know not: we returned after we had been about an hundred yards. This would be looked on as a great curiosity in many countries; but after those we had seen, our wonder was not easily excited - No doubt but another subterranean passage might be discovered, by removing the rubbish at the bottom of the cave, where the water sinks.

Tour to the Caves Weathercoate Cave Douk Cove Great Douk Cave Ingleborough

The owner of the cave says that it ran over in the back end of the year 1757 (before Christmas), in 1759, in 1771 two or three times and all in the back end of the year; and in February 1782, and November 1783. But during this interval, the water has been several times near the top of the cave. Before it runs over, a large stream issues out of the well before Weathercoat-house.

Weathercoate Cave Weathercoate House

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We were now on the base on which Ingleborough stands, [1] and greatly elevated above all the western country. Our distance from the bottom, where the steep ascent of this high mountain begins, was about a mile, in a direct horizontal line over rocks and pits. The fineness and clearness of the day, however, induced us to ascend its side, and gain its summit. Though we had many a weary and slippery step, we thought ourselves amply repaid, when we got to the top, with the amusement we received in viewing the several extensive and diversified prospects, and in making our observations, as botanists and natural historians, on its productions and contents. All the country betwixt us and the sea, to the extent of forty, fifty, and sixty miles, from the north-west, by the west, to the south-west, lay stretched out beneath us, like a large map, with the roads, rivers, villages, towns, seats, hills and vales, capes and bays, in succession. Elevation is a great leveller; all the hills and little mountains in the country before us, appeared sunk in our eyes, and in the same plain with the adjacent meadows. To the north-west, the prospect was terminated, at the distance of forty or fifty miles, by a chain of rugged mountains in Westmorland, Lancashire, and Cumberland, which appeared as barriers against the fury of the ocean. To the west, the Irish Sea extends as far as the eye can penetrate, except where the uniformity of the watery prospect is interrupted by the isles of Man and Anglesey. The blue mountains in Wales terminated our further progress, after we had traced out the winding of the coast all the way from Lancaster, by Preston and Liverpool. A curious deceptio visus presented itself: all the vales between us and the sea appeared lower than its surface, owing to the sky and earth both apparently tending to a line drawn from the eye parallel to the horizon, where they at last appeared to meet. To the east and north, the prospect was soon

Ingleborough map Irish Sea Isle of Man Anglesey

The word Ingleborough seems to be derived from the Saxon word ingle, which signifies a lighted fire; and borough, or burgh, which comes originally from the Greek word purgos, and signifies a watch tower (the labials p and b being often changed into each other) for here a beacon is erected, on which a fire used to be made for a signal of alarm in times of rebellion or invasion.

Ingleborough ingle borough burgh placename beacon, Ingleborough

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terminated by a number of black, irregular, chaotic mountains; which, by their indentations and winding summits, gave us reason to believe they contained habitable vales between them. Their sides afford a hardy and wholesome pasture for sheep, and their bowels contain rich mines of lead, some of which are wrought with great advantage to the proprietors.

The immense base on which Ingleborough stands, is between twenty and thirty miles in circumference. The rise is in some places even and gradual; and in others, as to the north and west, it is rugged, and almost perpendicular. The top is plain and horizontal, being almost a mile round, having the ruins of an old wall about it, from which some ingenious antiquaries endeavour to prove it has once been a Roman station, and place of great defence. Of late years it has never been frequented by any, except shepherds, and the curious-in-prospects, and the neighbouring country people, who resorted to the horse races, which were formerly annually held on its top. On the western edge there are the remains of what the country people call the beacon, some three or four yards high, ascended by a flight of steps. The ruins of a little watch-house is also adjoining. No doubt, in time of wars, insurrections, and tumults, and particularly during the incursions of the Scots, a fire was made on this beacon, to give the alarm to the country round about.- The soil on the top is so dry and barren, that it affords little grass, the rock being barely covered with earth: a spongy moss is all the vegetable that thrives in this lofty region. The stones on the summit, and for a great way down, are of the sandy gritty sort, with freestone slate amongst them: upon the base the rocks are all limestone, to an enormous depth. Near the top indeed, on the east side, is a stratum of limestone, like the Derbyshire marble, full of entrochi. Several springs have their origin near the summit, particularly one on the north side, of pure and well-tasted water, called Fair-weather Sykes, which runs down by the side of a sheep-fence wall into a chasm called Meir Gill. All the other springs, as well as this, when they come to the limestone base, are swallowed

Ingleborough roman fort, Ingleborough hillfort, Ingleborough horse racing beacon, Ingleborough Fair Weather Sykes geology entrochi Meir Gill Mere Gill Hole limestone lead mine mine

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up, and after running perhaps a mile underground, make their appearance once again in the surrounding vales, and then wind in various courses to the Lune or the Ribble, which empty themselves into the Irish Sea.

A naturalist cannot but observe a number of conical holes, with their vertexes downwards, not only all over the base of Ingleborough, but particularly a row near the summit. They are from two to four or five yards in diameter, and from two to three or four yards deep, except Barefoot-wives-hole (hereafter-mentioned) which is much larger. They resemble those pits about Mount AEtna, Vesuvius, and the various parts of Sicily and Calabria, as described by Hamilton and other writers. What may have been the cause of them, is left for the determination of the ingenious naturalist.

The other stones and fossils on and about Ingleborough, are black and brown marbles, abounding with white sea-shells, sparks of spar, and flakes of entrochi; spars of various sorts, the stalactical and icicle in the caves; slates, pale and brown, and near Ingleton blue; black shiver, Tripoli or rotten stone, blood stone, and lead ore. The soil on the base and sides of Ingleborough (where there is any) is chiefly peat-moss, which the country people get up and burn for fuel: the cover is in general ling or heath: other vegetables are ferns of various kinds; reindeer moss, and various other mosses: heleborines, white and red; the different sorts of sedums, crane's bills, scurvy-grass. bird's-eyes, various liver-worts, orchises, rose-wort, lily of the valley, mountain columbines, the hurtle-berry or bill-berry, knout-berry, cran-berry, cloud-berry, and cow-berry. The shrubs are mountain-vine, bird-cherry, mountain-ash, gelder-rose, burnet-rose, stone-bramble, red and black-currants. In the Foal-foot, which is the north-west corner of this mountain, are found the vivaperous-grass, and the rose-of-the-root, which has a yellow flower, and is like house-leek. Near Ingleton, as was before observed, are the lady's-slipper and fly-orchis. The chief animals found on and about Ingle-

Lune, River Ribble, River Irish Sea pothole Barefoot Wives Hole Braithwaite Wife Hole entrochi spar stalactite slate black shiver rotten stone blood stone lead ore peat heath fern reindeer moss moss heleborine sedum cranesbill scurvy grass birdseye liver wort orchid rose wort lily of the valley columbine hurtleberry bilberry knoutberry cranberry cloudberry cowberry bird cherry mountain ash gelder rose burnet rose bramble red currant black currant Foal Foot vivaperous grass rose-of-the-root

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[Ingle]borough, are grouse, the ring-ousle, and wheat-ear, the fox, mountain cat, wild-cat, pole-cat, weasle (sic), stoat, badger, and martin.

The perpendicular height of this mountain above the level of the sea, is 3987 feet, as taken by a neighbouring country-gentleman. The country people are all persuaded that Whernside, on the north side of the vale of Chapel-in-the-Dale, is higher than Ingleborough, from snow continuing longer on its top, and other circumstances. The elevation appears so nearly the same to the eye, that nothing but an exact admeasurement can determine this honour for these rival, soaring candidates. The top of Ingleborough is the first land, however, that sailors descry in their voyage from Dublin to Lancaster, though above thirty miles form the sea, which shows the great height of this mountain, though not an argument for its being higher then Whernside, which is not so well situated to be seen from the Irish Sea.

In our return we visited the long, deep, and dreadful chasm of Meir-Gill, on the west side of the sheep-fence wall, running north and south over the base of Ingleborough. It is about eighty yards long, but in most places so narrow that a person may stride over it, and is no where above two or three yards wide: in one place there is a curious natural bridge over it. The depth is very different in different places; in one place we found it an hundred feet, forty-eight of which were in the water. One part will admit a bold and active adventurer down almost to the water, by a gradual but slippery descent. Here the shadow of the superincumbent rocks, like that in Hurtlepot, forms a deceitful appearance in the water: the bottom seems not above two feet below the surface; but how fatal would be the attempt to wade this abyss, in quest of further discoveries, from this shadow of encouragement! The narrowness of this crevice at the top, has something dreadful and alarming in it: how fatal would one false step prove to the unwary shepherd amongst the snow, when the mouth is drifted up; or to a stranger bewildered in a fog, and looking forward with eager eyes for some habitation or frequented path! Harmless and heedless

Ingleborough grouse ring ousel wheatear fox mountain cat wild cat polecat weasel stoat badger martin Whernside Mere Gill Hole Meir Gill Chapel-le-Dale snow

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sheep have often been suddenly swallowed up by this gaping wonder of nature. To say that no living creature ever came out of its mouth, would be a proposition too general; trouts of a protuberant size have been drawn out of it, where they had been long nourished in safety; their habitation being seldom disturbed by the insidious fisherman.

A little further to the east, we came to another curiosity of nature, called Barefoot-wives-hole: we had noticed it in our ascent up the side of Ingleborough. It is a large round pit, in the form of a funnel, the diameter at the top being about fifty or sixty yards, and its depth twenty-six. It is easily descended in most places, though on the south side there is a high rocky precipice, but is dry; the waters that are emptied into it being swallowed up among the rocks and loose stones at the bottom. In our way back we also saw Hardrawkin, and some other subterranean passages of less note, which had been formed by the waters in their descent from the mountain adjoining to Ingleborough, to the vale beneath. Indeed the whole limestone base of this monster of nature is perforated and excavated in all directions, like a honeycomb. [1]

From the Chapel-in-the-Dale we shaped our course towards the south-east corner of Whernside, along the road leading to the village of Dent. As we proceeded, the curate entertained us with an account of some singular properties observable in the black earth, which composes the soil in the higher parts of the vale, in various morassy places. It is a kind of igneum lutum, or rather a sort of putrified earth, which in the night resembles fire, when it is agitated by being trodden upon. The effect it produces in a dark evening are truly curious and amazing, Strangers are always surprised, and often frightened, to see their own and horses' legs be-

sheep trout fisherman Barefoot Wives Hole Braithwaite Wife Hole limestone Chapel-le-Dale Whernside igneum lutum putrified earth Hardrawkin

Limestone has all the appearance of having been once in a soft state, and easily soluble in water. This principle will account for the scallops on the surface of limestone rocks, being made perhaps by the water draining off while the stone was soft; also for the chinks and crevices amongst them, made by their shrinking together when dried by the sun. The caves themselves proceed, most probably, from a great part of the rock being dissolved and washed down by the streams pervading the different strata.

limestone erosion

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sprinkled to all appearance with fire, and sparks of it flying in every direction, as if struck out of the ground from under their feet. They are as much alarmed with it, as the country people are with the will-with-a-wisp, or mariners with the luminous vapour of the delapsed Castor and Pollux. Though the dark and dreary moor is broken into thousands of luminous particles, like so many glow-worms, when troubled by the benighted traveller, yet if any of this natural phosphorous is brought before a lighted candle, its splendour immediately vanishes, and shrinks back into its original dull and dark state of sordid dirt. While we were endeavouring to account for this curious phenomenon on the principles of putrefaction and electricity, we arrived at the first object of this lateral excursion from the turnpike-road, Gatekirk-Cave. [1] The brook that runs through it forms a fine natural bason of transparent water at its egress, where we entered the cave, gradually increasing in depth till about five or six feet at the most. I believe every one present thought it resembled the cave described by Ovid in the second of his Metamorphoses, where Actaeon unfortunately met with Diana and her nymphs amusing themselves with bathing, when separated from his companions during the chase.-

Vallis erat piceis et acula densa cupressu, Nomine Gargaphie; succinctoe cura Dianoe; Cujus in extremo est antrum nemorlae recessu, Arte laboratum nulla: simulaverat artem Ingenio natura suo: nam pumice vivo, Et levibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum. Fons sonat a dextra, tenui pellucidus unda, Margine gramineo patulos succinctus hiatus. Hic Dea silvarum venatu fessa solebut Virgineos artus liquido perfundere rore.

Ovid, b.3. fab.2.

igneum lutum putrified earth fire earth will o' the wisp glow worm Gatekirk Cave Winterscales Beck Ovid Metamorphoses Diana Actaeon

A furlong or two before we arrived at Gatekirk, we paased (sic) a little cascade, amongst some hollow limestone rocks, which would be a fine embellishment to a gentleman's garden or park. All the ground about seemed hollow, and we saw various chasms and empty spaces between the strata of rocks, though none worth a particular description in a country abounding with such a variety of a superior nature.

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Down in a vale, with pine and cypress clad, Refresh'd with gentle winds, and brown with shade, The chaste Diana's private haunt there stood, Full in the center of a darksome wood, A spacious grotto, all around o'ergrown With hoary moss, and arch'd with pumice-stone: From out its rocky clefts the waters flow, And trickling swell into a lake below. Nature had every where so play'd her part, That every where she seem'd to vie with art, Here the bright goddess, toil'd and chaf'd with heat, Was wont to bathe her in the cool retreat.


Over the cave where the water flows, is another subterranean passage, of about twenty-four feet in length, and from three to ten in height. It enters the other obliquely, and looks like a natural orchestra, and where indeed a band of music would exhibit to great advantage to an audience below. The roof of the cave, at the entrance by the stream, is about two yards high, but soon encreases to six. When we had proceeded out of sight of day, a new train of ideas were excited in our imaginations. We could not but fancy that it was like the cave of Polypheme, or of some giant in modern romance, who hung up the mangled limbs of the unhappy victims that fell into his hands, to the dome of his murky den. From the roof were pendant large petrifactions, in every grotesque shape; some like hams, others like neats' tongues, many like the heads and various parts of different animals.- Some parts of this cave appeared like dreary vaults, or catacombs, where were deposited the reliques of ancient heroes or martyrs: some rocks at the bottom appeared like huge stone coffins, and some large petrifactions on the shelves like virgins or children represented in alabaster.- As we proceeded along, we met with several bye-streets or lanes, down some of which came tinkling little currents; but they seemed not to admit a passenger with ease to any great distance. As we went along, we observed that the way divided, for a considerable part of the whole length, into two main streets, which united again,

Addison Gatekirk Cave Polyphemus stalactite stalagmite Diana giant petrifactions

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made by the current dividing above into two streams. After we had gone near an hundred yards, we met with an orifice which easily admitted us above ground: we had no curiosity to explore any farther, as the roof was now become only some four feet high, and not admitting us with ease beyond this aperture. The brook which runs through this cave is the main stream of the river Greta, which runs under ground for at last two miles, making its appearance here, at Weathercoat, and a few other places in its way down to its open channel. The pools that are formed by the brook after its exit out of the cave, exhibit a pleasing and rural scene, being shaded with rocks, weeping willows, and mountain ash.

Having travelled a mile or two further, and passed through the little remote village of Winterscales, we came to the natural curiosity we were in quest of, Greenside-Cave: it is under the south-east corner of the lofty mountain Whernside. The mouth was wide and high, and the road rugged; but the roof gradually sunk, or the bottom arose, till it was troublesome getting along soon after we were out of the sight of day. A small brook ran along the bottom, as in the other caves; but there were none of the curious petrifactions we saw in most of them, to delight the eye. Churchill's description of the Caledonian cave of Famine, with a few alterations will convey a just idea of Greenside-Cave.-

This lonely cave (hard tax on Scottish pride!) Shelter at once for man and beast supply'd. Their snares without, entangling briers spread, And thistles arm'd against the' invader's tread: Here webs were spread of more than common size, And half-starv'd spiders prey'd on half-starv'd flies. In quest of food, efts strove in vain to crawl: Slugs, pinch'd with hunger, smear'd the slimy wall. The cave around with falling riv'lets rung, And on the roof unhealthy vapours hung.

Near the mouth of this cave is a thin stratum of coal, not many inches thick. Some attempts have been made to work it, but affording so small gains, and the inhabitants being so

Gatekirk Cave Winterscales Beck Doe, River Winterscales Greenside Cave Greensett Caves Churchill, Mr Caledonian Cave of Famine coal petrifactions

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well supplied with this article from Ingleton, it was soon deserted.- Being so near the top of Whernside, we ventured to ascend to the summit. The prospects were not diversified with many pleasing objects, being surrounded almost on all sides with brown and blue chaotic mountains. We had a peep into the pleasant vale of Dent beneath us, which made us wish to see it all. Pendle-hill appeared over the top of Ingleborough, which gave us a high idea of our own elevation, this latter mountain being much higher than the former. We were surprised to see four or five tarns, or pools of water, on a plain very near the summit of Whernside. Two of them were large, being two or three hundred yards in length, and nearly of the same breadth (for one was almost circular, but the other oblong.) There was a very thin bed of coal almost on the top of this mountain, and we were told another corresponded with it on the top of great Colm, a lofty mountain on the other side of that branch of the vale of Dent called Dibdale.- We were told some curious anecdotes of the vast cunning and sagacity of the sheep-dogs in this country, in discovering the sheep that had been buried under large drifts of snow for some days, and that must inevitably have perished with hunger, or been drowned with the melting of the that vapour, if not discovered by these useful animals.

We now shaped our course back to Winterscales, and from thence to a public-house called Gearstones, by the side of the turnpike road, at the bottom of the mountain Cam. Here we refreshed ourselves, and left our horses, while we went about half a mile to the south, to explore another subterranean wonder of nature called Catknot-hole. The entrance into it is at first not above three or four feet high, but almost immediately increases to as many yards. We had not gone out of sight of day before we were obliged to wade up to the mid leg a few yards, through a little pool made by the rill that comes out of this cave. The passage grew narrower, but wide enough to walk along with ease, except in one or two places, where we in danger of daubing our clothes with a red slime. We proceeded above a quarter of a mile, when the road grew wider, but the roof was so low that we could

Whernside Dent Dale Pendle Hill Whernside Tarns coal Colm Dibdale sheep dog Winterscales Gearstones inn Cam Fell Catknot Hole sheep snow

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not go on with ease and pleasure. Perhaps if we had mustered humility and fortitude enough to have crouched and crawled a little, we might have come to where the roof again would have been as high as we should have desired. In some places there were alleys out of the main street, but not extending to any great distance, so as to admit of passengers. The rocks jutted out, and were pendant in every grotesque and fantastic shape: most of them were covered over with a fine coating of spar, that looked like alabaster; while icicles of various shapes and colors were pendant from the roof - all generated by the fine particles of stone that exist in the water, which transudes through the roof and sides, and leaves them adhering to the rock in their descent to the bottom. The various-coloured reflections, made by the spars and petrifactions that abounded in every part, entertained the eye with the greatest novelty and variety; while, at the same time, the different notes made by the rill in its little cascades, and reverberated from the hollow rocks, amused the ear with a new sort of rude and subterranean music, but well enough suited to our slow and gloomy march. This was the longest subterranean excursion we had yet made; and if we might have formed our own computation of its extent, from the time we were in going and coming, and not from the real admeasurement of our guide, we should have thought it two or three times as long as it was - so much were we deceived in our estimate of a road unlike any we had ever before travelled. The romantic cascades, pools, and precipices in the channel of the river Ribble, that runs by the mouth of this cave, are not unworthy the notice of a stranger.

We were in some suspense whether we should pursue the turnpike-road over Cam, to see the natural curiosities in Wensleydale: but as we learnt there was only one remarkable object of the genus of those we were now in quest of, Hardraw-scar, we desisted: as we should have lost others more valuable, which lay in a different rout (sic). The description, however, which was given of it by our reverend guide, was so lively and picturesque, that its own merit will be a sufficient apology for its insertion.

Catknot Hole spar stalactite Ribble, River Hardraw Scar petrifactions Cam Fell Wensleydale reflections

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'Hardraw-scar is near the town of Hawes, in Wensleydale, and bears some distant affinity to the tremendous Gordale (hereafter taken notice of.) The chasm is pervious at the bottom, and extends above three hundred yards in length, fortified with huge scattered rocks on each side, which are in some places thirty-three yards perpendicular, and the intervalum above eighty. At the far end is an amazing cataract, which pours forth a vast quantity of water, that falls into a deep bason. Behind the water-fall is a deep recess, excavated out of the solid rock. Here the spectator may stand behind the stream, secure from its madifying effects, and may go quite round it, upon one of the numerous saxa sedilia, at the distance of ten yards from the water. In the year 1740, when fairs were held on the Thames, this cascade was frozen, and constituted a prodigious icicle of a conic form, thirty-two yards and three quarters in circumference, which was also its height.'

After having determined to go to Settle, we had our doubt whether we should proceed by Ling-gill, which is a curious and romantic channel of a small river, having high and grotesque rocks on each side; or take a more western direction on the other side of the river Ribble, in order to see some other caves and chasms. Our taste for curiosities of this sort induced us to adopt the latter plan. We returned about a mile, before we left the turnpike-road, and then turning off to the left, proceeding almost to the same distance, we came to Alun or Alumn-pot, two or three furlongs above the little village of Selside. It is a round steep hole in the limestone rock, about eight or ten yards in diameter, and of a tremendous depth, somewhat resembling Elden-hole, in Derbyshire. We stood for some time on its margin, which is fringed round with shrubs, in silent astonishment, not thinking it safe to venture near enough to its brim to try if we could see to its bottom. The profundity seemed vast and terrible, from the continued hollow gingling noise excited by the stones we tumbled into it. We plummed it to the depth of a hundred and sixty-five feet, forty-three of which were in water, and this is an extra-

Hardraw Scar Hawes Hardraw Force Ling Gill Alun Pot Selside Wensleydale

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[extra]ordinary dry season. As the direction of this hole was not exactly perpendicular, but somewhat sloping, it is very probable we were not quite at the bottom. A subterranean rivulet descends into this terrible hiatus, which caused such a dreadful gloom, from the spray it raised up, as to make us shrink back with horror when we could get a peep into the vast abyss. We were informed, that not long since some animals - an ox and a calf, at different times, had the misfortune to tumble into this dreary pit, being tempted by the untasted herbage to venture too far on its slippery margin. Only a low mound of earth surrounds its brim; for a stone wall would answer no other purpose, than to afford the curious traveller materials to throw in for his amusement. Any advantage arising from the skins and carcases of these animals, was not a sufficient inducement to tempt a neighbouring adventurous youth to be let down by ropes to the bottom of this frightful chasm.- The waters run from its bottom above a mile under ground, and then appear again in the open air below the little village of Selside.- After having excited the several passions of curiosity, dread, and horror, from the negative knowledge we got of the capacity and depth of this huge pot, we went a little higher up the mountain, and came to another hiatus, called Long-churn. We descended down till we came to a subterranean brook. We first ascended the cavern down which the stream ran, proceeding in a western direction for (at least as we imagined) a quarter of a mile, till we came to a crevice which admitted us into our native regions. We measured the distance between the two extremities above ground, and found it two hundred and forty-one yards; but it must be nearly double that distance along the passage below, on account of all the turnings and windings. The petrifactions here were the most numerous of any we had yet seen, few people coming either to break them off or deface them. When we were almost arrived at the western extremity, we came to a fine round bason of pellucid water, from three to twelve feet deep, known by the name of Dr. Bannister's Hand-bason. A lofty, spacious, and elegant

Alum Pot Long Churn Cave Dr Bannister's Handbason petrifactions

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dome is placed immediately over it, which nicely corresponds to the hollow receptacle at the bottom. Into this bason a rivulet falls down a steep rock above six feet high, which is very dangerous to get up, and must be done at the expense of a wet skin, except a ladder is taken along with the party, or the waters are less copious than when we were there: there is also some danger lest the adventurer should fall back, and have his bones broken by circumjacent rocks, or be drowned in the doctor's bason. After having surmounted this obstacle, and proceeded some yards farther, we were favoured with an egress into our own element, as was before observed; no unwelcome change, after having been so long excluded from it. After having rested ourselves a little, we returned to the chasm where we first entered Long-churn, and descending again, pursued the rivulet eastward, along another extensive subterranean passage called Dicken-pot, which slopes and winds by degrees till it enters the ghastly and tremendous Alan-pot. We went an hundred and fifty-seven yards along this 'antre-vast,' till we came to a steep rock full twelve feet perpendicular. Here we stopped - a wise consideration. We might have descended perhaps without danger; but the question was, how were we to get up again; which, without ropes or a ladder, would be totally impracticable. At the far end was an elegant lofty dome, called by the country people St. Paul's. There is no doubt but if we had ventured further we might have come to Alan-pot, at least so near as either to have seen the water that stagnates at its bottom, or the light that is admitted into this gaping monster of nature.

There are several other caves, all along from hence, on the south side of Ingleborough, above the village of Clapham, to Ingleton; but we postponed the pleasure of exploring these hidden recesses of nature till another summer. We descended from hence, along the banks of the river Ribble, four or five miles farther, to the village of Horton, situated at the bottom of the lofty and elegant mountain Pennegant. As we went along we passed a large heap of small round stones, called an [hurder]

Long Churn Cave Dr Bannister's Handbason Dicken Pot Alum Pot Alan Pot Ingleborough Clapham Horton in Ribblesdale Pennegant Pen-y-ghent hurder

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hurder. We were told there were two others by the side of the turnpike-road, in a field called the Slights; one about a mile, and the other a mile and a half east of the Chapel-in-the-Dale. They seem evidently placed there by human hands: and what was most extraordinary, they were all small, round, sandy, and gritty stones, and all the stones on the surface of the ground near them are limestone. No doubt they were tumuli of some deceased chieftans in the neighbourhood, or who died on their travels.

Before we left Horton we visited some natural curiosities of the cavern kind on the base of Pennegant.[1] Dowgill-scar, a little above Horton, is a grotesque amphitheatre of limestone rocks, composing a high precipice, which must appear awful and grand in a flood, when a large torrent of water falls from the top full in view: a small subterranean passage was able to take all the water when we were there. A romantic gallery, on the north side of the rocks, had a good effect in the scene.- About a mile or two above Horton, upon the base of Pennegant, we visited Hulpit and Huntpit-holes. The one, if we could have descended into it, would have appeared like the inside of an enormous old Gothic castle, the high ruinous walls of which were left standing after the roof was fallen in: the other was like a deep funnel, and it was dangerous to come near its edges. Horton-beck, or brook, runs through the one, and Bransil-beck through the other of these pits, but through which I cannot remember: they each run under ground near a mile: Horton-beck appearing again at Dowgill-scar, and Bransil-beck at a place called Bransil-head. But what is most extraordinary, these subterranean brooks cross each other under ground, without mixing waters, the bed of one being on a stratum above the other: this was dis-

hurder Slights Chapel-le-Dale tumulus Horton in Ribblesdale Dowgill Scar Horton Scar Pen-y-ghent Hulpit Hole Hull Pot Huntpit Hole Hunt Pot Hull Pot Beck Horton Beck Bransil Beck Bransil Head Brants Gill Head

The word Pen is of Phoenician extraction, and signifies head or eminence. It was first introduced into Cornwall, where the Phoenicians had a colony, who wrought the tin mines. Hence we have many names in Cornwall which begin with Pen. Most mountains in Wales begin with Pen. In Scotland, the labial letter P is changed to B and Pen into Ben; as Benlomond, Benevish, &c.

pen ben head eminence placename

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[dis]covered by the muddy water, after a sheep-washing, going down the one passage, and the seeds or husks of oats that were sent down the other.- About a couple of miles from Horton, on the right hand side of the road to Settle, is a curious stone quarry, at a place called Culms or Coums. The stones are of a blue kind, like slate, from one to three inches thick: some are two or three yards broad, and five or six yards long. They are made use of for floors in houses, being sometimes laid over cellars, on joists: they are also used for gate-posts, foot-bridges, and partitions between the stalls in stables and cow-houses.

At Stainforth, which is about three miles from Horton, and two from Settle, we were entertained with two cascades,- one in the Ribble, near the road, about six or eight yards high; and another a little above the village, perhaps twenty or thirty yards perpendicular.

About a quarter of a mile before we arrived at Settle, we turned to the right, along the road towards Kirkby-Lonsdale, about a mile, under the high and romantic rocks called Giggleswick-scar, in order to see the well by the way-side, that ebbs and flows. We were in luck, seeing it reciprocate several times while we were there, and not staying above an hour. We could not however learn with any degree of certainty, by what intervals of time, and to what heights and depths, the reciprocation was carried on. We were informed, that if the weather was either very droughty or very wet, the phenomenon ceased. I have seen some philosophical attempts to solve this extraordinary curiosity on the principle of the syphon, but in vain; as, on that hypothesis, if the syphon is filled by the spring, it will flow on uniformly for ever. We were told by drunken Barnaby, an hundred and fifty years ago, that it puzzled the wits of his age.-

Hull Pot Beck Horton Beck Bransil Beck Culms Coums Arcow Quarry slate quarry Stainforth Stainforth Force Giggleswick Scar well, Giggleswick Scar reciprocating well well, ebbing and flowing ebbing and flowing well Barnabee's Journal

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Veni Giggleswick, parum frugis Profert tellus, clausa jugis: Ibi vena prope vioe Fluit, refluit, note, die; Neque norunt unde vena, An a sale vel arena.

Thence to Giggleswick, most steril, Hemm'd with shelves and rocks of peril. Near to the way, as a traveller goes, A fine fresh spring both ebbs and flows: Neither know the learn'd that travel, What procures it, sand or gravel.

As we approached towards Settle, in our return, a white rock, like a tower, called Castlebar, immediately above the town, and about twenty or thirty yards in perpendicular height, engaged our attention. The precipice is partly natural, and partly a work of art. It is made deeper and more dangerous every day, in consequence of stones being got from its bottom and sides, to supply an adjoining lime-kiln.

Settle is irregularly built; has a large and spacious market-place, and some good houses in it. Though by no means an inconsiderable town, either for trade, riches, or number of inhabitants, it has no church or chapel: the church is at Giggleswick, about a mile off, which appeared to be the court end of the parish, consisting chiefly of gentlemen's houses.

From Settle we proceeded eastward, over the moors and mountains, about half a dozen miles, to Malham, or Maum, in order to see some other natural curiosities of the precipice and cataract kind. We had already indeed seen so many, that our wonder could not easily be excited, except there were more great and terrible: as such we had them represented at Settle, or else we should scarce have left the turnpike-road; and when we saw them we were not disappointed, for great

Giggleswick well, Giggleswick Scar Settle Castlebar quarry limestone Malham Maum lime kiln, Settle

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and terrible they are. The first was Malham-cave (or vulgarly Maum-cove) though it has properly nothing of the cave about it. It is a fine amphitheatre of perpendicular limestone rock, on the side of the moor, at least an hundred yards high in the middle. The rocks lie stratum upon stratum; and on some there are saxa sedilia, or shelves, so that a person of great spirit and agility, but of small and slender body, might almost walk round. A small brook springs out of the bottom of the rocks; but in floods the narrow subterranean passage is not able to give vent to all the water, when there pours down a stupendous cataract, in height almost double that of Niagara. This is the highest perpendicular precipice I have ever seen, and I think not enough known and admired by travellers for its greatness and regularity.- After pursuing our journey near a mile, by the side of the deep and romantic channel of the river Air, which washes the base of many a rugged and high precipice in its impetuous course to the vale beneath, we came to Gordale, the highest and most stupendous of them all.- The prospect of it, from the side of the opposite western bank, is awful, great, and grand. After viewing for some time its horrid front with wonder and astonishment, we were tempted to descend, with care and circumspection, down the steep bank, on the west side, to this river, which being interspersed with trees and shrubs enabled us to rely on our hands, where we could find no sure foot-hold. The water being low, we met with no difficulty in stepping from one broken fragment of the rocks to another, till we got on the other side, when we found ourselves underneath this huge impending block of solid limestone, near an hundred yards high. The idea for personal safety excited some awful sensations, accompanied with a tremor. The mind is not always able to divest itself of prejudices and unpleasing associations of ideas: reason told us that this rock could not be moved out of its place by human force, blind chance, or the established laws of nature; we stood too far under its margin to be affected by any crumbling descending fragment (and a very small one would have crushed us to atoms, if it had fallen upon us) yet, in spite of reason and judgement, the same unpleasing

Malham Cave Maum Cove Malham Cove Aire, River Gordale Scar

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sensations of terror ran coldly through our veins, which we should have felt if we had looked down, though secure, from its lofty top. Nothing, however, fell upon us, but a few large drops, which sweat from out its horrid prominent front. Some goats frisked about, with seemingly a wanton carelessness, on the brink of this dreadful precipice, where none of us would have stood for all the pleasant vales washed by the river Air. Some lines in Virgil's Eclogues seemed to receive additional beauties when repeated in this grotesque scene.-

Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro, Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo.

Ecl. 1. l.76.

No more extended in the grot below, Shall I e'er see my goats high up the brow, Eating the prickly shrubs, or void of care, Lean down the precipice, and hang in air.

A little higher up is a fine cascade, where the river, striving for an easier and gentler descent, has forced a way through the rocks, leaving a rude natural arch remaining above. If a painter wanted to embellish his drawing of this romantic scene with some grotesque object, he could add nothing which would suit his purpose better, if nature had not done the work for him.

[1] From Gordale, we proceeded to a curious lake, called Maum or Malham-tarn, abounding with fine trout, upon the top of the moor; and from thence, by Kilsey-Crag, to Grassington, on the banks of the river Wharf. Coming unexpectedly to the crags of Kilsey, I was a good deal amazed at the

Gordale Scar Virgil Eclogue Aire, River goat Maum Tarn Malham Tarn Kilsey Crag Kilnsey Crag Grassington Wharfe, River

If Kilsey-crag should not be thought an object worth going six or seven miles to see, the best way from Gordale to Skipton will be by Kirkby, Malhamdale, and Gargrave.

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prospect. They are by the side of the vale along which descends the river Wharf. Like those at Giggleswick, they extend in a line to some distance; but are higher and more prominent. The road we came along wound down amongst these crags, so that we were presented with a full view of them on a sudden, which caused the greater surprize.- After having refreshed ourselves at Grassington, we travelled about nine miles farther, and came to Skipton. The country all around us is uneven and rugged; the vales are fertile on the surface, and the mountains beneath it abound with rich mines of lead. After we had visited the castle (which belongs to the Earl of Thanet) and the curious canal behind it, above the mills, which leads to the limestone quarry, by the side of a romantic deep glen, we left Skipton. Before our departure we were for some time in doubt, whether we should ascend the steep and black hill of Rombaldsmoor, and so proceed down the vale of Wardale, one of the pleasantest in England, to Otley, and so to Leeds; or go by Keighley, Bingly, and Bradford, along the side of the new canal, and view the locks and other contrivances on this new and useful work of art. Most of us having been the former road, and this with its objects being quite new, we were induced to proceed along it. At Kildwick, about four miles from Skipton, we passed under this aqueduct, where it was banked up a great height above the adjoining lands, at a vast labour and expense. There have been some violent struggles between the elements of earth and water - the mounds have not always been able to keep the water within its proper limits, they having oftener than once been broken through by the pressure on their sides. About a mile further, at Streeton, we could not but observe the steep ascent and descent of the road over a hill, when a level path might have been made almost equally near along the side of the river. The inconveniences that must attend carriage in carts and waggons from such ill-concerted roads, perhaps might suggest the expediency of a canal. The use and practicability of such an undertaking in a mountainous country, one would imagine, might give the inhabitants a hint to make their roads wind with easy ascents and descent

Kilsey Crag Kilnsey Crag Wharfedale Grassington Skipton lead mine Skipton Castle Thanet, Earl of Springs Branch Canal quarry limestone Wardale Otley Leeds Keighley Bingley Bradford Leeds and Liverpool Canal Kildwick Streeton

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along the sides of the vale. From Skipton to Otley, the road is carried up and down the corner of the steep mountain Rombaldsmoor, when as near a one might have been conducted along the vale beneath. The inhabitants might have carried to the market the produce of their lands, and brought coals and manure at a little expense, if this plan had been adopted: but the prejudices against improvements and innovations are not easily removed.- At Bingly we were entertained with the locks: there are five or six of them together, where the barges ascend or descend eighty or ninety feet perpendicular, in the distance of about an hundred yards. They are elegant and well finished, but seem too deep not to leak and be frequently out of repair.

About four miles before we arrived at Leeds, in our way from Bradford, we were suddenly presented with the grand and venerable ruins of Kirkstal Abbey, full in view from the road. We stood some minutes looking with silent respect and reverence on the havoc which had been made by time on this sacred edifice. How much soever we might condemn the mistaken notions of monkish piety, that induced the devotees to lethargic supineness, and to forsake all the social duties of life in order to be good men; yet we secretly revered that holy zeal which inspired them to exert every power in erecting structures, the magnitude and beauty of which might excite ideas worthy of the Deity to whom they were dedicated; and also reprobated that fanatic bigotry which suffered them to decay and go to ruin, because they were once inhabited by a set of christians whose manner of worship was not orthodox. While we were moralizing thus on religious prejudices, the instability of the works of men's hands, and the fading glories of this world, we came to Leeds.

As the largeness and extent of this thriving manufacturing town, with all the elegant buildings in and about it are well known to you, and as you have seen every thing worth no-

Skipton Otley Rombaldsmoor Bingley Bingley Five Rise Locks Leeds Kirkstall Abbey Reformation

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[no]tice in and near the road from thence, I shall here take my leave of you, and no longer tire you with a relation of the adventures and curiosities I met with in my summer's journey.


To the Genius of the Caves.

... Hail, kindred glooms! Congenial horrors, hail!


... ... THOU Spirit dread, That hoverd'st o'er this rocky region erst, With burning sulphur, and volcanic streams Of fire extinct, all hal! - thou, whose loud shriek, 'Midst scowling tempests, oft the list'ning swain Hast heard aghast; oft in slow-pacing clouds, That drag their sweeping trains o'er Gragareth's steep, Has trac'd thy wild fantastic form. Thy steps, Through many a rugged, uncouth path, well pleas'd I follow. Whether, from the dread abyss Of some unfathom'd cavern[1], Echo's groans, With many a dreary pause between, from rock To rock rebound, and break upon my ear Like distant thunder;- or my rapture gaze, E'en from the yew-fring'd margin, down the steep Pursues the foaming cataract's[2] headlong course, Till, spent and dazzled on those wat'ry hues, Midway it rests, where light reflected paints Each clust'ring dew-drop's glassy orb, and vies With melting Iris' vernal tinctur'd bow;- Or, whether, by the taper's glimm'ring ray

Leeds Genius of the Caves Gragareth Weathercoate Cave Jingling Pot Thomson, Mr

Gingling-cave, on Gragareth.

Jingling Caves Gragareth

Weathercoat-cave, in Chapel-in-the-Dale.

Weathercoate Cave Chapel-le-Dale Chapel-in-the-Dale

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Led on, my steps prevaded thy secret shrine, Yordas, where, hid from Phoebus' garish eye, With Contemplation, thy compeer, thou sit'st, And, like a curtain, spread'st thy cloud of night Around thy throne;- I feel, I feel thee near. Full many a young idea, that ere this Hath slept in silence, at thy thrilling call Starts from its trance, and, kindling into life, With joy and mingled awe attemper'd swells My crowded soul; and ever and anon, As at the wizard's call, my straining eye, Quick glancing, sees a thousand fleeting shapes, Scatter'd from bright-ey'd Fancy's dewy plume.

Parent of Horrors, hail! To my fix'd eye Thy scared form, in these, these solemn scenes Reveal'd descends; and O! more awful far This great design, grav'd by fair Nature's hand, These frowning rocks and mineral roofs, reflect Thy semblance, than could Raphael's warmth devise, Than Phidias' featur'd marble: and thy voice, Borne on the panting wing of each low blast That sigh's along the vault, awakes the soul To feelings more ennobled than the lyre Of Orpheus, or the rapture-breathing strains Of Handel, e'er inspir'd. O, may I oft, In this Egerian cave, Great Power, attend Thy sacred presence: here with nature's self Hold converse; till, by just degrees, the mind Through Science's footsteps pierce the harmonious maze Of scared order, and to brighter views From day to day aspiring, trace at length, Through all the wonders of the nether world, Th' Eternal Cause; to him on raptures wing Dart her swift flight, and scale the walls of heaven.

Leeds Yordas Cave

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Furness Fells Further Account of Furness Fells;



FURNESS FELLS, and the adjacent parts here alluded to, are so peculiarly distinguished with picturesque beauty, that they deserve a more minute description. This country consists of a succession of mountains and vallies formed and intermixed in all the possible variety of rural nature. Much of the vallies, and the bases of most of the hills, are covered with young wood, which, at certain periods, is cut down and charred for the use of the neighbouring furnaces. On this account, the copses, which consist of various kinds of trees, constantly, in the summer, exhibited every pleasing colour of youthful vegetation. The main shoots also spring up so straight, and the collateral ones at such small angles with them, that they give an uncommon idea of vegetating vigour; and when they are seen rooted in the different clefts of rocks, fancy will conceive them not unlike the stream of some fluid bursting forcibly from its prison. Amongst these copses are found several neat villages, houses, and spaces of cultivated land, which, with a number of brooks and rivers tumbling and tinkling among them, constitute a scene of sylvan beauty exceedingly lively and singular. But what still enhances the whole, is the goodness of the highways, of which, in fine weather, it is not extravagant to say, in general, that they

Furness Fells eminence objects tree planting charcoal ironworks coppicing road On Placing Objects on the Eminences Planting Trees in the Vallies

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are more like the walks of a gentleman's pleasure ground, than roads for ordinary occupation. This circumstance, though in part owing to the peculiar goodness of the materials, is, nevertheless, much indebted to the neatness and public spirit of the inhabitants.

A laudable taste for adorning nature has led us from ornamented gardens to ornamented farms, and being in the possession of good roads (an essential article for the display of rural beauty) there seems to be but one thing wanting to make this a truly ornamental country. What I mean here is, artificial objects raised on proper parts of the mountains and eminences, which at every turn are presented to us through some agreeable opening or other.

Eminences are as naturally fit places for objects intended to attract the distant eye, as they are for enabling the eye to survey distant objects. Hence, to decorate them with columns, obelisks, temples, &c, has the sanction of natural fitness. And if to this consideration we add that of the inherent beauty of the objects themselves, and remember, that there is nothing sets off the beauties of nature so much as elegant works of art; justifying motives for these erections can never be wanting to any one who has a taste for rural beauty, and is willing to accomplish as much of it as is in his power. But this is not all: the practice is certainly patriotic: for such elegant ornaments will at least naturally contribute to diffuse a serenity and cheerfulness of mind into every beholder; and thence (if we may be allowed the figure) like clectrical (sic) conductors, they may be supposed to bring down a little of the happy placidity of better regions, to add to the natural quantity shooting about on the earth. As another motive, it may be observed, that it is pleasing, in any country, to see the inhabitants so much at ease in mind and circumstances, as to pay attention to these fanciful undertakings; and moreover, that as a man of sense appears the more so for seeming conscious of the importance of what he says, so every traveller will conceive the better of a people, who, sensible

eminence objects column obelisk temple road

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of the natural advantages of their country, are found disposed to make the best of them.

How these objects should be formed, or situated, must for the most part be determined by circumstances under the eye of taste. One thing, however, seems worthy of particular notice in this place, which is, that erections of this sort would have the most grand and characteristic effect placed on eminences, so as to have the sky for a back-ground. When this is the case, the hills they are raised upon should be bounded by agreeable lines, seen at a great distance, and much in sight of the principal roads [1].

The most simple of these erections are obelisks, and properly formed summer-houses [2]. But a series of columns constituting a temple, or supporting arches, pediments, &c would have by much the best effect, provided they were properly large, for the ordinary points of view. Through the openings of these columns, the sky should always give them a striking appearance: but in an evening, if the sun set behind them, no spectacle of the kind could be imagined more grand and attractive, or more accordant with the sublimity of the surrounding mountains. Perforated doors and windows, in the

obelisk summer house

If they be not intended also for a near inspection, they need not be of any expensive materials. Provided they be well formed in outline (and for the design of which, artists of taste should always be applied to) common stone and mortar will do very well.

This kind of summer-house should either be octagonal, or at least have more than four sides. And if either of these sort of erections be not placed on very pointed hills, care should be taken to raise them (either by raising the earth on which they stand, or by giving them a high rustic base, &c.) so that the sides of the hills will not prevent a complete sight of their elevation from the principal points of view.- Nothing can be worse managed, than to see these objects as if rising beyond the top of a hill, or from the bottom of a fish-pond.

Perhaps a summer-house standing on proper rustic arches, through which the sky might be seen, would, for the following reason, in some cases, have good effect.

summer house

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imitation of old Gothic ruins, it is true, would yield part of this effect; but their gloomy and irregular appearance renders them, in the case before us, generally improper.

Something of this kind (on the bolder eminences particularly) seems to be the only essential article that is wanting to perfect the rural beauties of this country; except, indeed, it may be thought, that a little more attention paid to the removal and planting of trees, would be of use for that end; and concerning which I beg leave to lengthen this article with a few observations.

Trees are certainly the ornament and pride of vegetable nature. A bird despoiled of its plumage scarcely seems more mutilated and ungainly, than countries and inclosures destitute of trees. They have a good effect planted even (in their worst situation) any-how in hedge-rows; but if they be lightly scattered, with taste, in proper parts of the inclosure itself, they become infinitely more pleasing. Hence, though nature has done wonders in the disposition of trees in some of her favourite haunts, yet still (if not in them) she may be improved upon in others, by the assistance of art. And let not the lips of Sordidness object to the purport of this hint, that if put in practice, it would ask some care and expense, and probably prevent the growth of what is more profitable to the owner, and servicable to man; for the God of nature has far from having fully proportioned the animals of the earth to its produce: and as he renders fruitless innumerable seeds of almost every vegetable and animal creature, so the application of a part of our care, and a portion of the earth, to its own ornament, is, I am persuaded, so far from being culpable or improper, that (in humble imitation of the divine love of beauty and liberality) it seems to be as much required from the pious votary of nature, as his admiration of what comes immediately from its own efforts. In both cases God is alike honoured; and honour to God is certainly too nearly connected with religion to make it in any case an act of in-

tree planting forestry trees

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[in]difference. Do then, ye affluent and prosperous landholders, pay some attention to this particular. Study the subject, through the medium of books and pictures; and sometimes spare, and sometimes plant a tree for ornament's sake. And (if you think them reasonable ones) observe all the following remarks, humbly offered to your consideration. They shall be made as brief as possible.

The greatest nicety and perfection in the art of planting trees, lies in the use of exotics, and an ingenious mixture of foliage, in order to decorate, for near inspection, the marginal views of a lawn, walk, &c. But if ever a fondness for agriculture, built upon a love of simple nature and sober piety (of which there are too, too few indications in our present manners) shall turn the general taste of the kingdom towards ornamented farms, such an event cannot be supposed to be suddenly brought about: hence the precepts that relate to this elegant part of gardening, will in this place be wholly unnecessary, and our attention must be confined to the management of larger trees, which are already found in these regions.

Scotch firs, though a favourite tree with many people, seem to require a good deal of judgment in their use; for they may be so planted as to injure a landscape more perhaps than they are generally seen to adorn it. In hanging woods (with which this country abounds) they frequently appear to disadvantage, however disposed. A single tree in this case often looks like a blot, and a plantation like a daub; especially in winter, when the most is expected from their verdure. The reason of this seems to be the darkness of their colour, and the obviousness of their whole form and outline: from the first particular they always attract the eye more than any thing else; and form the second, hurt the imagination with presenting to it only a parcel of small limited streaks or patches, awkwardly inclined to the horizon. When slightly and irregularly interspersed with woods of this kind, they

tree planting Scots pine Scotch fir

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may now and then please from variety; but in general they come so forward to the eye, and at a good distance in winter so much resemble yew, holly, and the like gloomy and barren looking trees, that they do a real injury to the soft and pleasing tints, which result from the native stems, and which, from use, best accord with the idea of thriving woodlands.

For these reasons, Scotch firs look best when they are seen in large horizontal plantations, on low (or at least not high) ground; when the front only is exposed to sight (hence their depth backward imagined very great) and when the blue vapours of an extended horizon are seen over their tops: in this case they have a very grand effect, and form a fine dark contrast to the pale and distinct features of the overlooking hills.

Those circular groups of trees called clumps, are oftener seen than worthy of praise. They appear to have the best effect (if they must be used) for near views, or when they are found in the middle of a level open vale of fine lawn or meadow; but on the sides of distant hills or mountains (where they are seen all around) their appearance is truly paltry. The more smooth and large these eminences are, the more improper this species of ornament becomes; and, in short, I apprehend that the features of a lady's face would scarcely be more injured by the mark of her thimble, than the features of several hills would be by these unnatural circles. At the same time, however, that we censure this mode of decorating mountains, it may be proper to observe, that if they be wholly covered with wood, or lightly interspersed with single trees, the effect will be natural and pleasing.

But the most absurd decoration of these eminences in vogue, is a few trees planted on their top, so that the whole boles of the foremost ranks may be seen, down to their very roots. Trees, we know, are chiefly the produce of the lower parts of the earth's surface; and to see the roots of some above the heads of others, as it were, tier above tier, is not

tree planting yew holly Scotch fir Scots pine tree clumps

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natural, and therefore not beautiful. Houses, which are the work of art, seldom look well in this form. In short, whatever be the circumstances of the base of a fine mountain as to wood, its top should either be wholly naked, or ornamented with one of those artificial erections spoken of before.

These observations will also hold good with respect to little abrupt prominences, or swells, in ornamental grounds; which (if they must be tampered with) would receive more improvement from being encircled with an assortment of shrubs, over whose tops the crown of the hills (either plain or terminated with some agreeable erection of stone) might be fairly seen, than from a few large trees, planted, as we often find, on their summits: for where these swells are pretty frequent (as they mostly are in uneven countries) art is better applied in lowering them, as it were, to the eye, than giving them real additional height.

As to the avenues of tall trees, they have certainly a noble effect for a private walk, or the first part of an approach to a gentleman's seat: but, seen from distant eminences, they often betray a good deal of the formality of a common fence.

To close the subject with a maxim or two more. Keep all large trees at a good distance from every neat looking house.[1] Always consider extensive, unevenly-bounded forests to have an infinitely better effect in a landscape, than an equal quantity of trees dispersed over it in crowded, formally-enclosed patches. And, above all things, never forget the superlative beauty which (for a near view) may be given to a park, farm, or cultivated country, by single trees lightly and irregularly placed out of the hedge rows.

tree planting avenue of trees

Respecting houses, I would just observe, by the bye, that to any person, save a native inured to them, buildings of blue rag, without mortar, have a very mean and depressing look; and that, if it fall conveniently within reach, the common rough-cast of limestone countries, has the most neat and chearful appearance of any outside finish, of an easy expense, and of easy management.

house, stone rough cast

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The bounds of this article will not admit of more than a few leading remarks on this subject; but, I fancy, if the above hints were observed, they would be sufficient, under the influence of taste, for the intended purpose. And though they are thrown out more particularly with a view to one part of the country included in this tour, yet it all so much alike, in several respects, that they might be attended to with the same advantage in every other. And were these ideas verified, I flatter myself this northern district would be worthy of being termed the British Arcadia, and exhibit, nearly to the utmost pitch of the poet's fancy,

'An ample theatre of silvan grace.'

Mason's English Garden.

This to the more wealthy of its inhabitants.- To the more humble I will just subjoin a finishing word.

That you are placed in one of the most beautiful districts in the kingdom, the number of its visitors of all ranks constantly testify; and you will see it is one purpose of this book to make it still more known. And if you be not the happiest people, the fault must be in yourselves; since nature has bountifully bestowed upon you every essential requisite of enjoyment. Be therefore content to pursue your innocent, though humble vocations, without letting a wish wander beyond your peaceful vales; and now and then turn your thoughts towards those particulars which annually bring among you so many wealthy and respectable visitors. Keep your highways in good order (for, as observed before, their beauty is essential to rural beauty[1]). Preserve your native

road Mason, Mr English Garden tourism

The great advantage that any town receives in appearance merely from the letters on the various signs, &c. being elegantly done is very evident. And were the finger-posts on the roads executed with proper taste, they might be made as ornamental as they are useful; and hence yield due credit to the public spirit of the townships to which they belong instead of being thought (as they often are at present) lamentable indications of their ignorance and poverty.


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modesty, and never let envy mar your civility. When you prune a fence joining to a public road, put the branches where they can be no annoyance[1]; and then, as you are already exemplary in many moral virtues, you will set a pattern of rural decency worthy of the imitation of several politer parts of the kingdom.

It may also be here proper to remind the husbandmen and farmers of another slovenly practice they are frequently guilty of in most countries; I mean the custom of throwing stones, weeds, and other kinds of rubbish, from their fields, upon the face of the roads, with no more regard to the seemliness of its appearance, than to the moral honesty of the deed. If they cannot comprehend that they have no more right to make use of the roads for this purpose, than of a neighbour's field, and that, though generally connived at, the practice is wrong, the surveyors would do very well to teach them this decent piece of knowledge by the proper severities of the law.


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Ennerdale Account of Ennerdale.

IN a ride from Keswick to Ennerdale, the mountains, between whose bases an irregular avenue opens for the curious tourist, are more variegated than those in other regions of this little world of wonders. In the course of ten minutes' travelling, he will behold the most beautiful verdure climbing to the summit of one, a bushy wood creeping to the top of another, and the most tremendous fragments of rock scowling from the front of a third. The pillar challenges particular notice.

If a transient storm disturb or intercept the view, which frequently happens in the serenest days of summer, the appearance is not only awful, but pleasing; and the traveller will frequently behold a tempest, without feeling it. The commotion is far above him; and where he treads, all is calm, solemn, and silent. As he approaches the vale of Ennerdale, in whose bosom one of the most enchanting of the lakes is seated, he will find the rugged scenery of the country gradually refining; and as he winds round the foot of the Pillar, he will discover a vista, which cannot fail to strike the most indifferent observer with astonishment and pleasure.

The mountains which serve to heighten this scene, and enhance its surprise, are Sty-head, Honister-crag, Wastdale, the Pillar, and Red-pike. The Liza waters the base of the latter; and on its margin lies an even, level road, not formed by the hand of man, but presenting to the eye the appearance of a pavement. The delighted tourist will insensibly confine his view (though it is not in reality bounded by any of the lofty objects already mentioned) to the verdant island of Gillerthwaite, whose romantic situation must be seen - description cannot furnish an idea of its beauty.

Ennerdale Keswick Pillar storm Sty Head Honister Crag Wastdale Red Pike Liza, River Gillerthwaite

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An essayist, in the provincial paper of this country, speaking of this place, says, 'It forms a picture such as the canvas never presented; it embraces a variety so distributed as no pencil can ever imitate. No designer in romance ever allotted such a residence to his fairy inhabitants - I had almost said, no recluse ever wooed religion in such a blessed retirement.' - 'The genius of Ovid would have transformed the most favoured of his heroes into a river, and poured his waters into the channel of the Liza, there to wander by the verdant bounds of Gillerthwaite - the sweet reward of patriotism and virtue.'

Gillerthwaite is not, however, an island, though almost as much contrasted in the landscape as land with water. It is a patch of enclosed and apparently highly cultivated ground, on a stony desert of immeasurable extent; for the mountains on each side of it are the most barren in their aspect, and continue that appearance till their heads mix with the horizon. There are two decent farm-houses on the inclosure, and, from the serpentine tract of the valley, no other habitation of man is visible.

From Gillerthwaite, the road already briefly described (and which a very little industry might make convenient for most occasions) leads towards the pride of the valley, once the seat of power and splendour, of which some faint remains are yet to be traced. The place here alluded to is How-hall, a mansion formerly of some note. The estate, by purchase, came into possession of the Senhouses, and is now the property of Joseph Tiffin Senhouse, Esq. of Calder-Abbey.- The following inscription, in Saxon characters, is yet visible over the principal door of How-hall:-

'This house was built, A.D. 1566, by William Patrickson, and Frances his wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Swinburn, one of the privy counsellors to King Henry VIII.'

Liza, River Gillerthwaite Ovid How Hall Senhouse Family Senhouse, Joseph Tiffin Patrickson, William Swinburn, Thomas, Sir Henry VIII

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Within these few years, several visitors of the lakes extend their tour, by taking in Whitehaven, and proceeding from thence, by Cleator and Kinnyside, to Ennerdale Bridge; at which place guides can be procured, to conduct them by the best rout to Ennerdale Broad-water; and, if they choose, from thence to Lowes-water, Buttermere, &c.- This part of the journey (without which the tour is incomplete) cannot, however, be performed in a carriage; but a ride on horseback will amply recompence the trouble, for the scenery is delightful, and the objects have been pronounced (as well by many gentlemen of taste as by artists of much celebrity) highly interesting. Many such have ventured to prefer these views even to some of those which have attracted so much attention from the patrons of the fine arts.

Certain it is, the approach to the lake of Ennerdale, to Lowes-water, and to Buttermere, is from no other quarter so magnificent and captivating. The lake of Ennerdale appears in view. To the left, a majestic wood, rising gradually up the side of Cold-fell from the opposite shore of the water, imparts the most graceful ornament to the entrance into a region perfectly different from the last. A short turn to the right lays the whole lake and valley open to the view, and Herd-house presents his tawny front, as regent of the scene. The furniture of the lake (if the expression may be allowed) is totally changed: on the traveller's side (the east) the farms are stretched out, and exhibit a verdure seldom exceeded in the most fertile parts of this kingdom; and in a compass of a few miles, the number of small tenements seem to say with Goldsmith,

'Here every rood maintains its man.'

On the opposite shore of this little ocean (which is frequently seen vexed with little storms of short duration) the mountain towers with great dignity; neither terrible nor in-

Whitehaven Cleator Kinniside Ennerdale Bridge Ennerdale Broad Water Ennerdale Water Loweswater Buttermere lake Cold Fell Herdus Goldsmith, Dr

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[in]viting in its aspect, but suited to the serenity of the spot, which is calculated to inspire sentiments at once sublime and chearful.

The langauge of poetry never applied 'The clear mirror of the flood,' with a propriety greater than that with which, on many accounts, a description of this lake might adopt it: the extent of the water is particularly calculated with the height of the adjoining mountain, to produce the most astonishing reflection from its surface; and the situation of the neighbouring mountains occasions such frequent changes of atmosphere in the course of the summer's day (and at no other season, it is presumed, are these parts visited by strangers) that the tourist will hardly be disappointed of viewing the picture in all its great variety of light and shade.

The following lines are an impromptu, written by a gentleman in the year 1788, who has since distinguished himself by his ingenuity, and at present enjoys no inconsiderable rank as an artist; we might be justified in saying he now possesses a very honourable niche in the modern temple of pictorial fame - in Somerset-house.

Here let the youth who pants for honest fame, By real genius led, whose classic taste Delights to copy Nature, here employ His pencil, and by boldest stretch of art, Snatch all the transient colours of the lake, That wildly on its surface mingling play.

And let the rapture that with speed pursues The flying spectacle of light and shade (And, instant, strikes the canvas with their tint) Direct the eye, and guide the rapid hand, Quick! as the chasing clouds and glancing light Reflect their image on the glassy plain.

Ennerdale Water reflections Pillar

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Now leave the varying beauties of the scene, And dash the scowling mountain's brows sublime. Sweep down their rugged sides, august and steep, With many a furrow-mark'd, and shelving ridge, And paint the pebbled margin of the flood.

But seize! ah, seize on Pillar's lofty top, That passing mist which half obscures its peak. Its evanescent form no art depicts! No fancy wing'd so quick to give it shape!- It flies, alas! and mix'd with common air, Brightens, and fades - insensibly - away!

Describe the dread serenity that dwells In all this region of romantic view, Of awful silence - silence undisturb'd, Save when, as gently mov'd by zephyrs bland, The hedge-row mingles with its sweets a sigh; Or the wing'd inmates of the wat'ry vale Carol, responsive, to the general song Of rising Nature. From her lap he throws The richest offerings of the growing year; And ev'ry tow'ring hill, and daisy'd bank, Breathes choicest incense to th'Almighty Power, Beneficent, whose works are only good.


Ennerdale Water reflections Pictor Pillar

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Glossaries are given in the text for each page of verses, words in order as they are used. These are gathered into one glossary at the end, with the words in alphabetical order.

From the glossary words given it is possible to spot a few mistakes in typesetting, which are shown in square brackets.


Cumberland Dialect SPECIMENS OF The Cumberland Dialect.

(These are taken from the Poems of the ingenious and modest RELPH - an author of some estimation in those parts, and whose Pastorals, in particular, are admired by all judges for their exact delineation (after the best classic models) of the language and manners of his rustic countrymen.)




When welcome rain the weary reapers drove Beneath the shelter of a neighbouring grove, Robin, a love-sick swain lagg'd far behind, Nor seem'd the weight of falling showers to mind; A distant solitary shade he sought, And thus disclos'd the troubles of his thought.

Ay, ay, thur drops may cuil my outside heat, Thur callar blasts may wear the boilen sweat; But ny het bluid, my heart aw' in a bruil, Nor callar blasts can wear, nor drops can cuil.


Thur, these. Cuil, cool. Caller, cold. Wear, cool or allay. Boilen, boiling. Het, hot. Bluid, blood. Aw', all. Bruil, broil.

glossary Cumberland dialect dialect, Cumberland Harvest, or the Bashful Shepherd Bashful Shepherd Relph

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Here, here it was (a wae light on the place!) 'At first I got a gliff o' Betty's feace: Blyth on this trod the smurker tripp'd, and theer At the deail-head unluckily we shear, Heedless I glim'd, nor could my een command, Till gash the sickle went into my hand: Down hell'd the bluid; the shearers aw' brast out In sweels of laughter; Betty luik'd about- Reed grew my fingers, reder [reeder] far my feace- What could I de in seek [seck] a dispert kease?

Away I sleeng'd; to grandy meade my neame [mean]; My grandy (God be wud her now she's geane) Skilfu' the gushen bluid wi' cockwebs staid; Then on the sair a healen plaister laid; The healen plaister eas'd the paanful sair- The arr indeed remains, but neathing mair.

Not sae the other wound, that inward smart- My grandy could not cure a bleedin heart. I've bworn the bitter torment three lang year, And aw' my life-time mun be fworc'd to bear, Less Betty will a kind physician pruive; For nin but she has skill to medcin luive.

But how should honest Betty give relief? Betty's a parfet stranger to my grief:


Wae, woe. Pleace, place. 'At, that. Gliff, a transient view. Feace, face. Trod, foot-path. Smurker, smiler. Theer, there. Deail-head, a narrow plat of ground in a common field. Shear, reaped. Glim'd, looked askance. Een, eyes. Gash, to cut. Hell'd, poured. Aw', all. Brast, burst. Sweels, swells or bursts. Luik'd, looked. Reed, red. Reeder, redder. Feace, face. De, do. Seck, such. Kease, case. Sleeng'd, went creepingly away. Grandy, grandmother. Meade, made. Mean, moan. Wud, with. Geane, gone. Gushen, gushing. Bluid, blood. Cockwebs, cobwebs. Sair, sore. Healen, healing. Arr, scarr or mark. Neathing, nothing. Mair, more. Sae, so. Bworn, born. Lang, long. Mun, must. Fworc'd, forced. Pruive, prove. Nin, none. Luive, love. Perfet, perfect.

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Oft I've resolv'd my ailment to explain- Oft I've resolv'd indeed - but all in vain: A springin blush spread fast owr aither cheek; Down Robin luik'd, and duice a word could speak.

Can I forget that neet, (I never can) When on the clean-swept hearth the spinnels ran; The lasses drew the line wi' busy speed; The lads as busy, minded ev'ry thread; When, sad! the line sae slender Betty drew, Snap went the thread, and down the spinnel flew; To me it meade; the lads began to glop; What would I de? I mun, mud tak it up: I tuik it up, and (what gangs plaguy hard) E'en reach'd it back without the sweet reward.

O lastin stain! E'en yet its cith to trace A guilty conscience in my blushen feace. I fain wad wesh it out, but never can: Still fair it bides, like bluid of sackless man.

Nought sea was Wully bushfu': Wully spy'd A par of scissars by the lass's side; Thar lows'd, he sleely drop'd the spinnel down: And what said Betty? - Betty struive to frown; Up flew her hand to souse the cowren lad - But, ah! I thought it fell not down owr sad! What follow'd, I think mickle to repeat: My teeth aw' watter'd then, and watter yet.


Springin, springing. Owr, over. Aither, either. Luik'd, looked. Neet, night. Spinnels, spindles. Wi', with. Sae, so. Meade, made. Glop, stare. De, do. Mud, must. Tak, take. Tuik, took. Gangs, goes. Pleaguy, plaguy. Lastin, lasting. Eith, easy. Treace, trace. Blushen, blushing. Feace, face. Wad, would. Wesh, wash. Bides, abides. Bluid, blood. Sackless, innocent. Wully, Willy. Par, pair. Ther, them. Lows'd, loosed. Sleely, slyly. Struive, strove. Cowren, crouching. Mickle, much. Aw all. Watter'd, watered.

Page 301:-

E'en weel is he 'at ever was bworn! He's free frae aw' this bitterment and scorn [scworn]. What! mun I still be fash'd wi' stragglen sheep, Wi' far-fetche'd sighs, and things I said asleep? Still shamfully left snafflen by mysel, And still, stil dogg'd wi' the damn'd name o'mell?

Whare's now the pith (this luive! the Duice ga wi't) The pith I show'd whene'er we struive to beat? When a lang lwonin through the cworn I meade; And bustlin far behind the leave survey'd?

Dear heart! that pith is geane, and comes nea mair Till Betty's kindness sal the loss repair: And she's net like (how sud she?) to be kind, Till I have freely spoken out my mind, Till I have learnt to feac the maiden clean, Oil'd my slow tongue, and edg'd my sheepish een.

A buik theer is - a buik - the neame - sham faw't! Something o'compliments, I think, they caw't - 'At meakes a clownish lad a clever spark: O hed I this! this buik wad dea my wark! And I's resolv'd to hav't whatever't cost.- My flute; for what's my flute if Betty'd lost? But if sae bonny a lass but be my bride, I need not any comfort lait beside.


Weel, well. 'At, that. Bworn, born. Frae, from. Scworn, scorn. Mun, must. Fash'd, troubled. Stragglen, straggling. Shamfully, shamefully. Snafflen, sauntering. Mysel, myself. Neame, name. O' mell, of the hindmost (mell, a beetle). Whare's, where's. Luive, love. Ga' wi't, go with it. Lang, long. Lwonnin, lane. Cworn, corn. Bustlin, bustling. Leave or lave, all the rest. Geane, gone. Nae mair, no more. Sall, shall. Sud should. Feace, face. Eeen, eyes. Buik, book. Theer, there. Sham faw't, shame befal it. Caw't, call it. 'At meakes, that makes. Hed, had. Wark, work. I's, I am. Hav't, have it. Whatever't, whatever it. Lait, seek.

Page 302:-

Farewell my flute, then, yet to Carlisle fair, When to the stationer's I'll stright repair, And bauldly for thur compliments enquear - Care I a fardin? - let the 'prentice jeer.

That dune, a handsome letter I'll indite, Handsome as ever country lad did write; A letter 'at sall tell her aw' I feel, And aw' my wants without a blush reveal.

But now the clouds brek off, and sineways run; Out frae his shelter lively luiks the sun; Brave hearty blasts the droopin barley dry: The lads are gaen to sheer, and sae mun I.


Stright, straight. Bauldly, boldly. Thur, these. Enquear, enquire. Fardin, farthing. Dune, done. 'At sall, that shall. Aw' all. Brek, break. Sineways, sundry ways. Frae, from. Luiks, looks. Droopin, drooping. Gaen, gone. Shear, reap. Sae mun, so must.


The snaw has left the fells., and fled; Their tops i' green the trees hav' cled; The grund wi' sindry flowers is sawn; And to their stint the becks are fawn: Nor fear the nyhphs (sic) and graces mair To dance it in the meadows bare.


Snaw, snow. Fells, mountains. I' green, in green. Hev' cled, have clad. Grund, ground. Wi', with. Sindry, sundry. Sawn, sown. Stint, usual measure. Becks, rivulets or small brooks. Fawn, fallen. Mair, more.

Horace Odes

Page 303:-

The year, 'at slips sae fast away, Whispers we mun net think to stay; The spring suin thows the winter frost; To meet the spring does simmer post; Frae simmer, autumn clicks the hauld. And back at yence is winter cauld. Yit muins off-hand meake up the loss: But soon as we the watter cross, To Tullus great, Eneas guid, We're dust and shadows without bluid. And whae, Torquatus, can be sworn, 'At thame abuin 'ill grant to-mworn? Leeve, than; what's war't i' murry cheer, Frae thankless heirs is gitten clear. When Death, my friend, yence ligs ye fast, And Minus just your duim has past, Your reace, and wit, and worth, I'll mak But a peer shift to bring you back. Diana, (she's a goddess, tee) Gits not Hippolitus set free; Can never brek Pirithous' chyne.


'At slips, that slips. Mun net, must not. Suin, soon. Thows, thaws. Simmer, summer. Clicks, catches or snatches away. Hauld, hold. Yence, once. Cauld, cold. Yit, yet. Muins, moons. Meake, make. Suin, soon. Watter, water. Guid, good. Whae, who. 'At thame abuin, that them above. 'Ill, will. To-mworn, to-morrow. Leeve than, live then. War't, laid out or expended. 'I murry, in merry. Gitten, got or gotten. Ligs, lays. Minus, Minos. Duim, doom. Reace, race. Peer, poor. Tee, too. Chyne, chain.

Glossary for the Examples of Cumberland Dialect

Some, too many, of the entries in the glossaries simply show a different pronunciation of an ordinary word rather than a dialect word (pleace/place). Some entries explain an ordinary word by another (gash/cut); excepting that I am uncertain what is an ordinary word in the late 18th century.

aither = either

arr = scarr or mark

'at = that

'at meakes = that makes

'at sall = that shall

'at slips = that slips

'at thame abuin = that them above

aw = all

aw' = all

bauldly = boldly

bides = abides

bluid = blood

blushen = blushing

boilen = boiling

brast = burst

brek = break

bruil = broil

buik = book

bustlin = bustling

bworn = born

callar = cold

cauld = cold

caw't = call it

chyne = chain

clicks = catches or snatches away

cockwebs = cobwebs

cowren = crouching

cuil = cool

cworn = corn

de = do

deail-head = a narrow plat of ground in a common field

droopin = drooping

duim = doom

dune = done

een = eyes

eith = easy

enquear = enquire

fardin = farthing

fash'd = troubled

feace = face

frae = from

fworc'd = forced

ga' wi't = go with it

gaen = gone

gangs = goes

gash = to cut

geane = gone

gitten = got or gotten

gliff = a transient view

glim'd = looked askance

glop = stare

grandy = grandmother

guid = good

gushen = gushing

hauld = hold

hav't = have it

healen = healing

hed = had

hell'd = poured

het = hot

i' murry = in merry

'ill = will

I's = I am

kease = case

lait = seek

lang = long

lastin = lasting

leave or lave = all the rest

leeve than = live then

ligs = lays

lows'd = loosed

luik'd = looked

luiks = looks

luive = love

lwonnin = lane

mair = more

meade = made

meake = make

mean = moan

mickle = much

Minus = Minos

mud = must

muins = moons

mun = must

mun net = must not

mysel = myself

nae mair = no moor

neame = name

neathing = nothing

neet = night

nin = none

o'mell = of the hindmost (mell, a beetle)

owr = over

par = pair

parfet = perfect

peer = poor

pleace = place

pleaguy = plaguy

pruive = prove

reace = race

reed = red

reeder = redder

sackless = innocent

sae mun = so must

sae = so

sair = sore

sall = shall

scworn = scorn

seck = such

sham faw't = shame befall it

shamfully = shamefully

shear = reap

simmer = summer

sineways = sundry ways

sleely = slyly

sleeng'd = went creepingly away

smurker = smiler

snafflen = sauntering

spinnels = spindles

springin = springing

stragglen = straggling

stright = straight

struive = strove

sud = should

suin = soon

sweels = swells or bursts

tak = take

tee = too

thar = them

theer = there

thows = thaws

thur = these

to-mworn = tomorrow

treace = trace

trod = foot-path

tuik = took

wad = would

wae = woe

wark = work

war't = laid out or expended

watter'd = watered

wear = cool or allay

weel = well

wesh = wash

whae = who

whare's = where's

whatever't = whatever it

wi' = with

wud = with

Wully = Willy

yence = once

yit = yet

Perhaps the more interesting words are:-

abuin = above

arr = scarr or mark

callar = cold

clicks = catches or snatches away

cockwebs = cobwebs

deail-head = a narrow plat of ground in a common field

eith = easy

fash'd = troubled

gangs = goes

gliff = a transient view

glim'd = looked askance

glop = stare

grandy = grandmother

hell'd = poured

lait = seek

leave or lave = all the rest

ligs = lays

lwonnin = lane

mickle = much

mun = must

o'mell = of the hindmost (mell, a beetle)

sackless = innocent

shear = reap

sineways = sundry ways

sleeng'd = went creepingly away

smurker = smiler

snafflen = sauntering

trod = foot-path

war't = laid out or expended

wear = cool or allay

yence = once

glossary dialect, Cumberland Cumberland dialect

Page 304:-


MRS RADCLIFFE'S Description of the Scenery IN

Mrs Radcliffe Ride over Skiddaw A Ride over Skiddaw. (1794)

Having engaged a guide, and with horses accustomed to the labour, we began to ascend this tremendous mountain by a way which makes the summit five miles from Keswick. Passing through bowery lanes, luxurian (sic) with mountain ash, holly, and a variety of beautiful shrubs, to a broad, open common, a road led to the foot of Latrig, (or, as it is called by the country people, Skiddaw's Cub) a large round hill, covered with heath, turf, and browsing sheep. A narrow path now wound along steep green precipices, the beauty of which prevented the danger there was from being perceived. Derwent-water was concealed by others that rose above them; but that part of the vale of Keswick which separates the two lakes, and spreads a rich level of three miles, was immediately below; Crosthwaite church nearly in the centre, with the vicarage rising among trees. More under shelter of Skiddaw, where the vale spreads into a sweet retired nook, lay the house and grounds of Dr. Brownrigg - Beyond the level opened a glimpse of Bassenthwaite-water - a lake which may be called elegant - bounded on one side by well-wooded rocks, and on the other by Skiddaw.- Soon after, we rose above the steeps which had concealed Derwent-water, and it appeared, with all its enamelled banks, sunk deep amidst a chaos of mountains, and surrounded by ranges of fells not visible from below. On the other hand, the more chearful lake of Bassenthwaite, expanded at its entire length.- Having gazed a while on this magnificent scene, we pursued the path, and soon after reached the brink of a chasm

Radcliffe. Mrs Skiddaw Ride over Skiddaw horse Latrigg Skiddaw's Cub St Mary, Crosthwaite Brownrigg, Dr Bassenthwaite Lake Derwent Water

Page 305:-

on the opposite side of which wound our future track; for the ascent is here in an acutely zig-zag direction. The horses carefully picked their steps along the narrow precipice, and turned the angle that led them to the opposite side.

At length, as we ascended, Derwent-water dwindled on the eye to the smallness of a pond, while the grandeur of its amphitheatre was increased by new ranges of dark mountains, no longer individually great, but so from accumulation - a scenery to give ideas of the breaking up of a world. Others (sic) precipices soon hid it again; but Bassenthwaite continued to spread immediately below us, till we turned into the heart of Skiddaw, and were inclosed by its steeps. We had now lost all track, even of the flocks that were scattered over these tremendous wilds. The guide conducted us by many curvings among the heathy hills and hollows of the mountain; but the ascents were such, that the horses panted in the slowest walk, and it was necessary to let them rest every six or seven minutes - An opening to the south, at length, showed the whole plan of the narrow vales of St. John and of Nadale, separated by the dark ridge of rocks called St. John's Rigg, with each its small line of verdure at the bottom, and bounded by enormous grey fells, which we were, however, now high enough to overlook. A white speck on the top of St. John's Rigg, was pointed out by the guide to be a chapel of ease to Keswick, which has no less than five such scattered amongst the fells. From this chapel, dedicated to St. John, the rock and the vale have received their name; and our guide told us that Nadale was frequently known by the same title.

Leaving this view, the mountain soon again shut out all prospect, but of its own vallies and precipices, covered with various shades of turf and moss, and with heath, of which a dull purple was the prevailing hue. Not a tree or bush appeared on Skiddaw, nor even a stone wall any where broke the simple greatness of its lines. Sometimes we looked into

Derwent Water Bassenthwaite Lake Skiddaw St John's in the Vale Nadale St John's Rigg St John, St John's in the Vale

Page 306:-

tremendous chasms, where the torrent, heard roaring long before it was seen, had worked itself a deep channel, and fell from ledge to ledge, foaming and shining amidst the dark rock. These streams are sublime, from the length and precipitancy of their course, which, hurrying the sight with them into the abyss, act as it were in sympathy upon the nerves, and, to save ourselves from following, we recoil from the view with involuntary horror. Of such, however, we saw only two, and those by some departure from the usual course up the mountain; but every where met gushing springs, till we were within two miles of the summit, when our guide added to the rum in his bottle what he said was the last water we should find in our ascent.

The air now became very thin, and the steeps still more difficult of ascent; but it was often delightful to look down into tho (sic) green hollows of the mountain, among pastoral scenes, that wanted only some mixture of wood to render them enchanting.- About a mile from the summit, the way was indeed dreadfully sublime, lying, for nearly half a mile, along the edge of a precipice, that passed with a swift descent, for probably near a mile, into a glen within the heart of Skiddaw; and not a bush nor a hillock interrupted its vast length, or, by offering a midway check in the descent, diminished the fear it inspired. The ridgy steeps of Saddleback formed the opposite boundary of the glen; and though really at a considerable distance, had, from the height of the two mountains, such an appearance of nearness, that it almost seemed as if could spring to its side. How much, too, did simplicity increase the sublimity of this scene, in which nothing but mountain, heath, and sky appeared!- But our situation was too critical, or too unusual, to permit the just impressions of such sublimity. The hill rose so closely above the precipice, as scarcely to allow a ledge wide enough for a single horse. We followed the guide in silence, and, till we regained the more open wild, had no leisure for exclamation. After this, the ascent appeared easy and secure, and we were

Skiddaw Saddleback

Page 307:-

bold enough to wonder, that the steeps near the beginning of the mountain had excited any anxiety.

At length, passing the skirts of the two points of Skiddaw which are nearest to Derwent water, we approached the third and loftiest, and then perceived that their steep sides, together with the ridges which connect them, were entirely covered near the summits with a whitish shivered slate, which threatens to slide down them with every gust of wind. The broken state of this slate makes the present summits seem like ruins of others - a circumstance as extraordinary in appearance as difficult to be accounted for.

The ridge on which we passed from the neighbourhood of the second summit to the third, was narrow, and the eye reached, on each side, down the whole extent of the mountain following, on the left, the rocky precipices that impend over the lake of Bassenthwaite, and looking on the right, into the glens of Saddleback, far, far below. But the prospects that burst upon us from every part of the vast horizon, when we had gained the summit, were such as we had scarcely dared to hope for, and must now rather venture to enumerate then (sic) to describe.

We stood on a pinnacle, commanding the whole dome of the sky. The prospects below, each of which had been before considered separately as a great scene, were now miniature parts of the immense landscape.- To the north lay, like a map, the vast tract of low country which extends between Bassenthwaite and the Irish Channel, marked with the silver circles of the river Derwent, in its progress from the lake. Whitehaven, and its white coast, were distinctly seen; and Cockermouth seemed almost under the eye. A long blackish line, more to the west, resembling a faintly-formed cloud, was said by the Guide to be the Isle of Man, who, however, had the honesty to confess, that the mountains of Down, in Ireland, which sometimes have been thought visible,

Skiddaw Skiddaw Man Little Man Derwent, River Whitehaven Cockermouth Isle of Man

Page 308:-

had never been seen by him in the clearest weather. Bounding the low country to the north, the wide Solway Frith, with its indented shores, looked like a grey horizon; and the double range of Scottish mountains, seen dimly through the mist beyond, like lines of dark clouds above it. The Solway appeared surprisingly near us, though at fifty miles distance; and the guide said, that, on a bright day, its shipping could plainly be discerned.- Nearly in the north, the heights seemed to soften into plains, for no object was there visible through the obscurity that had begun to draw over the further distance; but towards the east they appeared to swell again; and what we were told were the Chevot (sic) hills, dawned feebly beyond Northumberland. We now spanned the narrowest part of England, looking from the Irish Channel on one side, to the German Ocean on the other; which latter was however, so far off as to be discernable only like a mist.- Nearer than the County of Durham, stretched the ridge of Cross-fell, and an indistinct multitude of Westmorland and Yorkshire highlands, whose lines disappeared behind Saddleback, now evidently pre-eminent over Skiddaw, so much so as too exclude many a height beyond it.- Passing this mountain in our course to the south, we saw, immediately below, the fells round Derwent-water, the lake itself remaining still concealed in their deep rocky bosom. Southward and westward, the whole prospect was 'a turbulent chaos of dark mountains:' all individual dignity was now lost in the immensity of the whole, and every variety of character was overpowered by that of astonishing and gloomy grandeur.- Over the fells of Borrowdale, and far to the south, the northern end of Windermere appeared, like a wreath of grey smoke that spreads along a mountain's side. More southward still, and beyond all the fells of the lakes, Lancaster Sands extended to the faintly-seen waters of the sea. Then to the west, Duddon Sands gleamed in a long line among the fells of High Furness.- Immediately under the eye, lay Bassenthwaite, surrounded by many ranges of mountains invisible from below. We overlooked all these dark moun-

Radcliffe. Mrs Ride over Skiddaw Solway Firth shipping Cheviot Hills Irish Sea Irish Channel North Sea German Ocean Cross Fell Borrowdale Windermere lake Lancaster Sands Duddon Sands High Furness Bassenthwaite Lake

Page 309:-

[moun]tains; and saw green cultivated vales over the tops of lofty rocks, and other mountains over these vales, in many ridges: whilst innumerable narrow glens were traced in all their windings, and seen uniting behind the hills with others that also sloped upwards from the lake.

The air on this summit was boisterous, intensely cold, and difficult to be inspired, though below, the day was warm and serene. It was dreadful to look down from nearly the brink of the point on which we stood, upon the lake of Bassenthwaite, and over a sharp and separated ridge of rocks, that from below appeared of tremendous height, but now seemed not to reach half way up Skiddaw; it was almost as if

... the precipitation might down stretch Below the beam of light ...

Under the lee of an heaped up pile of slates, formed by the customary contribution of one from every visitor, we found an old man sheltered, whom we took to be a shepherd, but afterwards learned was a farmer, and as people in this neighbourhood say, a statesman , that is, had land of his own. He was a native, and still an inhabitant of an adjoining vale; but so laborious is the enterprize reckoned, that, though he had passed his life within view of the mountain, this was his first ascent. He descended with us for part of our way, then wound off towards his own valley, stalking amidst the wild scenery, his large figure wrapped in a dark cloak, and his steps occasionally assisted by a long iron-pronged pike, with which he had pointed out distant objects.- In the descent, it was interesting to observe each mountain below gradually resuming its dignity; the two lakes expanding into spacious surfaces; the many little vallies that sloped upwards from their margins, recovering their variegated tints of cultivation; the cattle again appearing in the meadows; and the woody promontories changing from smooth patches of shade

Bassenthwaite Lake Skiddaw shepherd farmer statesman Derwent Water

Page 310:-

into richly tufted summits. At about a mile from the top, a great difference was perceptable (sic) in the climate, which became comparatively warm, and the summer hum of bees was again heard among the purple heath.

We reached Keswick about four o'clock, after five hours passed in this excursion, in which the care of our guide greatly lessened the notion of danger.


Pages 311-312:-

Image W21311.jpg.

ROADS FROM Lancaster to the Lakes. MILES. Lancaster 3 Hest-bank 9 Over Lancaster-sands to Carter-house 2 Cartmel or Flookburgh 2 Holker-gate 3 Over Ulverston-sands to Carter-house 1 Ulverston 12 Dalton, Furness-abbey, and back to Ulverston 4 Penny-bridge 2 Lowick-bridge Or, 5 From Ulverston to Lowick-bridge 2 ½ Through Nibthwaite to Coniston water-foot 6 Coniston water-head 3 Hawkshead 5 Ambleside Or, 4 From Hawkshead to the ferry on Windermere-water 1 Bowness across Windermere-water 6 Ambleside 2 Rydal 2 Grasmere 2 ½ Dunmail-raise stones 3 ½ Dale-head 4 ¾ Castle-rigg 1 Keswick 3 Lowdore water-fall 1 Grange 1 Bowdar-stone, Castle-hill 2 ½ Rosthwaite 2 ½ Seathwaite 9 Keswick 8 Down Bassenthwaite-water, by Bowness, Bradness, and Scareness, to Armathwaite 9 Up the other side of the lake of Keswick 5 Keskadale 3 Buttermere 6 Down Cromack-water to Lorton 7 ½ Keswick 4 Threlkeld 6 Whitbarrow 1 Penruddock 6 ¾ Penrith 5 Dunmallet, at the foot of Ulls-water, and Pooley-bridge 9 Watermillock, Gowbarrow-Park, Airey-Bridge, to the head of Ulls-water 9 Ambleside Or, 14 From the head of Ulls-water to Penrith 10 ½ By Lowther, Askham, and Bampton, to Hawes-water 15 Through Long-Sleddale to Kendal Or, 5 From Hawes-water to Shap, by Ross and Shap-abbey 7 Hawes-foot 8 Kendal 10 Down the east side of Kent, to Levens-park, and return to Kendal by Sizergh 11 Burton-in-Kendal 11 Lancaster.

Printed by John Kilner, Gazette-Office, Market-Place, Kendal.

3rd edn addenda

pages 229-234:-





I Here send you an account of a tour I made some time ago through the mountains and caverns near Settle, which I think no way inferior to those of Derbyshire.

Nigh the Chapel in the dale, on the north side of Ingleborough, I met with three caverns that are totally unlike any in this island, tho' caverns are common in all limestone countries. The first (nigh the chapel) is a pit sinking from an even surface about forty yards into the ground, and is about the same number of yards in diameter. At the bottom is a deep pool of water, from whence issues a subterraneous brook, but through so narrow a passage, that in wet weather, the cavern fills up, and overflows its brim.- A quarter of a mile above this is another pit, of a paralellopiped (sic) form, being a chasm between two perpendicular rocks, and though upwards of forty yards deep, one may easily leap over it. It seems one of those breaks, or faults (as miners call 'em) where the regular strata have been broken, and one part of them has sunk below the other; for the bands of rock lie pretty horizontal, and in their fissures are found fossils of very curious genera, shells, fish-bones, pipy flints, with concretes of shells, stones, moss, and other vegetables, in one mass. Small screw-like cylinders, some with holes through, which all effervesce with an acid, and creep in a plate filled with vinegar, like those found near Carrickfergus, in Ireland, by the discharge of their fixt air.

Walker, Adam Settle area cave pothole fossil Chapel-le-Dale Hurtle Pot Gingle Pot

3rd edn addenda, page 230:-

But a couple of hundred yards above this another cavern opens, much more astonishing than the others. The first approach to this presents a perpendicular descent from nearly a level surface, beautifully bordered with trees and shrubs, which nature seems to have meant as a guard as well as beauty. On one side you may descend, by crawling from one broken stratum of rock to another, till you are twenty yards beneath the surface: In the descent one may rest between the projecting parts of the rock, or creep many yards horizontally between them, where we shall find the rocks and stones encrusted with spar, and the cavernous part filled with petrifactions in the shape of shells, moss, icicles, &c. Most of the sparry and roof incrustations, I take to be the fine particles of the limestone dissolved by the rain-water, in its descent through the rocks, which sinking slowly through the roof of these caverns, the water evaporates, and leaves the fine particles of stone to concrete behind; forming hollow conic figures on the roof, or if they fall on the bottom of the cavern, form those knobs of calcarious fossil, which cut off horizontally, are polished into curiously variegated slabs. That the same impregnated waters falling on shells, fish-bones, &c. should in time displace the calcarious matter of which these are naturally formed, and that these stony particles should in time assume the same shape and form the shells, bones, snakes, &c. so commonly found in limestone countries, I cannot say I am so clear in.- May it not be, that nature has ordained, that particles of such and such properties, meeting with a proper nidus in the bowels of the earth, and similar to that in which they may assemble on the outside of an animal, may run into the same forms, and amuse us with the shape of cockles, limpets, snakes, &c. formed in the middle of rocks?

But to resume our journey down this amazing cavern.- After descending from ledge to ledge in a retrograde motion, through arches of prodigious rocks, thrown together by the rude but awful hand of nature; at the depth of 70

Weathercoate Cave spar petrifactions stalactite stalagmite snakestone

3rd edn addenda, page 231:-

yards we see a parabolic cascade, rushing from a hole nigh the surface, and falling the whole 70 yards, with a roar, which reverberated by the rocks above, confounds and astonishes the most intrepid ear! The spray arising from this cascade fills the whole cavern, and if the sun happens to shine into it, generates a most vivid and surprising rainbow, Another cascade, of not quite so great a fall, issues perpendicularly from a projecting rock with equal rapidity as the first, and is certainly a part of the same subterraneous brook; they fall together into a narrow pool at the bottom, which measures 37 yards in depth; and proceeding underground about a mile, break out, and form the large brook that runs by Ingleton, and from thence to the river Lune. In the time of great rains, the subterraneous channel that conveys away the water becomes too small, and then the cavern fills to the depth of above 100 yards, and runs over at the surface.

To a mind capable of being impressed with the grand and sublime of nature, this is a scene that inspires a pleasure chastised by astonishment! Personal safety also insinuates itself into the various feelings, where both the eye and ear are so tremendously assailed.- To see as much water as would turn several mills, rush from a hole near 70 yards above the eye, in such a projectile as shews its subterraneous fall to be very considerable before it enters the cavern; and to see the fine skirting of wood, with various fantastic roots and shrubs, through a spray, enlivened by a perfect rainbow, so far above the eye, and yet within the earth, has something more romantic and awful in it than any thing of the kind in the three kingdoms!

Ascending from the dark excavations we found at the bottom of this dreary cavern, we once more bless ourselves in broad day-light, and begin to mount the rugged sides of frowning Ingleborough. Its top may have been a Roman station, for any thing I know; there are certainly the remains

Weathercoate Cave rainbow Doe, River Ingleborough roman fort, Ingleborough

3rd edn addenda, page 232:-

of a great circular ditch that incloses the summit, but the extensive and variegated prospect seduced me from conjectures and learned surmises. The southern prospect is a rugged barrier, that seems to turn the eye towards the fine plains of Lancashire and Cheshire; with our glasses we could easily distinguish the Dee separate the plain from the Welch mountains;- the fine indentations made by the bays of Liverpool and Preston, lead the eye northward to that of Lancaster, which appeared beneath our feet as a map, full of capes and inlets. But the sea in front, and the Westmorland mountains to the right, make the sublime of this prospect;- before us the flat fields and woods insensibly melt into union with the sea - while the black mountains frown over that element, and seem to spurn it from their feet. The Hill-bell, Langdale-pikes, Black-comb, &c. are easily distinguished in this chaotic assemblage; while the coast of Galloway, in Scotland, and the Isle of Man, seem as clouds in the back-ground. The east prospect is a range of rich sheep moors, of which Ingleborough appears the surly sentry. In our road to Settle we met with the Ribble, which tumbles into a deep cavern, and is lost in the bowels of the mountains for upwards of three miles, when it issues again into day-light, and with a continued roar makes its way to Settle. From hence I rode through a dreadful fog to Malm (or Malham) about six miles to the east, and the road ending in a sheep-track upon the high moors, was in much danger of losing my way; but a blast of wind giving me a glimpse of the vale, I got there very safe.

My first excursion was to the tarn, (or little lake) skirted on one side by a peat bog, and rough limestone rocks, on the other; it abounds in fine trout, but has little else remarkable, except being the head of the river Air, which issuing from it, sinks into the ground very near the lake, and appears again under the fine rock which faces the village. In the time of great rains this subterraneous passage is too narrow; the brook then makes its way over the top of the rock, falling in a most majestic cascade full 60 yards in one sheet. This

Ingleborough roman fort, Ingleborough Ill Bell Langdale Pikes Black Combe Ribble, River Malham Malham Tarn trout Aire, River

3rd edn addenda, page 233:-

beautiful rock is like the age-tinted wall of a prodigious castle; the stone is very white, and from the ledges hang various shrubs and vegetables, which with the tints given it by the bog water, &c. gives it a variety that I never before saw so pleasing in a plain rock. Gordale-scar was the object of this excursion. My guide brought me first to a fine sheet cascade in a glen about half a mile below the scar, the rocks of a beautiful variegation and romantic shrubbery. We then proceeded up the brook, the pebbles of which I found incrusted with a soft petrify'd coating, calcarious, slimy, and of a light brown colour.- I saw the various strata of the limestone mountains approach day-light in extensive and striking bands, running nearly horizontal, and a rent in them (from whence the brook issued) of perpendicular immense rocks:- On turning the corner of one of these, and seeing the rent complete - good heavens! what was my astonishment! The Alps, the Pyrenees, Killarney, Loch-Lomomd, or any other wonder of the kind I had ever seen, do not afford such a chasm!- Consider yourself in a winding street, with houses above an hundred yards high on each side of you;- then figure to yourself a cascade rushing from an upper window, and tumbling over carts, waggons, fallen houses, &c. in promiscuous ruin, and perhaps a cockney idea may be formed of this tremendous cliff. But if you would conceive it properly, depend upon neither pen nor pencil, for 'tis impossible for either to give you an adequate idea of it.- I can say no more than that I believe the rocks to be above 100 yards high, that in several places they project above 100 yards over their base, and approach the opposite rock so near that one would almost imagine it possible to lay a plank from one to the other. At the upper end of this rent (which may be about 300 yards horizontally long) there gushes a most threatening cascade through a rude arch of monstrous rocks, and tumbling through many fantastic masses of its own forming, comes to a rock of entire petrifaction, down which it has a variety of picturesque breaks, before it enters a channel that conveys it pretty uniformly away.- I take these whimsical shapes to

Malham Cove Gordale Scar

3rd edn addenda, page 234:-

be the children of the spray, formed in droughty weather, when the water has time to evaporate, and leave the stony matter uninterrupted in its cohesion. These petrifactions are very porous; crumbly when dry, and pulpy when wet, and shaped a good deal like crooked knotty wood.

I found here a stratum of white clay, perfectly free from grit, when tried by the teeth - it does not effervesce with an acid, nor dissolve in water. When dry 'tis as white as this paper, light, close, soapy, compact, and very hard. It appears to me like the petunzee of the Chinese, and though I have not tryed it in the fire, believe it might be well worth the china or pot manufacturer's examination.

I am, Sir, your humble servant,


No.28. Haymarket, London, September 20th, 1779.

Gordale Scar road, Kendal to Settle caly pottery

[It is apprehended the printer must have made a mistake in the dimensions of the natural curiosities at Chapel in the dale; if we read feet instead of yards, we shall be much nearer the truth.

- There are several curious particulars relating to Ingleborough not mentioned in the above description, which may be seen in an accurate account of this mountain, published in the Annual Register for 1761.

The objects described in the above letter lie in the Yorkshire road from Kendal to London , and may be best visited from Kendal on your return from the lakes.- The route will be thus. From Kendal to Kirkby-Lonsdale 12 miles. From thence to Ingleton 7 miles. From thence to Chapel in the dale 4 miles, where enquiry must be made for the curiosities in that neighbourhood.- Proceed from thence to Settle, by Horton 10 miles, which is 6 miles distant from Gordale-scar .]

3rd edn addenda

pages 297-303:-




THE language of any people, however refined it may become in time, has undoubtedly arisen from some rude original, and he, therefore, who wishes thoroughly to understand its genius and primary elements, must, if possible, make himself acquainted with its formation in its earliest stages. Now this knowledge is often best acquired from the mouths of the vulgar, who, living far removed from refinement, have probably retained a dialect nearly the same with that which resulted from the last casual admixture it underwent among their rustic ancestors; and which in England was the union of the Saxon with the ancient British. On this account the critic in our language would at present receive the best information concerning its principles and character, by studying the provincial dialects of the times in some of the most retired districts. And as they are now suffering a daily change from the rapid progress made of late in every branch of politeness, it is to be wished, that for this end our provincial historians had carefully attended to and preserved the peculiar terms and phrases of the vulgar dialects, current in their respective divisions.[1] Particularly this was to be wished

dialect etymology folk tale

It is also to be wished (and in this wish I have the concurrence of several judicious friends) that the ingenious in these parts would immediately set about making collections of the oldest words and peculiar phrases used by their common neighbours, and preserve them in case some learned and properly-qualified person should hereafter undertake to give us a complete dictionary of the Westmorland and Cumberland dialects, to whom they might be of the greatest service. Of such a work the list of words which has lately appeared in the Tour to the Caves, might be a beginning.

There are also in these parts (as in every other part alike retired) several stories of apparitions, witches, fairies, &c.- several traditionary tales of strange occurrences,- and many compositions of rural bards under the titles of speech plays, masking songs, &c. which if collected as much as possible in their provincial dress, and preserved in some public library, before they are likely to be lost in the more engaging amusements of these improving times, might be of considerable use to the future grammarian, historian, or investigator of the progress of society and manners. The poet too, might from these traditionary narratives, and superstitious ideas, gain more materials for some provinces of his fanciful art, than from the richest invention: For it is not easy to suppose he can form for himself as striking a combination of events, and association of ideas, as may have been furnished by the accidents of time, and the fruitfulness of superstition; and on account of which strikingness these fire-side tales have obtained so long and general a tradition as many of them can boast - But I am content with barely throwing out a hint, which if thought worth notice will not need any further enlargement.

3rd edn addenda, page 298:-

of the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland, where the common speech at this day (besides many obsolete words used by our elder poets, from Chaucer down to Spencer, &c.) contains several unnoticed roots and elements of derivation. These dialects are much different in many words from the broad Lancashire: And were they collected and digested in some such manner as the specimens of an English-British Dictionary given us by the ingenious and learned author of the History of Manchester, and his completed, I am satisfied these works, with the assistance of the Welch, ancient Cornish, Islandic, and the remains of other Gothic and Teutonic languages, would throw an unexpected light on the bases, structure, and analogies of the English tongue.

As a slight specimen of this, I will put down the derivation of a few words, of which we find little in our dictionaries, or little satisfactory. Many more might be given from a cursory recollection, but we must not forget the chief interest of this volume, and that Swift's discourse on the antiquity of the English tongue is perhaps in more hands than may know the due limits of its ridicule. And should these etymologies appear to some more whimsical than just, it should be re-

dialect dialect dictionary dictionary, dialect

3rd edn addenda, page 299:-

[re]membered that they appeal to the only kind of evidence of which they are capable; that they cannot all yield the same degree of conviction, and that this sort of enquiry is a matter of self-persuasion from a view of circumstances, and not of demonstrative proof from undeniable principles.

dess Dess, in this vulgar dialect, is to put in order. Hence a writing-desk, in which are contained little cells, and other conveniences of arrangement, has its name. Distaff is consequently properly dess-staff, or a staff or rod on which the flax is fitly disposed for spinning. It is also probable that from this idea we have the word dress, both as applied to the person and things, as dressing of victuals, &c.

clever, to The endeavour of children to get upon any thing, is in this country termed to clever. Hence the phrase of a clever fellow primarily means, one who is capable of surmounting any thing he undertakes.

kink Kink, is to be thrown into the convulsions which we observe in the highest degree of coughing or laughter. Hence the cough in children which always put on this strained appearance is called the Kink-cough. From an ignorance of this etymology, though with some reference to the sound, we find the word wrote chin, or king-cough. Also the loops which twisted threads (or hairs for fishing-lines) are apt to run into are sometimes called kinks. From which it appears in both cases, that an idea of convulsion is implied in the term kink.

wee Wee, in Cumberland, signifies little. Hence wevel (the insect in corn) is formed of wee and evil, and means, the little evil. Wee combined with edge makes wedge, a well-known instrument with a small or thin edge.

hee Hee, is the term for high . Hence hedge is from hee-hedge, or high-edge. At first this fence would be made of earth and stones, and afterwards quick fences serving the same purpose would have the same name.

dialect etymology dess clever, to kink kink cough wee hee hedge

3rd edn addenda, page 300:-

slay Any thing that moves on a pivot (as the part of the loom that is pulled by the hand among the threads) is called a slay. Hence a hammer fastened upon a shaft to move in this manner is called a sledge from slay and edge. It is not so clear that sedge is from sea-edge, but the verb to slay, comes plainly from a like idea of swinging the arm.

dee due Do, in these parts is dee or due. Hence Devil is formed of dee-evil. In like manner, the true original meaning of snivel and drivel (from whence we have the opprobrious term of sniveler and driveler) may be easily gained.

When cabbins served for houses, what they put over the entrance to keep out the weather, was called due o'er, that is, the thing to do-over. Hence the origin of the word door, both as an opening and as an instrument.

heck Heck, is a little gate made of rails (generally pointed and upright) for several domestic purposes. Whence we have the term hack for an implement used in digging. The long pointed feathers on a cock's neck are also on this account called hackles. Hence the name hackle for the well-known instrument for dressing flax, and hence also the etymology of the word icicle, which is evidently ice-hackle, or a long pointed piece of ice, and which conveys a very characteristic idea.

ar Arr (whence scarr) signifies a mark, made by the action of something upon another. Hence the common term arr-edge, means the edge of any thing that is liable to hurt or arr. But as a final syllable the term is of the most striking use in explaining words.- Wizard hence evidently means one marked with wisdom; Godard, with goodness; haggard with the shrivelled, &c. look of a hag; drunkard, with drink; sluggard with sloth; mustard, with must; dotard, with dotage; Richard, with riches; coward, perhaps with the proverbial timidity of a cow, and query if aukward, be not from oak-ard i.e. one marked with the stiff, rusty, look of an oak?

dialect slay dee due arr heck hackle icicle scar

3rd edn addenda, page 301:-

Hence too the eruptive disorder which appears on the skin, like marks made by the scratching of a cat, is vulgarly called cat-arrles; and query if the term harrow be not from the marks, or arrs, made in rows by that instrument, i.e. an arr-row?

kelter skelter Kelter, or skelter (a word almost forgot) means order as to arrangement, or condition as to body. Hence the phrase of people running helter skelter means running in despite of all order; helter order meaning hang order, as we say hang sorrow, &c.

stirrup Stirrup, is from Stay-rope , a rope with a noose at the end fastened to the saddle to put the foot in, in which form some old drawings represent it.

healm heam Healm, or heam, is a Saxon word for straw, though now out of use, and is here the present vulgar pronunciation of home. From this circumstance it is not improbable but that straw, which once constituted the most general bed, might give the name to the place of domestic repose, by the same figure that has denominated our ordinary repasts meals, from the meal that was heretofore the general food, and as boarding and tabling mean the gratuity of so much per week for victuals eat on boards and tables, &c.- Hence it is easy to see hamlet means a lot or parcel of homes; and hence is had perhaps the term ham for the wooden collar now put on the neck of a cart-horse, from its connexion with a boss, or support, which it is well known was not long since in several places made of straw, called a barriham.

stee Stee, is the vulgar name here for ladder, and steel for style. Hence the idea of something high or upright, which is contained in these words steep, step, steeple.

hose Hose, is an old Furness-fell word for the throat; and the canvas pipe with which sailors draw water from their casks, &c. is called a hose. From this it seems not improbable, that

dialect kelter skelter stirrup healm heam stee hose

3rd edn addenda, page 302:-

stockings have been called hose on account of their throat-like appearance.

cap cob Cap, or Cob, means head, master, top, &c. Hence the common word cobby means heady, tyrannical, and hence cobnut (or job-nut) means a strift for mastery between the contending nuts.

atter Atter, it is well known signifies blood or gore, and hence we have a very characteristic meaning in the name of attercob given in these parts to the spider; i.e. a bloody tyrant. Mr. Whitaker derives this word from the Welch term Adyrcop, signifying the top-insect, in allusion to its common residence in the tops of houses, but I imagine the above is the more likely etymology, as it is more significant of its sanguinary manner of living.

scale Scale, means to spread or disperse abroad. It is used in the following passage of Shakespear's Coriolanus, and, after puzzling the former editors, was only discovered by Mr. Stevens in the last edition.

--- I shall tell you A pretty tale, it may be you have heard it; But, since it serves my purpose, I will venture To scale't a little more.

Thus much respecting the meaning of words; what follows is a concluding remark with regard to sound.

One would think there is so great a likeness in the form of these originally Saxon or British words, wound, sound, hound, ground, pound, &c. that there could be no variation in the form of pronouncing them, wherever they were all used. Yet, the word wound is of late become an exception among the politer part of the world, who pronounce it woond, or in such a manner as it will not rhyme with any of the other

dialect cap cob atter scale spider

3rd edn addenda, page 303:-

words. This mode of speaking the word under consideration is precisely the vulgar one used in some of these northern parts where they call sound, soond - hound, hoond - pound, poond - ground, groond, &c. in which pronunciation, though we cannot think there is much beauty, there is undoubtedly a becoming uniformity worthy of imitation.

It is not easy to see on what account this word wound was singled out for the favorite alteration, but it is easy to see that its new sound will injure the rhymes of many of our best poets, particularly Pope, who always considers wound as rhyming with any of the other words above-mentioned. This hint may perhaps give a south-country person, a different idea than he might have entertained of the propriety of the innovation in question: For certainly nothing ought to be adopted into a language which is unnecessarily contrary to its analogy and fundamental laws.

3rd edn addenda

pages 304-306:-

(P. S.)


The following lines (sent to the printer from a gentleman at Cambridge) should have been inserted at the end of Article VII. had they come to hand in time.


--- Hail kindred glooms! Congenial horrors hail! THOMPSON.

--- THOU spirit dread, That hover'st o'er this rocky region erst, With burning sulphur, and volcanic streams Of fire extinct, all hail!- thou whose loud shriek Midst scouling tempests, oft the listening swain Hast heard agast; oft in slow pacing clouds, That drag their sweeping trains o'er Gregareth's steep, Has trac'd thy wild fantastic form. Thy steps Through many a rugged, uncough path, well pleas'd I follow, whether from the dread abyss Of some unfathom'd cavern,[1] Echo's groans, With many a dreary pause between, from rock To rock rebound, and break upon my ear

cave Gragareth Echo volcano clouds

Gingling-cave on Gregareth

Gingling Cave Jingling Caves Gragareth

3rd edn addenda, page 305:-

Like distant thunder: Or my raptur'd gaze, E'en from the yew-fring'd margin down the steep Pursues the [1] foaming cataract's headlong course, Till spent and dazzl'd on those watry hues Midway it rests, where light refracted paints Each clustering dew-drop's glassy orb, and vies With melting Iris' vernal-tinctur'd bow. Or whether by the taper's glim'ring ray Led on, my steps pervade thy secret shrine, Yordas, where hid from Phaebus' garrish eye, With contemplation, thy compeer, thou sit'st, And like a curtain spread'st thy cloud of night Around thy throne. I feel, I feel thee near! Full many a young idea that e'er this Hath slept in silence, at thy thrilling call Starts from its trance, and kindling into life, With joy and mingled awe attemper'd, swells My crouded soul, and ever and anon As at the wizard's call, my straining eye, Quick glancing, sees a thousand fleeting shapes Scatter'd from bright ey'd fancy's dewy plume.

Parent of horrors, hail! to my fix'd eye Thy sacred form in these, these solemn scenes Reveal'd, descends: And O! more awful far This great design, grav'd by fair nature's hand, These frowning rocks, and min'ral roofs reflect Thy semblance, than cou'd Raphael's warmth devise, Than Phidias featur'd marble: And thy voice Borne on the panting wing of each low blast, That sighs along the vault, awakes the soul To feelings more ennobled than the lyre Of Orpheus, or the rapture-breathnig strains Of Handel e'er inspir'd. O! may I oft In this Egerian cave, great power, attend

waterfall dew Iris Yordas Cave Phoebus rock mineral Raphael Orpheus Handel Egeria

Weathercoat-cave in Chapel in the dale.

Weathercoate Cave Chapel-le-Dale

3rd edn addenda, page 306:-

Thy sacred presence; here with nature's self Hold converse; 'till by just degrees my mind Through science' footsteps pierce the harmonious maze Of scared order, and to brighter views From day to day aspiring, trace at length, Through all the wonders of this nether world, Th' Eternal cause; to him on rapture's wing Dart her swift flight, and scale the walls of heaven.


Nature Science Heaven
Index Abbot Hall214access78Acorn Bank200Actaeon267Act of Union, 1707167addendaiiiAddison247, 268Adgarley41Adgarley iron mine41Adgarley iron mine?37Adrian's Tower15Aeneas247, 248Aeneid247, 248, 250, 255agger124, 145Agricola14agriculture168, fpceair4Aire, River3rd/232, 278, 279Alan Pot274Alderson, Mr199Aldgarly41Aldgarly iron mine37, 41Ale Subasia wing22altar, roman20, 146, 184Alum Pot273, 274Alun Pot272Ambleside71, 75, 151, 212Ambleside garrison19Ambleside to Keswick78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 111 Amboglana75ampula146Anglesey262antiquities20, 124Antiquities of Furness94Antonine itineraries X243Antoninus243Appleby, Bishop115Appleby-in-Westmorland243Apulby243Aquila chrysaetos206Arbeia124, 125Arbeia garrison19archery butts257Arcow Quarry276Arkholme242Armathwaite119, 122, 127Armathwaite Hall120, 208, 209Armitt Libraryintro 1Armstrong on Health93Arnside Knot101Arnside Tower28arr3rd/300Arthuret146Arthur's Table171artist6, 51, 61, 70, 90ash204, 258Askeleros and Croc6assembly room, Keswick128asthma199Atkinson, Mr26atter3rd/302Augustan wing21Austin Friars33avalanche204avenue of trees290Avernus256Backbarrow iron foundry26Backbarrow spinning mill26badger265Bampton Vale163bandits137Bank Beck130Bannerigg59, 66Bard of Loweswater88Bardsea34Barefoot Wives Hole264, 266bar iron36bark37barley36Barnabee's Journal240, 253, 276Barrow Beck92, 203Barrow Side92Barton Bridge153, 201Bashful Shepherd298bass210Bassenthwaite Halls123Bassenthwaite Lake86, 105, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, 207, 208, 304, 305, 308, 309Bay Horse inn251beacon, Birkrigg41beacon, Caermote124, 125beacon camp125beacon, Castle Crag125beacon, Furness38beacon, Helm14beacon, Helm?184Beacon Hill, Penrith168, 172, 200beacon, Ingleborough262, 263beacon, Penrith168beacon, Skiddaw125beacon system125beacon, Warton Crag14, 28, 184beans36Beathwaite Green26Beattie's Minstrel132, 135Beck, Thomas Alcock56Beck Wythop126Beetham Mill26belladonna188Bellasis, Mr71Belle Isle58, 61, 65, 66, 72Bellers, William221Bellfield71Bellingham, Alan180, 186Bellingham chapel180, 181Bellingham Family186, 214Bellingham, James181, 186, 187Bellingham, Richard180Bellingham, Thomas181bells, church239Belmount56ben275Bentham243Bercarii Tigrinensis124Berkshire Island57, 58, 61, 66Bertie, Mr142bigg209bilberry264Bindloss, Robert, Sir26Bingley280, 281Bingley Five Rise Locks281birch204bird cherry264birdseye264Birkrigg41, 42Biscot How?59Black Beck of Torver50, 54Black Bull, Witherslack26Black Burton244Black Combe3rd/232Black Crag143black currant264black lead mine98, 205, 209black marble248, 250black shiver264black trout257Blatumbulgii125blazon214Bleaberry Tarn135Blea Crag138Bleakhow Crag165Blencow145Blencow Tarn75Blewcaster243blood stone264bloomery94, 103blue rag101boat race128boggart256Bolton215Bolton, John71bone, human21Bonville Family41borough243, 262Borough Hall244Borrowdale74, 75, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107, 113, 114, 121, 125, 148, 203, 204, 206, 308Borrowgate203Borwick Hall26botany8, 209Bouth26Bowder Stone97Bowes, T23Bowness, Bassenthwaite123, 126Bowness-on-Solway125Bowness-on-Windermere71, 73Brackenthwaite Hows142Bradford280Bradness122, 123, 126Bradshaw, William18Braida Garth246, 251Braithwaite Wife Hole264, 266bramble264Brampton22Bransil Beck275, 276Bransil Head275Brants Gill Head275Brathay71Brathay, River72, 229, 230, 231Breadagarth246Breingwin172Bremetonacae243brick, roman22bridge, Lancaster24Brigantes14Broadness122, 123, 126Brough243Brougham Castle171, 200Brougham House171Brougham, Mr171Brougham to Moresby144, 145Brough fair199, 200Brough, Mr200Brovoniacum171Brown, Dr112, 116, 117, 193, iiiBrownrigg, Dr304Bruno225Brunton Brow219Buchanan, Mrs200Buckbarrow166Bull Crag, Borrowdale97, 98bulrush72burgh243, 262burgos243Burkley223Burneside180burnet rose264Burnmore242Burnshead, Gilbert180Burnshead, Margaret180Burton-in-Kendal26, 188Burton in Lonsdale244, 250Butler, Mr254Buttermere136, 209Buttermere lake134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 295butts, Chapel-le-Dale257Buxton193Byrne, Mr60Cachidecam208Cachidecam?84Cacus247, 250Cadmus247Caermote124, 126, 127, 148Caer Werid14cairn83caldera135Caledonian Cave of Famine269Caledonians19, 125, 149Calgarth63, 71Calgarth Park63caly3rd/234Cambrian Minstrel227Camden, William18, 23, 75, 124, 149, 150camera obscura200Cam Fell270, 271canal244candle245cannon73, 128, 161Cansfield Family41cap3rd/302Cark Hall34Cark Lane31Carling Knott140, 143Carnforth236Carter, The30, 36Cartmel31Cartmel, John of33Cartmel Priory31, 32, 34Cartmel Sands35, 75case char73caster243Casterton243Casterton Fell242Casticand208castle13Castlebar277Castle Crag93, 94, 103, 107, 112, 125, 148, 149, 165, 205Castle Head148Castlehead29Castle Hill106, 147, 149, 150, 151, 203, 208 Castle Hill, Kendal213Castle How120, 126Castle Howe183, 188Castle Law Hill183, 188Castle Rig83Castlerigg83, 86, 109, 110, 111, 130Castlerigg Stone Circle86, 109, 110, 208Castle Rock100Castle Rocks110Castle Steads14, 28Castlesteads151, 184castlesteads, Stainton14, 28Castlet149castrum147, 243catholics24Catknot Hole270, 271Caton Moor7cattle199, 222, 254, fpceCauseway End26Causeway Foot85, 210Causewayfoot85Causey Pike91, 111cave3rd/229, 3rd/304Cavendish, George34Cawsey Pike91, 111Chaos205chapel, Chapel-le-Dale254Chapel-in-the-Dale251, 282Chapel-le-Dale3rd/229, 3rd/305, 251, 254, 265, 266, 275, 282chapel, Mardale165char54, 56, 73, 138, 139, 140, 157, 209charcoal284Charles II22charter, Flookburgh31Charteris, Mr219charter, Kendal179charter, Lancaster22charter, Penrith169charter, Shap Abbey173chester243Cheviot Hills308Churchill, Mr269church, Ingleton253Cincinnatus233Cistercians38Clapham274Clappersgate72Claude10, 27, 35, 195, 232Claythorp101, 102, 103Claythorp Clints188Cleator295clever, to3rd/299Clifford, Anne, Lady170, 222Clifford Family223Clifford, Mr218climate5cloudberry264clouds3rd/304, 11Clougha Pike42coachman138coal24, 269, 270coal mine244coat of arms214coat of arms, Bellingham181coat of Arms, D'Aincourt181coat of arms, D'Aincourt and Strickland187coat of arms, Edward III17coat of arms, Henry V17coat of arms, Parr182coat of arms, Ross182coat of arms, royal17, 73, 216cob3rd/302Coccium243Cockermouth307Cocker, River139, 142, 143Cockin, William73, intro 1, vicockler217, 218Cockshot Hill87Cockshot Wood203, 206, 207Cockshut Hill87coin, danish24coin, roman15, 21, 76, 184Cold Fell295Colm270colours11, 12Colthouse56columbine264column285Colwith Force230comb, ivory178Concangium16, 183Conishead34Conishead Priory34, 36, 42, 43, 44Coniston51Coniston Beck54Coniston Hall51, 52Coniston Water46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 75contentsviiconvalescence4copper mine?130coppicing284cormorant201Cottage, Ambleside71Coums276Countess Pillar170, 200county boundary83Cove50Covell Cross18Cove?72Cowan Bridge244cowberry264Cow Close145Crake, River46cranberry264cranesbill264Craven222, 238Croft Lodge, Clappersgate71Cromwell, Oliver183Crossa Greta243Cross Fell108, 109, 200, 308Crosthwaite86, 115Crowbarrow166Crowbrow239Crow Holme?57, 58, 61, 62Crow Park88, 90, 104, 105, 206Crucifixion73Crummock Water138, 139, 141, 142Crump, Mr71crusader knight39Culms276Cumberland, Countess of170Cumberland dialect100, 298, 303Cumberland, Mr117, 159, 160, 161, 224Cumberland Pacquet117, 128cup146Curlew Craggs?58current73Curwen, John Christian57Curwen, Mr61Curwenwood Kins188cutaneous diseases31Dacre152Dacre Common152dairyfpceDalemain152, 163, 201Dallam Tower26Dalston, William, Sir200Dalton, Dr87, 197Dalton-in-Furness36, 37, 42dance128danish coin24dee3rd/300deer186Deluge, The101, 188denarius15Dent Dale270Derventione147Derwent Family94Derwent Fells132Derwent Island?90, 91, 111Derwent Isle208Derwent, River92, 94, 95, 97, 106, 107, 121, 123, 147, 205, 209, 226, 307Derwent Water86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 100, 101, 104, 105, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 130, 151, 194, 195, 196, 197, 203, 206, 304, 305, 309Derwentwater, Adam de94Derwent Water, by boat112, 113, 114, 115, 195, 207Derwent Water, frozen117Derwent Water Regatta128description, errors90descriptions11description, scenes107descriptive style199descriptive text221dess3rd/299development71, 81, 144Devil, The242Devil's Bridge241, 242, 244Devil's Chamberpot119, 208dew3rd/305dialect3rd/297, 3rd/298, 3rd/299, 3rd/300, 3rd/301, 3rd/302, 3rd/303dialect, Cumberland100, 298, 303dialect dictionary3rd/298Diana267, 268Dibdale270Dicken Pot274dictionary, dialect3rd/298Dictis75Dixon, Mr71Doe, River3rd/231, 251, 254, 257, 269Doe, River?259, 260Douk Cave255Douk Cove261Dovedale117, 193, 194Dove's Nest205, 233Dowgill Scar275dragon73drawing221Drayton243Dr Bannister's Handbason273, 274Dropping Well186druids86, 109, 110, 172, 208Dryden256Duddon Sands75, 308due3rd/300Dughet, Gaspard10, 63, 195, 228, 232Dunald Mill189Dunald Mill Hole236Dunmail83Dunmail Raise82, 83, 148, 210, fpceDunmallard152, 153, 154Dunmallard Hill201Dunmallet152, 153, 154D'Aincourt, Elizabeth181, 187D'Aincourt, Ralph181eagle74, 97, 98, 132, 198, 205, 225Eagle Crag97Eagle's Cliff205eagle's nest194, 205, 206Eamont Bridge171Eamont, River152, 153, 200, 201earthwork205Eau, River30, 36ebbing and flowing well276Ecclerigg Crag73Echo3rd/304, 226, 233echoes73, 116, 128, 161Eclogue279Eden, River200Edmund83Edward I31, 33, 34, 150, 169Edward II33Edward III17Edwin132eel56, 118Effusions of Friendship and Fancy174Egeria3rd/305Egremont, Lord203Elizabeth I16, 179Ellenborough garrison19Elshamer35Elter Water75, 230, 231Embleton120, 123emigration246eminence275, 284, 285Endmoor239English Garden291English, Mr61Ennerdale293Ennerdale Bridge295Ennerdale Broad Water295Ennerdale Water295, 296, 297entrochi250, 263, 264epitaph, Tirer180erne206erosion84, 266Esthwaite Water55, 75etymology3rd/297, 3rd/299Excursion to the Lakes161Fairbank145fair, Brough199, 200Fairfax, Thomas, Sir223Fairfield59, 63, 74, fpcefair, Lancaster216Fair Weather Sykes263fairy250fairy churn256Falco albicilla206Falcon Crag91Falcon's Nest114fallow deer186Farleton Knott101, 189, 239farmer309Farrington, Mr60, 66, 78, 80, 93, 157Far Sawrey56Feary, IfpceFell Foot71Fenwick, Thomas242fern264Ferney Green71Ferry House Inn57Ferry Point59ferry, Windermere56, 57fingerpost291fire earth267fireworks128fish54, 73, 118, 138, 140, 157, 158, 210fisherman266fish hooks178fishing6, 72Fleetwith Pike136Fleming, Daniel, Sir33Fleming Family41, 51, 232Fleming, Michael le, Sir78, 79, 211, 212, 232 floods142Flookburgh31Flora8fly orchis252Foal Foot264Foe Park90, 105, 106, 112, 121folk tale3rd/297footnotesintro 1Force Bridge184, 185forestry90, 287forge, Levens185, 215Fornside142fossil3rd/229, 144, 252Foudry Island?217Foulney Island41, 217Fowke, Mr223fox265Friar Crag128Furness14, 34, 75Furness Abbey37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 73, 94, 114 Furness Abbey, prison42Furness, Anselm de181Furness Fells42, 63, 284Galacum243gale209Galeforth Gill166gaol, Lancaster216garden, Conishead Priory43, 45garden, Levens Hall26, 187Garnett Bridge to Sadgill165Gasgarth Family202Gatekirk260Gatekirk Cave267, 268, 269Gatescarth Pass165, 166Gatescarth to Mardale165Gatesgarth136Gateway Tower13Gaunt, John of216gazetteerintro 1Gearstones inn270gelder rose264gelt char73Genius of the Caves282Genius of Westmorland174geology101, 263German Ocean308giant250, 268Giant's Grave170Giggleswick219, 277Giggleswick Scar276Gilbert, Mr130Gillerthwaite293, 294Gillhead?66Gilpin, William, Rev221Gingle Pot257Gingle Pot?3rd/229Gingling Cave3rd/304, 250Glanoventa243Glaramara97, 98Gleaston Castle33, 41Glencairn Beck157Glencoyne Bridge?157Glenderamackin Beck110Glenderaterra Beck109Glenovento243Glorious Revolution, 1688188glossary298, 303glow worm267goat279Goats Field150God of Day160gold130golden eagle206Goldrill Beck156, 157Goldrill Bridge162Goldscope Lead Mines130Goldsmith, Dr254, 255, 295Gordale Scar3rd/233, 3rd/234, 220, 278, 279Gordian21Goths249Gowbarrow Park152, 155, 157Gowdar Crag92Gowder Crag92, 204, 225graffiti248Gragareth3rd/304, 246, 250, 253, 282Graham, Colonel187grammarintro 1Grange93, 94, 95, 96, 100, 204, 205Grange Bridge205Grasmere211Grasmere Hill80, 211Grasmere lake75, 80, 81, 82, 211, 228, fpceGrasmoor141, 142grass101Grass Holme?58Grassington279, 280Gray Family41Gray, Henry41Graystock Park150Gray, Thomas2, 25, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 96, 104, 105, 106, 110, 111, 112, 118, 137, 152, 158, 179, 180, 182, 199, 200, 201, iiiGreat Douk Cave255, 261Great Island58, 61, 65, 72Great Langdale Beck231Great RiggfpceGreat Strickland181Great Wood138Greaves, Mr71Green Aer14Green Caer15Greenodd46Greenodd to Coniston46Greensett Caves269Greenside Cave269Green Town14Greeta, River110, 150Greta, River85, 106, 108, 110, 147, 251Greystock145Greystock Low Moor145Greystoke202Greystoke Castle202Greystoke Park150grouse265Groves?76Grysdale Beck156guidebook90Guide to the Lakesmapgunpowder mill26hackle3rd/300Halifax, Lord223Hallow Stone Crag92Halton14Handel3rd/305Hardknot63, 213, 230Hardraw Force272Hardrawkin266Hardraw Scar271, 272Harrington Family33, 41Harrington, John, Sir33, 34Harrison, Mr17, 23, 24, 71Harrow Farm60Harter Fell, Longsleddale165Hartley, W73harvest200Harvest, or the Bashful Shepherd298haunted house63Havell, Robert and SonfpceHawes272Hawes Water162, 163, 164, 165, 173Hawkshead55, 98Hawkshead to Ambleside56Hawthorn Oaks200Hay Rick134Hay Stacks134Hay Stacks?137Hazel, Mr201head275healm3rd/301heam3rd/301heath264Heaven3rd/306heck3rd/300hedge3rd/299hee3rd/299heleborine264Helm Crag82, 83, 210, 211, fpceHelm, The14, 28, 184helm wind253Helsington180Helvellyn75, 83, 84, 108, 111, 153, 154, 155, 157, 202, 208, 210, 224Hen Holme58Henry II32Henry III23, 33Henry IV178Henry V17Henry VI168Henry VIII36, 130, 180, 294Heppe173Herdus295hermit6, 250Hest Bank26Heversham28Heysham Point27High Crag, Ennerdale and Kinniside134Highcross140, 142, 162High Fall, Rydal78, 212, 232High Furness308highland cattle?222Highmore Family209High Snab Bank132High Stile134Hill Bell59, 62, 74hillfort, Castle Crag205hillfort, Ingleborough263Hilltop202Hincaster186Hinton, Thomas73Hobina35Holker Hall34, 35holly204, 289Holly Hill71Holme58Holme Island28Holy Trinity, Kendal180, 214, iiiHoly Trinity, Mardale165Holy Well31Honister Crag136, 293Horace302Hornby14, 218, 242, 244Hornby Castle218, 219horse304horse racing263Horsley, Mr75, 149, 150, 184Horsley's alphabet22Horton Beck275, 276Horton in Ribblesdale274, 275Horton Scar275hose3rd/301hospitality93, 99, 100, 137, 205house, stone290Howard, Fulk Greville57How Hall294How Hill105, 207Huddlestone, Mr152Huddleston, Mr201Hudibras254Hugh, the Hermit6Hull Pot275Hull Pot Beck275, 276Hulpit Hole275Huntpit Hole275Hunt Pot275hurder251, 274, 275hurtleberry264Hurtle Pot255, 256, 257, 258, 259Hurtlepot Boggard256Hurtle Pot?3rd/229Hutchinson, Mr161Hutchinson's Excursion73Hutton, John, Rev238Hutton Moor144, 148Hutton Roof101Hutton St John152, 201hyperbole137hyphenationintro 1ice117icicle3rd/300, 117ideas3igneum lutum266, 267Ilkeley223Ill Bell3rd/232, 59, 62, 74indexingintro 1ingle262Ingleborough3rd/231, 3rd/232, 25, 27, 28, 42, 75, 218, 219, 221, 241, 253, 261, 262, 263, 265, 274Ingleton219, 251, 252, 253inn, Ambleside212inn, Ingleton253innkeeper138inn, Kendal213inn, Kirkby Lonsdale240inn, Lancaster216inn, Settle219, 220inscription, roman20, 22, 184introductionmapinvasion19, 148, 149Ireby124Iris3rd/305Irish Channel308Irish Sea262, 264, 308iron36, 94, 215iron foundry26, 103iron mine37, 41iron ore36, 37, 41, 103ironworks284ironworks, Levens?215Isel123Isle of Man262, 307Isle of Walney41, 75italicintro 1itineraries7, 9, 10James, Dr146Jingle Pot257, 258, 259, 260Jingling Caves3rd/304, 250, 282Jingling Pot250, 251, 282John22, 173John o' Gaunt17John o' Gaunt's Ovens15Jove, bird of97, 198, 225Karlwath de Vitripont, Robert173Keighley280keld245Keld Head245Kellbarrow145Kellet101kelter3rd/301Kemp Howe175Kendal75, 101, 148, 176, 177, 178, 180, 188, 213, 214Kendal, Baron of16, 39Kendal Barony179Kendal Castle16, 176, 182, 183, 214, 215Kendal Museum178Kendal to Shap173Kendal to Ulverston26Kent Estuary28Kentmere Pike63Kent, River28, 29, 30, 177, 185, 186, 187, 213, 215Kent Valley175, 176, 182, 187Keskadale Farm132Keswick75, 85, 86, 87, 95, 100, 106, 108, 111, 117, 125, 128, 129, 130, 147, 149, 150, 193, 194, 195, 197, 203, 293, 310 Keswick Lake87Keswick Museum144Keswick to Borrowdale96, 97, 98Keswick to Bothel124Keswick to Buttermere131, 132, 133, 134Keswick to Cockermouth126Keswick to Ennerdale141keywordsintro 1Kidsty Pike165Kildwick280Killarney, poem8, 73, 75, 97Kilner, Jikiln, roman22Kilnsey Crag279, 280Kilsey Crag279, 280King Lear234Kingsdale245, 246, 251Kingsdale Beck245, 251, 252kink3rd/299kink cough3rd/299Kinniside295Kirkby Lonsdale239, 241, 244Kirkby Stephen243Kirkby Thore200Kirkoswald79Kirkstall Abbey281Kirkstone63, 72Kirkstone Fell156Kirkstone Pass148, 149, 162knitting178Knott, Michael54knoutberry264Lady Holme58Lady's Leap114lady's slipper252Lake of Patterdale160Lancashire31Lancaster20, 22, 23, 42, 216Lancaster, bridge24Lancaster, Bridge Lane18Lancaster Canal24Lancaster Castle13, 15, 16, 216Lancaster, Church Street18, 21Lancaster, Duchy of31Lancaster, Duke of17, 23, 216Lancaster garrison19Lancaster, Pudding Lane20Lancaster, quay23Lancaster Sands26, 27, 29, 75, 166, 215, 308 Lancaster to Hest Bank26Lancaster to Kendal188Lancaster, town hall23Lancaster, William de6, 16Lanchester243Landen Nab?60landscapemaplandscape mirror12, 70, 96, 110, 127, 200, 203, 207landscape painting6, 141, maplandslip203, 204Langdale103, 104, 213, 230Langdale Chapel101Langdale Pikes3rd/232, 62, 63, 74, 104, 107, 121, 230Langhorne174Langthwaite210lantern245Lanthwaite Wood?142Latimer Family223Latrigg96, 106, 107, 130, 202, 304Law, Mr71laws188lead mine263, 280lead ore264Leathes Water83, 84, 85, 210Leck242Leck, River242, 243Leeds280, 281, 282, 283Leeds and Liverpool Canal280Legberthwaite85, 142Leigh, Dr20Leland, John18Leolin83Leven, River36, 46Leven Sands35Levens Family57, 186Levens Force185, 215Levens Hall26, 186, 187Levens Park185, 186Lever, Ashton, Sir21lichen209light11Lilies of the Valley Islands58lily of the valley264lime kiln244lime kiln, Settle277limestone24, 37, 101, 178, 237, 239, 263, 266, 277, 280limestone pavement188Ling Gill272Ling Holme60literary style11Little Blencow145Little Man307Little Salkeld171liver wort264Liza Beck142Liza, River293, 294Llandaff, Bishop of63, 71Loch Lomond71Loddon How146Lodore107, 114Lodore Banks203Lodore Falls93, 197, 198, 204, 212, 224, 227 Lodore House92London Magazine117Long Addingham223Long Churn Cave273, 274Long Meg and Her Daughters171Longovicum13, 14Longsleddale165, 166Lonsdale241, 242Lonsdale valley253Lord of the Manor, Derwentwater150, 151Lord's Island90, 91, 115, 128Lorrain, Claude10, 27, 35, 195, 232Lorton Vale142, 144Lothwaite Fell109, 110Loughrigg Fell82Loughrigg Tarn231Low Borrow Bridge243Low Cat Crag?70Lowdore107, 114Lowdore House92Lowdor Falls93Loweswater140, 295Loweswater Fell139Loweswater lake140, 141, 142Low Fall, Rydal78, 79, 212, 232Lowick46Lowick Bridge46, 47Lowick Family46Low Pike75Low Street145Lowther, James, Sir209Lowther Park200Lowther Valley163Low Wood Gunpowder Mills26Low Wood Hotel, Lakes73Low Wood, Lakes73Lumley, John, Sir181Lune Aqueduct24Lune Bridge244Lune, River6, 13, 14, 24, 26, 217, 218, 240, 241, 242, 264Lune Valley241Lyth Fell242Machel, Mr71Malcolm83Malham3rd/232, 220, 277Malham Cave278Malham Cove3rd/233, 220, 221, 278Malham Tarn3rd/232, 279Manchester243Mancunium243map262, mapMap of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire mapmap squaresintro 1marble178, 248, 250marcasite252marginal notesintro 1Marischal, William32market150, 168market charter22, 31market, Kendal177market, Ulverston36Marmion Family214marquee128martin265Martindale Fell156, 157Martindale Forest155Mason, Mr78, 79, 87, 199, 291Matterdale152Maud39Maum277Maum Cove278Maum Tarn279Maybirion172Mayburgh168, 171, 172Meir Gill263, 265Mell Break138, 140Mellbreak141Mell Fell109, 152Melling14, 242, 244Memnon228Mere Gill Hole263, 265Metamorphoses247, 267methodists24Middleton243Middleton Lodge223milestone25milkingfpceMill Beck104mill, Colwith230mill, Kirkby Lonsdale239, 241Millthorp26, 215Millthorp Sands75Milnthorpe26, 215Milton248mine263mine drainage130misericord24mists135moat15Monk's Hall106Monteagle, Lord218monument, Kendal188moon225, 229moonlight116, 196Moor Divock stone circles163moot hill188Morecambe Bay14, 19Moresby garrison19Mortaign and Boulogne, Earl of37moss264Moss Force133motte188mountain ash264mountain cat265mounting block110museum, Keswick144musket128mutton209, 210myrtle209Mysirion172Nadale305Naddle Fell109, 110, 210Naddle Fell?85naiad227, 228Natland184Nature3rd/306, iNear Sawrey56Neels, B35Nerviorum Dictenium75Nether Bridge177Netherby146New Bridge110, 156Newbridge?85Newby Bridge26, 71, 73Newlands Beck132Newlands Hause133Newlands Valley91, 111, 130, 131, 132, 133Newland Valley203Newton26, 41Nibthwaite47Nicholson's Cumberland115Night Piece on Windermere229Northampton, Marquis of182North, Mr71North Sea308Notitia Dignitatum13, 75Nunnery79oak111, 171, 204, 207oak trees206oats36, 209obelisk188, 285, 286objects3, 6, 284, 285Odes302Ode to the Sun117, 160, 161, 224Old Carlisle21, 125Old England71Old Night205Old Penrith145Old Sedgwick Gunpowder Mills184Olenacum21, 125On Placing Objects on the Eminences284oratory, Lady Holme58orchid264Ormathwaite106, 112Orpheus3rd/305Orrest Head59, 66, 213Orton243Othello238Otley280, 281Ouse Bridge118, 119, 126, 208, 209Ouse Bridge Inn209Overborough14, 242, 244Overborough garrison19Overborough roman fort243Over Burrow14Over Kellet237Ovid247, 267, 294pagesintro 1painter90painting6, 35, 67, mapPampocalio148Pan Holes130Park Gill92Park Hill207Park, mountain60Parr chapel180, 181, 182Parr Family214Parr, Katherine214Parr, Lord182parsonage, Windermere59partridge210paterae21, 146Patrick's Dale228Patterdale148, 155, 157, 228Patterdale House157Pavey Ark104Peak District117Pearch's Selection of Poems197peat264Peel Castle41Peel Castle?27Peel Island50Pembroke, Countess of170Pembroke, Earl of32, 33pen275Pendle Hill221, 270Pennant, Thomas2, 18, 33, 71, 110, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 136, 175, 208, iiiPennegant274Pennington, Williami, viPenny Bridge26, 46Pennygant221Penrith75, 167, 168, 169, 170Penrith Castle168Penrith to Keswick106, 109, 144, 145Penruddock202Pen-y-ghent221, 274, 275perch56, 73, 118, 138, 140, 210perspective12peter pence31Petriana147petrifactions3rd/230, 249, 268, 269, 271, 273 petrifying spring186petrifying well258Petteral, River145, 146, 147Petteril, River145, 146, 147Philipson Family61Phoebus3rd/305Pictor297picturesque beauty29, 221Piel Castle41, 217pig iron36pike56, 73, 118, 138, 140Pike of Stickle104Pile of Foudry?75Pillar293, 296, 297Place Fell153, 155, 201, 202placename243, 245, 262, 275, intro 1placename, Derwent Water87placename, Keswick87placename, Lancaster14placename, Mayburgh172placename, Penrith169placename, Petriana147Planting Trees in the Vallies284Plumpton147Plumpton Wall145, 147Plumtre, Rev229Pluto248Pocklington, Mr128Pocklington's Island128polecat265Polyphemus247, 268Pooley Bridge163Pooley Bridge to Bampton163Portinscale106, 128Portland, Duke of169postchaise119potatoes36pothole3rd/229, 264potsherd, roman21, 22pottery3rd/234Poulton?217Poussin (Dughet)10, 63, 195, 228, 232praemonstratensian order173prefaceiiipresbyterians24Preston, George32Preston Patrick173print, Farrington60print, Farrington 293print, Farrington 580print, Farrington 12157print, Farrington 1378print, Farrington 1466print, Farrington 1580print, Smith89print, Smith 10 or 15208prior, Cartmel33Pritchard, Miss71Ptolemy26putrified earth266, 267quakers24Quarmoor22quarry178, 277, 280quarry, marble250quarry, slate252quartz37Queen of Night229Queen's Head, Keswick202Queen's Road218Quernmore22Radcliffe. Mrs304, 308rainbow3rd/231, 258Rainsborrow74Raise Beck210Rakes123Ramp Holme58, 61Ramp Holme, Windermere57ramps255Rampsholme Island91, 128Rampsholme Island, Derwent Water90Raphael3rd/305Ratcliff Family115, 151Rauthmell, Richard243Ravenglass75, 98Ravenstonedale Street243Rawlinson's Nab60, 61, 65, 71Rayrigg63, 74, 233reciprocating well276red currant264Redman Family186Red Pike134, 293Redscrees?74red trout138reed72reflection249reflections196, 256, 271, 296, 297Reformation281regatta128reindeer moss264Relph298Rhone, River97Ribble, River3rd/232, 264, 271Ribchester243Richard I32Richard II178Richardson, JiRide over Skiddaw304, 308ring ousel265road2, 107, 134, 137, 141, 243, 284, 285, 291, 292road, Ambleside to Keswick77, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 111, 210, 211road, Ambleside to Kirkstone162road, Bassenthwaite Lake208road, Greenodd to Coniston46road, Hawkshead to Ambleside56road, Kendal to Kirkby Lonsdale239road, Kendal to Settle3rd/234road, Kendal to Shap173road, Kendal to Ulverston26road, Kendal to Windermere212road, Keswick to Borrowdale96, 97, 98, 205road, Keswick to Bothel124road, Keswick to Buttermere131, 132, 133, 134 road, Keswick to Cockermouth126, 209road, Keswick to Ennerdale141road, Kirkby Lonsdale to Ingleton244road, Kirkstone to Patterdale162road, Lancaster Sands26road, Lancaster to Hest Bank26road, Lancaster to Kendal188, 215road, Lancaster to Settle218, 219road, Patterdale to Penrith201road, Penrith to Keswick106, 109, 144, 145, 208 road, Skipton to Otley223road, Skipton to Settle221road, Ulverston to Lowick46Robinson Crags133rock101rock mineral3rd/305roman altar20, 146, 184roman brick22roman coin15, 21, 76, 184roman fort28, 125roman fort, Brougham171roman fort, Caermote124roman fort, Castle Crag94roman fort, Dunmallard154roman fort, Helm184roman fort, Ingleborough3rd/232, 263roman fort, Ingleborough?3rd/231roman fort, Keswick147, 148, 149, 150roman fort, Lancaster14, 15, 18, 19roman fort, Old Penrith147, 151roman fort, Overborough243roman fort, Penrith168roman fort, Soulby Fell154roman fort, Watercrook14, 151, 183, 184roman fort, Waterhead75, 76, 151roman fort, Whitbarrow145, 154roman inscription20, 22, 184roman kiln22roman potsherd21, 22roman road75, 76, 124, 150, 243, 244roman road, Brougham to Moresby144, 145Romans13, 18, 21, 149, 186Romans, departure19roman tile22Rombaldsmoor281Rosa, Salvator10, 63, 195, 228rose-of-the-root264rose wort264Ross Family214Rosthwaite98, 99, 101Rothay, River72, 77, 80, 82, 229, 231, 232rotten stone264rough cast214, 290Rough Holme58route descriptionsintro 1rowing72, 87Rowling End132Rubens35Rumbald Moor223Rydal76Rydal Crag212Rydal Hall63, 78, 79, 211Rydal Head50, 59, 63, 211Rydal Park75Rydal Water75, 80, 211, 232Rysdal35Saddleback106, 109, 202, 208, 306Sadgill to Gatescarth165sailing63, 64, 65, 72, 87sailing boat233salt94salt spring94, 114Sandpot255Sands Gate31sands guide26, 29, 30, 36, 37sands road215, 217, 218Sattury184Saturn184Savigny monastery38Saxons20, 94scale3rd/302Scale Beck138Scale Force138Scalehill142Scalehill Bridge142Scalehill Bridge?139Scalewith Bridge82, 104scar3rd/300Scareness121, 122, 123, 126Scarf137Scarness122, 126school, Furness Abbey40Science3rd/306Scope End130Scotch fir119, 288, 289Scots pine207, 208, 288, 289Scout Scar178Scrubby Crag?74scurvy grass264sea29, 73seashore27season to visit7, 8Seathwaite205Seat Sandal82, fpceSeat Sandle82secespita146Sedbergh243, 244Sedgwick184sedum264Selside272Senhouse Family294Senhouse, Joseph Tiffin Patrickson, William294 Serjeant Crag97, 98serpent146Settle219, 277Settle area3rd/229Severus22Shakespeare, William234, 238Shap173Shap Abbey173Shap Fells174, 175Shap Spa175sheep98, 209, 210, 254, 266, 270sheep dog270shepherd74, 84, 100, 101, 309shillow101shipping23, 308ships217Shode Bank223Shropshire243Shuttenoer93Silenus184Silverdale Nab28Siserah205Sizergh181Sizergh Castle215Sizergh Hall187Sizergh Park187Skelling Nab155skelter3rd/301Skelwith Bridge82, 104Skelwith Force231Skerton Bridge24, 217Skiddaw75, 84, 91, 95, 106, 109, 114, 119, 122, 123, 125, 127, 148, 198, 202, 207, 208, 224, 304, 305, 306, 307, 309Skiddaw Fell120, 208Skiddaw Man307Skiddaw's Cub304skin diseases31Skipton222, 280, 281Skipton Castle222, 280skulls, Calgarth63sky lark213Slaidburn243slate24, 46, 53, 95, 101, 252, 264slate quarry95, 136, 166, 276slay3rd/300sledge, turf99Slights275Smaithwaite Bridge85Smalthwaite Bridge85Smith89Smith, John Warwick?221snakestone3rd/230snow117, 204, 250, 265, 270soil209Solway Firth19, 125, 308Somerset, Duke of130Soulby Fell154Sour Milk Gill135spa94, 114, 175spa, Cartmel31spar3rd/230, 37, 264, 271Spa Well175spectacles12Spedding, Mr119, 209spellingintro 1spider3rd/302spinning136spinning mill26spinning, silk178spring245spring, petrifying186spring, salt114Springs Branch Canal280Sprint, River166spruce207Stable Hills89, 90stained glass32, 39, 73Stainforth276Stainforth Force276Stainton41Stake103Stake of Borrowdale101Stake Pass104stalactite3rd/230, 249, 264, 268, 271stalagmite3rd/230, 249, 268St Andrew, Penrith170Stanley, Edward218Stanley Family28St Anne, Ings213statesman309station, Armathwaite Hall120, 121station, Bassenthwaite 1120station, Bassenthwaite 2121station, Bassenthwaite 3122station, Bassenthwaite 4126station, Beacon Hill172station, Beck Leven Foot51station, Beck Wythop126, 127station, Belle Isle N62, 63station, Belle Isle S61, 62station, Belmount56station, Birkrigg42station, Brant Fell66, 67, 68, 69, 70station, Broadness122, 123station, Carf Close Reeds203station, Castle Crag94, 95, 96station, Castlerigg86, 210Station, Claife57station, Cockshot Wood87, 88, 207station, Conishead43, 44, 45station, Coniston 147station, Coniston 249station, Coniston 351station, Coniston road46station, Coniston Water by boat52, 53station, Crosthwaite Vicarage110, 111, 112, 207 station, Crow Park88, 89, 104, 206station, Dalehead Hall84station, Derwent Water 187station, Derwent Water 288station, Derwent Water 389station, Derwent Water 494station, Derwent Water 5105station, Derwent Water 6105station, Derwent Water 7106station, Derwent Water 8110station, Derwent Water by boat87, 112, 113, 114, 115station, Dob Ley Head142station, Dunmail Raise80, 81, 211station, Dunmallard Hill153station, Fawe Park105, 106station, Force Bridge185station, Grasmere Hill80station, Great Head34station, Greta River109station, Harrow Farm60, 61station, Highgap Yeat140station, Hollin Bank S55station, Hornby Road6, 25, 218station, How Hill207station, Latrigg106, 107station, Loughrigg Fell82station, Low Pike75station, Low Wood Hotel, Lakes73station, Martindale Fell157station, Mell Break140, 141station, Mr Wren's House109, 110station, Ormathwaite112station, Patterdale Hotel157station, Peel Ness49, 50station, Penny Bridge46station, Rakes123station, Randon Knot138, 139station, Rawlinson Nab65, 66station, River Greta108station, Rydal Hall79, 80stations2, 6, 90, 108, intro 1station, Scarness121, 122station, Scout Scar178station, Stone Crag176station, Stybarrow Crag156stations, Windermere72station, Swinside105Station, The57station, Thirlmere85station, Walla Crag89, 90station, Watermillock161station, Water Park47, 48station, Windermere 157station, Windermere 261station, Windermere 362station, Windermere 465station, Windermere 566station, Windermere by boat65Staveley213St Bartholomew, Loweswater139St Bega with St John, Bassenthwaite127St Cuthbert115steam engine244stee3rd/301Steel Fell82Steel Pike104Stephen37, 39St George73St Herbert115St Herbert's Island90, 115, 128Stickle Tarn104stipends136stirrup3rd/301St James, Burton in Kendal101St James, Buttermere136St John, St John's in the Vale305St John's Beck85, 142St John's in the Vale85, 142, 202, 305St John's Rigg305St Kentigern, Crosthwaite86, 91, 95St Martin, Bowness-on-Windermere39, 59, 60, 73 St Martin of Sayes's priory24St Mary, Crosthwaite203, 304St Mary, Kirkby Lonsdale239, 240, 244St Mary, Lancaster18, 24, 216St Mary Magdalene173St Mary's Abbey38stoat265Stockghyll Force76, 77, 212, 232stockings178stone101stone circle163stone circle, Castlerigg86, 109, 110stone circle, Salkeld171stone circle, Shap175Stoneclose iron mine?37Stone Crag176Stonecross Pike155storm142, 233, 234, 293Storrs60, 61, 66, 71St Oswald, Grasmere211Stramongate Bridge177stratum243street243Streeton280Strickland chapel180, 181, iiiStrickland Family214, 215Strickland, Robert de, Sir181Strickland, Walter187Strickland, Walter de181Strickland, William, Sir187Struggle, The162St Winifred's Well245Styboar Crag162Stygian Lake248Sty Head293Styx236Suffolk, Duke of41, 215Suffolk, Earl of26, 187summer house219, 286sun224Swanevelt35Swarth Fell155Swinburn, Thomas, Sir294Swinside105, 121, 130Sybil247synodals31Tacitus243Taillebois, Ivo de179Taillebois, William de16tanning167, 178Tartarus248Tatham Chapel243Tawtop26Taylor, Mr71Taylor, Mrs71TEIintro 1telescope11temple285Teniers35tenter grounds213Text Encoding Initiativeintro 1Thanet, Earl of222, 280Thirlmere83, 84, 85, 210Thomson, Mr282Thornthwaite91, 128Thornton Church Stile244Thornton Force245, 246, 252Thornton in Lonsdale244Thrang Quarry?230Three Brother Tree170, 171Three Foot Brander?72Threlkeld109, 202Threlkeld Fell109Threlkeld Fell?85Threlkeld Pike109Threlkeld Water110Thwaite Force164tides29tile, roman22tinder box245Tirer, Ralph, Rev180Tirer, Ravlph, Rev180title pageiTodhunter, Mr178Tomlinson, Mr250Topinholme145tourism291Tour of the LakesiiiTour to the Caves238, 261town hall, Lancaster23Townhead71Tow Top?26track, Borrowdale to Langdale101track, Garnett Bridge to Sadgill165track, Gatescarth to Mardale165track, Pooley Bridge to Bampton163track, Sadgill to Gatescarth165transcriptionintro 1tree clumps289tree planting284, 287, 288, 289, 290trees287trout3rd/232, 56, 73, 118, 138, 140, 158, 205, 210, 257, 266Troutbeck Park59tumulus275Tunstal242turf99turf digging99, 101turf sledge99turnpike26, 76, 145, 162Twiselton251Twisleton251Twiss, River245Ullock127Ullswater75, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 200, 201, 202, 228Ulverston26, 34, 36, 42, 45Ulverston Bay34, 35, 44, 45Ulverston Sands35, 75Ulverston to Lowick46Underley Hall240urn21, 76, 145, 146, 151Urswick41Vale of Keswick193, 194, 195, 197Vale of Lonsdale25, 26Vale of Newland111Vale of St John75vandalism249Vavasour, Mr223Vicar's Island90, 91, 111, 208viewpoints207, intro 1vigilatores183Virgil247, 248, 250, 255, 257, 279Virgin Mary73Virosidium garrison19vivaperous grass264Vivares, Francois221voiturin138volcano3rd/304, 131, 135Walker, A236Walker, Adam3rd/229Walla Crag89Wallow Crag89, 100, 106, 121, 203, 208, 226Walney Island41Walton, William de33Wardale280Warton Crag14, 28, 101, 102, 103, 184Wastdale293Watanlath93Watchgate166Watch House184watch tower243Watendlath93Watendlath Beck197, 204water4, 96water, agitation115Watercrook14, 148, 183Watercrook garrison19water, Crummock Water139waterfall3rd/305, 77waterfall, Beetham26waterfall, Nunnery79waterfall, Sprint166Waterfoot, Coniston53Water Head47, 54Waterhead, Coniston47, 54Watermillock154, 155, 161, 202water, quality113water spout142water, Ullswater158waterwheel130Watson, Dr63Watson, Mr233weasel265Wease, River251weather76, 159Weathercoate Cave3rd/231, 3rd/305, 258, 259, 260, 261, 282Weathercoate Cave?3rd/230Weathercoate House261weaving167, 178Webster, Francis178wee3rd/299well, ebbing and flowing276well, Giggleswick Scar276, 277Wenning, River218Wennington244Wensleydale271, 272Wery Wall17, 18West 1778intro 1West 1784 mapmapWest Indies23Westmorland, genius of174West, ThomasiiiWharfedale223, 280Wharfe, River223, 279Wharton, Dr199wheatear265Wheel of Lune6Whernside246, 251, 253, 265, 266, 270Whernside Tarns270Whinfell Park170Whinfield Park170, 200Whitbarrow145Whitbarrow Scar26Whitbarrow Scar?29Whitedale Pike205Whitegill Crag104White Hart Tree170, 171Whitehaven295, 307Whiteless Pike134White Raise163Whiteside142Whitrigg145Whitrigs iron mine?37Whittington242wild cat265wild garlic255Wilkinson, John29will o' the wisp267Wilson, Colonel179, 214Wilson, Daniel26Windermere212Windermere Ferry56, 57Windermere lake55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 80, 212, 213, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, 308Windermere lake, altitude73Windermere lake, depth73winds11winter7Winterscales269, 270Winterscales Beck267, 269Witherslack26, 101Witherslack Scar101wool cards178Woverman35Wrasholme Tower33Wraysholme Tower33Wren, Mr109Wrynose62, 63, 213, 230Wyburn228Wythburn228Wythburn Chapel210Wythburn Water83, 210Wythop122Wythop Brows106, 119, 121, 122, 126, 208yew289Yew Crag155Yoak74Yoke74Yordas Cave3rd/305, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 283Yorkshire, West Riding238Young, Mr8, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 163, 164, 165, 175, iiiZuccarelli35